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Video Transcripts

Methods to the Madness: 2. Publication Year in a Reference Entry

Last updated 4/27/2016


Visual: Walden logo at bottom of screen along with notepad and pencil background.

Audio: Guitar music.


Visual: “Walden University Writing Center. Your writing, grammar, and APA experts” appears in the center of the screen. “Methods to the APA Madness. Publication Year in a Reference Entry,” text appears in the center of the screen.

Slide changes to one titled: Publication Year.

Text on slide:

Oyo, B., & Kalema, B. M. (2014). Massive open online courses for Africa by Africa. International Review of Research in Open & Distance Learning, 15(6), 1–13. Retrieved from 

Bulleted information below:

  • Year only for most publications
  • Periodicals include month (magazines) and day/date (newspapers)
  • No year? Use “n.d.” meaning “no date”

Audio: Okay, so now we have publication year. And again, this is probably pretty simple. For most of the sources you’ll use in your academic writing, you’ll just list the publication year within parentheses. And note that it’s within parentheses and followed by that period. A lot of times, students will forget that period. If, for example, you have a source that doesn’t have a year, like I mentioned down here, you’ll include the abbreviation—n, period, d, period—which stands for no date. But just be careful—most of the sources you use in academic writing will have a publication year because that’s more, you know, publication years are usually listed or come with more academic sources.