Citations in your paper are necessary to provide credit to the proper sources; failure to cite properly could result in plagiarism.
Although it is important to cite any ideas retrieved from sources, such as paraphrased explanations, quotations, statistics, or figures. It is not necessary to cite common knowledge (i.e., you do not need to cite that the Earth is round). Credit a source in each sentence that references material from a source.
One of the central features of scholarly writing is the use of evidence to make an argument. You must learn how to incorporate other scholars' writing and arguments into your own.
In scholarly writing, you will often use paraphrased material or direct quotations from sources to support your research and strengthen your academic argument. Although direct quotations are generally not as strong as paraphrases, they can add evidence and substance to your scholarly argument. Do keep in mind, however, that some instructors forbid direct quotations for some assignments.
Locate, Cite, and Reference Journal Articles
Discover strategies to search for and locate journal articles through the Walden Library databases, identify relevant publication information for articles found, and cite and reference articles using APA.Locate, Cite, and Reference Journal Articles
Using Evidence In Academic Writing
Claire and Max discuss how to incorporate evidence into your academic writing, as well as how to use citations effectively to support your evidence.
"I always focus on the idea of support that you just mentioned. Rarely does a piece of evidence, to me, prove something-- instead, it just kind of offers support to whatever idea you're making an argument about. Evidence can take all sorts of forms as well. It could be an expert's opinion on something, it could be scholarly work published in an academic journal. The important thing to remember, though, I think is that not all evidence is created equal."
Reference list entries contain specific publication information, allowing readers to find the publication. The information is presented in a standard format, including order of information, use of italics and parentheses, and other markers to help distinguish between different parts of the reference entry. APA style entries follow this basic format:
Author. (Publication date). Title of document. Publishing information. Electronic retrieval information.
- Only list sources you cite in your text. Do not include sources you read but did not cite.
- The reference list should come after the text of your paper but before any tables, figures, or appendices.
- The reference list appears on its own page, with the title References at the top, centered and in bold type.
- As with the rest of the paper, reference entries should be double spaced.
- Use one space after the punctuation within each reference (e.g., after the period that follows the date). See APA 7, Section 16.1.
- All references have a hanging indent, which means the first line is flush left, and all subsequent lines are indented ½ inch to the right. Learn how to create a hanging indent under the "General Document Formatting" section at the Academic Skills Center.
- References appear in alphabetical order by surname of the author. If there is more than one source with the same author, then those references appear in chronological order, earliest source first.
For specific examples of numerous reference formats with notes and tips, see the Common Reference List Examples page. For help on evaluating resources and identifying types of resources, please visit the library's Evaluating Resources pages.
- Reference List
- Electronic Source References
- Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs)
- Common Reference List Examples
APA References and Citations Modules
The introduction to references and citations modules on this page offer students the opportunity to learn the basics of APA references and citations.
You can complete the modules in the order listed on this page or you can jump directly to a particular module that you would like to complete.
Cite and Reference Learning Resources
Learn how to identify the basic elements of reference entries, identify types of sources provided in the classroom learning resources, and produce APA-style references and in-text citations for learning resources.Cite and Reference Learning Resources
Walden has many resources to help students understand the expectations for accurately citing the sources they use in their writing. We have curated these resources in this kit, and we encourage you to use it to help you avoid plagiarism in your own writing.
Paraphrase and Summarize Information
Explore how to identify the differences between paraphrasing and summarizing, use a paraphrasing strategy, and know when and why to cite information.Paraphrase and Summarize Information
Plagiarism can refer to a wide range of academic integrity issues both inside and outside of academic writing. These plagiarism prevention modules focus specifically on the appropriate ways writers should incorporate and cite sources they use in their writing.
In these modules you will:
- Explore examples of plagiarism,
- Practice the appropriate way to cite sources to avoid plagiarism, and
- Learn about possible writing habits that might encourage or contribute to a writer plagiarizing.
Because there are different types of plagiarism, the Writing Center has created two plagiarism modules: Avoiding Overt Plagiarism and Avoiding Passive Plagiarism. Review the information about each module and watch the module preview below before choosing which one best fits your needs and will help you develop your writing and citing skills.