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Video Transcripts

Nontraditional Sources: Personal Communications

Last updated 7/9/2016


Visual: The words “Walden University Writing Center” and the Walden University Writing Center logo on a blank page of a notebook with a pencil. The slogan “Your writing, grammar, and APA experts” appears. The screen shifts to present the words “Nontraditional Sources” with the title “Personal Communications” underneath. 

Audio: Music plays.


Visual: Slide changes to the title “Personal Communication” with the following text and the image of a female doctor and a male staff member looking at a clipboard.

You conduct an interview with your boss, Amy Kubista, on June 11, 2013.

  • What should your in-text citation look like?
  • What should your reference entry look like?

Audio: Alright, so perhaps you are using an interview with your boss on February 11, 2013. What would your in-text citation look like? And what might your reference entry look like?


Visual: Slide changes to the title “Citing a Personal Communication” and the following text:

(A. Kubista, personal communication, February 11, 2013)

According to A. Kubista (personal communication, February 11, 2013).

  • No reference entry is needed for personal communication sources.

Audio: Well, in the case of a personal communication citation, you're actually going to not include this information on your reference list, and here is why.

If you are, you know, performing an interview or a phone interview or you are talking to a neighbor or you are, you know, conversing via personal e-mail, something like that, that's just not retrievable. If it's a personal communication, there's no point in putting it in the reference list because no one can replicate that research. It only happens once, right? I can't go back to Amy and ask her the same questions and get the exact same answers on the exact same day. It just doesn't work like that.

So what I would do is I would use that perform communication citation in the text and that would only be an in-text citation. For a personal communication, in, again, in parentheses, in the text, it would be the first initial of that person and the last name, and then a comma, the words "Personal communication," the date, and it's a specific date because it happened on one specific day. And you might use "According to A. Kubista" and then use the citation. Again, this is where the author, or in this case the speaker, the person that you are interviewing, is part of the grammatical sentence, so this person comes outside of the parentheses.


Visual: Slide changes to notebook with Walden logo from introduction. Text reads: Walden University Writing Center. Questions? E-mail