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Video Transcripts

Using & Crediting Sources: Publication Year Quick Tip

Last updated 7/9/2016


Visual: Walden logo at bottom of screen along with notepad and pencil background.

Audio: Guitar music.


Visual: “Walden University Writing Center. Your writing, grammar, and APA experts” appears in center of screen. Background changes to notebook open on wooden table and the title “Using & Crediting Sources: Publication Year Quick Tip.”

Slide changes to the title “Citation Quick Tips” and the following text:

Notes on publication years

  • The year is always needed inside parenthetical citations (Obama, 2009)
  • The year is needed only in the first in-text citation of a source not in parenthesis in a paragraph
  • All subsequent citations do not need publication year in the same paragraph
  • New paragraph: rule starts over

Audio: For a citation you, should include the name of the author and the year. There's one exception to this rule. If you cite the same author for a second time within an in-text citation in a paragraph, you can omit the year after the first in-text citation within the paragraph. So basically if you use an in-text citation of the same author for the second time in a paragraph, you don't need to include the year. This rule starts over with a new paragraph. So within the same paragraph if you have multiple in-text citations with the same author, you'll need to include the year the first time. However, you do need to include a year with every parenthetical citation.


Visual: Slide changes to show the following sample paragraph:

Thompson (2009) discussed differentiated instruction. Differentiated instruction is when teachers approach teaching differently for different students and their learning styles (Thompson, 2009). However, Thompson noted that differentiated instruction can be quite difficult to implement. To be successful, teachers must go through professional development to use differentiated instruction well (Thompson, 2009).

Audio: So notice how in the first sentence we have Thompson (2009), so that's the first time we included the in-text citation from Thompson. Now, if you look down to the fourth line, it says, "However, Thompson noted that...", notice that there's no year because any subsequent time that we mentioned Thompson within the text we do not need to include the year. However, every parenthetical citation needs a year. And note that this paragraph is not a great model because it's all summary and paraphrase of Thompson with no analysis, but it demonstrates when to include a year within a citation, and again if you are kind of, you know, remembering this later on when you're writing and you can't remember exactly how the rule works, know that we have a page on our website about when to include the year under the information about in-text citations on our website.


Visual: Slide changes to notebook with Walden logo from introduction. Text reads: Walden University Writing Center. Questions? E-mail