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Video Transcripts

Methods to the Madness: Creating Citations from Reference Entries

Last updated 4/27/2016


Visual: Walden logo at bottom of screen along with notepad and pencil background.

Audio: Guitar music.


Visual: “Walden University Writing Center. Your writing, grammar, and APA experts,” appears in center of screen. Background changes to another notebook on a table. “Methods to the APA Madness. Creating a Citation from a Reference Entry,” text appears in the center of the screen.

Slide changes to slide titled “Reference-->In-Text Citation” at top. Slide contains text box that reads:

Oyo, B., & Kalema, B. M. (2014). Massive open online courses for Africa by Africa. International Review of Research in Open & Distance Learning, 15(6), 1–13. Retrieved from

Audio: So here’s where we get into creating that citation from the reference entry. So we have the reference entry. Now I have my citation.


Visual: Below reference entry textbox “Oyo and Kalema (2014) noted, “today massive open online courses are becoming increasingly popular, with 20% more use in the last year alone” (p. 5) and, to the right of that,  “In Africa, massive online courses are currently popular” (Oyo & Kalema, 2014).

Audio: So because I have the reference entry, I know, right away, that I’m going to include this author information…


Visual: Arrow appears pointing to “Oyo, B., & Kalema, B. M.” text in textbox.

Audio: … and the publication year.


Visual: Arrow appears pointing to “(2014)” in text box.

Audio: I don’t have to search through the article or figure out my format or anything like that, I’m already ready.


Visual: Arrows fade away.

Audio: So here’s my citation examples, here we have our two authors listed,...


Visual: Arrow appears pointing to “Oyo and Kalema” below text box.

Audio: ...our publication year,...


Visual: Arrow appears pointing to “(2014)” text.

Audio: ...our quote, and then the page number, okay.


Visual: Arrow appears pointing to “(p. 5)” text.

Audio: Now, one big difference is that in APA, when you’re listing more than one author in text like this,…


Visual: Blue rectangle lines appear around “Oyo and Kalema.”

Audio: …I’m not going to include an ampersand, I’m going to write out “and.” This is one big difference between in-text citations and reference entries and parenthetical citations, because if we go to the right…


Visual: Blue rectangle moves around “(Oyo & Kalema)” portion of second example text.

Audio:  …you’ll see that I’ve paraphrased this sentence, this information, but down here I’ve included the authors’ names and then the ampersand instead of writing out “and” and then I’ve included that publication year. So that is our examples of reference entries and pulling that information into an in-text citation.


Visual: Slide changes to notebook and Walden logo background from first slide. Slide reads: Walden University Writing Center. Questions? E-mail

Audio: Guitar music plays then fades out.