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Video Transcripts

Academic Writing for Multilingual Students: Cite All Ideas That Come From Other Sources

Last update 7/7/2017

 

Visual: Walden logo at bottom of screen along with notepad and pencil background.

Audio: Guitar music.

 

Visual: The video’s title is displayed on a background image of a dictionary page. The screen opens to the following slides: Cite All Ideas That Come From Other Sources

  • A collective versus an individual approach to writing
  • Citations can be direct quotations or paraphrases.
  • In APA, use paraphrasing instead of direct quotes whenever possible.

Audio: In American Academic English, it is necessary to cite all ideas that come from other sources. This expectation may be different than what you are used to, depending on your cultural background. Some cultures have a more collectivist approach to writing. In these cultures, the writer may use ideas and quotations from other seminal sources or historical sources without citation. This shows that the writer is well read, and the writer assumes that the reader will have the same background; in other words, it is assumed that the reader has read the same sources. If these sources were cited, it might be considered an insult to the intelligence of the reader. Furthermore, the way in which the writer is able to take and combine these previous sources into their own writing demonstrates sophistication in the writing.

Other cultures, such as the academic culture in the United States, have a more individual approach to writing. The ideas of other authors are seen as their intellectual property, and therefore, they must be cited within the text. In this culture, citations show respect to the original author. They also show the reader that the writer is well researched and credible. If the sources are not cited, or are not cited properly, this is plagiarism. In the United States, where there is so much emphasis on the individual, plagiarism is a serious offense, and in some educational contexts can result in serious consequences for the student writer.

There are two ways to cite material within the text: a direct quotation and a paraphrase. In a direct quotation, the original words of the author are used and are copied and pasted into the new document. In a paraphrase, the words and sentence structure are changed from the original source, but the ideas still come from the source, not the writer of the current text. Keep in mind that APA documentation style prefers paraphrases over direct quotations. Use direct quotations sparingly or not at all. Also keep in mind that both direct quotations and paraphrases must be cited using an in-text citation.

 

Visual: The slide changes to the following: Example of direct quotation and paraphrase

Direct quotation:

  • “To encourage business owners, large and small alike, to use social media as a marketing platform, several social media companies have developed business-specific tools or made it possible to brand an online profile to a business” (Geho & Dangelo, 2012, p. 1).

Paraphrase:

  • Small business owners can develop a Facebook business page to establish an online presence, which could bring in thousands of potential customers at a low cost (Geho & Dangelo, 2012).

Audio: Let’s take a look at an example of both a direct quote and a paraphrase. On this slide, the direct quotation is, “To encourage business owners, large and small alike, to use social media as a marketing platform, several social media companies have developed business-specific tools or made it possible to brand an online profile to a business.” This example sentence has quotation marks around it so that it is clear to the reader that the words here come from another author.

The paraphrase on this slide is, Small business owners can develop a Facebook business page to establish an online presence, which could bring in thousands of potential customers at a low cost. This paraphrase does not have quotation marks around it because the language and sentence structure have been changed from the original.

In both the examples on this slide, note that the authors and year are given. For the direct quotation, the page number is also added. Whenever in doubt, ask your faculty if the source must be cited, and err on the side of caution. It is better to cite too much than not to cite enough.

 

Visual: The screen changes to end with the words “Walden University Writing Center” and “Questions? E-mail writingsupport@waldenu.edu.”