Last updated 5/19/2016
Visual: Walden logo is visible at the bottom of the screen along with a notepad and pencil background. “Walden University Writing Center. Your writing, grammar, and APA experts” appears in center of the screen. Background changes to a notebook on a table with a yellow text box on top. In the text box, it reads: “Using & Crediting Sources What We Cite.”
Audio: Music plays.
Visual: Slide rotates and changes to a blue, brown, and grey slide. The heading at the top reads: “Why do we cite: Paraphrasing.” Below that is a second heading that reads "Original text from Tomlinson (2008)" with a blue text box below that includes a sample paragraph. The sample paragraph reads: “Differentiation as an instructional approach promotes a balance between a student’s style and a student’s ability. Differentiated instruction provides the student with options for processing and internalizing the content, and for construction new learning in order to progress academically. (page 12).”
Audio: Let's take a look at a citation for a paraphrase, and then in a couple of minutes we'll look at a citation for a direct quote. Here's an original passage from Tomlinson. [Reading the slide]: "Differentiation as an instructional approach promotes a balance between a student's style and a student's ability. Differentiated instruction provides the students with options for processing and internalizing the content and for constructing new learning in order to progress academically."
So what we're going to do is take this passage from Tomlinson and I’m going to show you an option for paraphrasing.
Visual: Slide changes to a slide with a heading that reads: “Why do we cite: Paraphrasing." Below that are two text boxes side by side. The text box on the left has a heading that reads "Original from Tomlinson (2008)" and the same text from above is listed below. The text box to the right has a heading that reads "Paraphrase" and a paraphrase is listed below: “Teachers use differentiated instruction to cater lessons to the way each student learns and each student’s skill (Tomlinson, 2008).”
Audio: And I do want to point out this is one option for a way to paraphrase. An idea can be paraphrased in many different ways just as each person might structure or paraphrase just a little bit differently. But notice the paraphrase [reading from the slide]: "Teachers use differentiated instruction to cater lessons to the way each student learns and each student's skill." It addresses the same idea as the original text from Tomlinson but it doesn't copy the structure of the sentence. It doesn't copy the exact same words. It's really addressing the idea. And then also notice the parenthetical citation along with the paraphrase that shows where the idea came from.
Visual: Slide changes, and the new slide has the heading of "What do we cite: quotations." There are three text boxes below this, side by side. The first text box is the same as the first text box on the previous slide. It's heading is "Original from Tomlinson (2008)" and the same direct quote from before is included. The middle box is titled: “Okay Quotation.” The text below reads: “More importantly “differentiation as an instructional approach promotes a balance between a student’s style and a student’s ability.” (Tomlinson, 2008, p.12).” The heading for the third box on the right hand side reads: “Better Quotation." The text in the box below reads: “An advantage of differentiation in teaching helps students by giving “Options for processing and internalizing the content” (Tomlinson, 2008, p12).”
Audio: Here we're going to look at the same passage from Tomlinson. In this case I included two examples of direct quotes and the citations that go along with them. The example in the middle of the screen shows a correct format for citing a direct quote. You can see that it includes quotation marks, and it has a citation at the end. And then on the far right I would argue that this is maybe a better option for using a direct quote just because it allows -- by integrating the direct quote into the sentence -- it allows the writer to use his or her own voice to explain the idea. So both the middle direct quote and the one on the right are correctly formatted. I would just argue that the one on the right better allows the author to kind of express the idea in his or her own voice.
Audio: Guitar music plays.
Visual: The screen changes to a pad of paper with a pencil and the Walden University Writing Center logo at the bottom. “Walden University Writing Center. Questions? E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org” appears in center of the screen.