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Transcript - Medical Research: Finding Reviews - May 1 2018

Video Link: To be added

 

 

Begin Transcript

 

Narration:

 

>> ERIN GULDBRANDSEN: I will go over housekeeping as we are waiting to see if anybody else joins us before I start recording. The PowerPoint slides are available over in the Handouts section. You click on Handouts and click right on the PowerPoint and you can save it. The session will be recorded and you will get a copy of the recording a few hours after we are done. Please save any questions for the end. It is just Julie and I we don't have anybody else behind the scenes tonight. We want to make sure we get to all of our content. If you have questions that are not related to anything we talked about [LAUGHS] then please send those through our Ask a Librarian service.

 

I will go ahead and start the recording and we can start our presentation.

 

Welcome this evening -- or daytime, depending on where you are. Welcome to our webinar. This is the webinar on Medical Research: Finding Reviews. I am Erin Guldbrandsen. I am one of your College of Health Sciences librarians.

 

Joining me is the wonderful Julie James. She is your Health Sciences Librarian and Nursing Liaison.

 

We are glad you are here. We do have quite a bit to cover. I am going to turn off my WebCam. We like to just start and let you know we are real people, but it is a little distracting. We will turn off and get into our content.

 

Here is our agenda tonight. We are only looking at a few different types of reviews -- how to find each one tonight.

 

All reviews in medical research have some common elements. They provide evidence, usually for a clinical question. And they all have a different method of searching and disseminating information.

 

So, a review is a secondary source. Is it a primary source? No. If it is a secondary review, it is if you, like, wrote a literature review. The name "literature review" is in the word, also. The word is in the name. The same thing. It's someone who has gone and looked for research studies and drawn together all these different research studies and reviewed  them in some way. So we will see different ways that that happens in these different types of reviews that we are going to show you how to find.

 

Sometimes there is statistical analysis going on and sometimes there is qualitative analysis going on. We will look at these different types of reviews and I will show you the four we're looking at tonight.

 

How to find Review Articles, Julie is going to show us that, the general Review Articles.

 

Julie is going to show you how to find a special type of Review Article called a systematic article that you might already be familiar with.

 

I am going to show you how to find, specifically, reviews that are considered meta-analyses or reviews that contain a meta-analysis.  That is getting into the data that is compiled and analyzed in some way.

 

Then I am going to round out this webinar with showing you how to find Integrative Reviews. We will talk about what that is when we get to it.

 

Some key databases that we are going to be demonstrating are MedLine, CINAHL, Cochrane, and we might also get to Joanna Briggs. The links are live in the PowerPoint. We will also show you at the end how to access them on your own right from the library homepage.

 

I'm going to turn it over to Julie and she is going to talk about and explain Review Articles and show you how to start finding them.

 

>> JULIE JAMES:  Let me show my screen here. I was going to talk about the Review Articles. Like Erin was saying, there are all types of Review Articles at almost every subject area. Medical Review Articles can be a little bit different. Review Articles are evaluating someone else's work.

 

The first question we have to point out to you all is it is not to be confused with peer-reviewed journals because a lot of people get those two things next up. A peer-reviewed journal goes through a committee process to get a peer-reviewed. A Review Article can be done by an individual. And will summarize the literature on a topic. It will tell you when this particular issue emerged, the etiology of it. And it will give you a little bit of a current events overview of how that particular issue is going.

 

Then, they will summarize it for you and give you, basically, the big players in the arena, the seminal articles and the influencers that are going to be part of your, the literature review for that particular topic.

 

It can be really helpful if you are doing a literature review for your and capstone project or dissertation project to follow these threads for other articles, so we wanted to show you how to find them.

 

Some of the best ways to find them are MedLine and CINAHL because they are made for this kind of thing.

 

Let's go to the library webpage, this is how you get to the health sciences page from Select a Subject, health sciences or nursing. And they have many of the same things. But under evidence-based and clinical resources we have all the ones we are talking about here tonight.

 

Let's start with CINAHL because that is what nursing students tend to start with the most.

 

Let's start with, we are going to put in a topic at the top then we are going to scroll down to the publication types and in CINAHL is over here on the right hand of the column and you can see there's all kinds of different publication types in here. If you just scroll down, you can find review. That is going to limit your results to Review Articles. Theoretically. It's not 100% perfect. But let's see what we've got here.

 

So, 3960 articles. That's going to have a number different types of reviews and there. Review is a big area of this that includes many types of reviews in it.

 

So, the limiter if you are searching and MedLine is a little bit different, it's a little bit different place them in CINAHL. I have been struck how different the results can be between MedLine and CINAHL.

 

If you scroll down to the limiters here the publication type is on the left and if you hit R it will take you straight to the R's and you can go through until you get to the Review.

 

We are going to go back up to the search and get it that way. It's a really easy way to do a limit to a Review Article. Frequently you will see the word "review" in the title, but not always.

 

It just depends how they're writing it and presenting it and in what journal they are presenting it into.

 

So, Review Articles can be just one person talking about one article or it can be a survey of a whole bunch of different articles. They tend to be focused on a subset of studies, and not one particular topic done broadly. But, a narrower topic that they can become an expert on, themselves.

 

We were talking about general Review Articles, but now if we go to the Systematic Reviews over here, they will quite clearly address a clinical question and it starts with a clinical question. Your PICOT question is pretty much how they are going to start a Systematic Review, is really refine the question until it is exactly what they're looking for.

 

It is prescribed to these things are done. It's not something you can do of the top of your head. I frequently used to have a medical student who would tell me they were going to do a Systematic Review for their project at the end of term. And it is not something you can do in one term or frequently, not even in one year. Systematic Review has to be absolutely thorough so that you are finding every bit of literature published on that particular topic, and some things not published.

 

The Systematic Review can include the meta-analyses that Erin will show you and a little bit, but it is not necessarily part of a Systematic Review. That would be a more recent develop.

 

Systematic Reviews have been around for about 20 years but they are starting to get much more prevalent as evidence-based medicine is really becoming prominent, they are very, very important. They are based on quantitative research, usually. You can get some qualitative aspects to it, then there's the same set of databases we're looking at earlier. Cochrane, Joanna Briggs are not entirely, but a lot of that is Systematic Reviews. Then, MedLine and CINAHL have some in there.

 

I put this on the bottom about "What Is a Systematic Review?" because it's a great article by PubMed Health about distinguishing and the steps involved in creating a Systematic Review and going through all the requirements for that.

 

The elements here were described by Deborah Cook in 1997 and that defined the clinical question, the PICOT question is Number 1. The prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria would be for a particular population, a particular geographical area, or possibly a particular type of the disease in question.

 

So they need to say, we are going to include this kind of patient and not that kind of patient, and they need to figure that out ahead of time. They do have to formulate some very complex searches for medical evidence and they have to have a search strategy that someone can follow up on later. It has to be reproducible, I believe, is the word they use there.

 

Then the reliability, like evaluating the variables and the reliability of the clinical trials that they are using in the Systematic Review. That is very, very deep, as well.

 

Synthesizing the data is a given here. But the evidence-based conclusions, there's always going to be a sentence or short paragraph on the conclusions they are drawing from that Systematic Review.

 

So,  Systematic is very much a big deal and it's a lot more complicated than a lot of people can imagine.

 

Is that pretty much what we wanted to say about that, Erin?

 

>> ERIN GULDBRANDSEN:  Yeah. I think you hit on everything, again, usually in a Systematic Review, what the authors are reviewing systematically [LAUGHS] are randomized controlled trials, so they are pulling all these randomized controlled trials which are, themselves, a pretty decent level of evidence. They are primary sources, the randomized controlled trials, so that people who write the article are the ones who actually did the research themselves, they went in and didn't experience.

 

Then the Systematic Review is looking at a whole bunch of experiments. You can see that raises the level of evidence. Now we are not just looking, talking about what experiment we did. If I am writing a Systematic Review I am looking at all these different experiments that lots of people have done and drawing conclusions from that. So that is why it raises the level of quality of the evidence.

 

 

 

>> JULIE JAMES:  And we will try to compare these studies against each other. But frequently they don't have the same variables, so we really do have to do an analysis of, this study was done with this population, this was done a little bit differently, and this is how it could have affected the results. It's a deep dive analysis, let's put it that way.

 

Onward and upward. Do you want to talk about meta-analysis?

 

>> ERIN GULDBRANDSEN:  Sure. Do you want to show us how to find Systematic Reviews, first?

 

>> JULIE JAMES:  [LAUGHS] That would be helpful, wouldn't it?

 

We did start off with MedLine and CINAHL. The funny thing is that MedLine does not have a limiter for Systematic Reviews, but if you put in Systematic Review in the second search box that will pretty much do it. I have tried it with quotes around it and without quotes around it and it does work very well either way. You can see all these top hits are Systematic Reviews.

 

In CINAHL it does give you a Systematic Review limiter but it works the same way and it may or may not be different. I have found the results to be a little bit different when I put in Systematic Review up here in the search box as opposed to when I use their limiter for Systematic Review.

 

So if I go back to the initial search page the limiter is down here with the publication type and that, if I go down to Systematic Review and pick that, then it's going to give me a little bit different results. Not exactly.

 

This is the kind of thorough searching we are talking about when someone is doing a Systematic Review they have to take into account all these tiny little differences when searching.  It's just another way to look at that.

 

Under evidence-based and clinical resources we have the Cochrane Database of System Reviews is kind of the gold standard for what we are talking about here. It's the most expensive database, the most expensive that is exclusively Systematic Reviews.

 

It also has Systematic Reviews protocols and other things in it that will be in advance of the review being finished. Because Systematic Review, like I said, takes a long time. You have to have some idea of what they are doing in the meantime.

 

Obesity here ... most of the Cochrane reviews will be very large documents, just so you know. They do take a while to load. And you can put in more search terms here to narrow it down your population or whichever. Systematic Reviews, you can see that there are not nearly as many in here. In here we have 100 articles that mention obesity because they are really in-depth articles. So if you wanted to limit it further with a second search term, even a third  one, can also limit by date alongside here the same way that we do in our other databases.

 

>> ERIN GULDBRANDSEN:  Thank you, Julie. Like Julie mentioned, because Systematic Reviews take a really long time, they are reviewing randomized controlled trials, usually. There just are not going to be that many of them like she said.

 

The same is true of meta-analysis, which is what I am going to show you now. Let me share my screen.

 

We already mentioned that often, Systematic Reviews include a meta-analysis, so that is why they are taking all that data, all those statistics that were gathered or created, really, through a randomized controlled trial, taking all that data and compiling it and coming to bigger conclusions. It's exactly what the name says. Meta-analysis. So, a CINAHL analysis of all the things that have already been done.

 

It's just like a Systematic Review, again, we usually can't be too, too specific with the topic research on because there just aren't that many meta-analyses out there because they are looking at individual studies. So there are only 10,000 ... that sounds like a lot ... let's say there were 1000 individual experience studies, randomized controlled studies on a topic that I am doing a meta-analysis of 500 of those, there might be only one meta-analysis up there on that topic.

 

That's a problem students run into sometimes. They are like, I happened upon this Systematic Review for my topic that relates to it. Can I find more Systematic Reviews? Often it is like, "No. That's the one. You found it. Good job!" Or they will have an excitement for the particular, they have to find a meta-analysis or a Systematic Review and they are looking on a really, really, really specific topic and it's like well, nobody has done meta-analysis on that very specific topic yet, because there are not enough randomized controlled trials to analyze on that topic.

 

We want to keep things broad is what I am saying. See what is out there that relates to the area that you're working on and what you can glean from it. That's meta-analysis.

 

I am going to go over to MedLine and CINAHL and show you how to specifically search for them. Like I said, sometimes students happen upon them, they are like this is it really useful.

 

Yes, a meta-analysis is really useful because then you might go look at some of the individual randomized controlled trials that they analyzed in the meta-analysis, yourself. That can lead you to some other sources if you want to just look at primary sources. Or it can give you a good overview.

 

All these reviews that we are talking about, obviously in academia, they are useful in one way and then in practicality, from a clinician's view, they are useful in a totally different way. We need to make a decision about a treatment plan or a diagnostic issue, a Systematic Review can save you a lot of time. You don't have time to go look for all this evidence  and compile it all yourself. So you read a Systematic Review to find out what is the latest evidence on how do I make these decisions as a clinician.

 

So, different, different uses depending on the context.

 

I am going to do a very broad topic still here of lung cancer. I am in CINAHL -- and I will show, again, had to get into these databases at the end.

 

I am going to start with my broad topic of lung cancer and I'm going to scroll down in CINAHL and it's just like we have seen already, I'm going to go to the Publication Type box and scroll through. They are in alphabetical order -- which I am so glad they are because I would go past it every time. I am going to click on meta-analysis. Pretty self-explanatory. But it is there. Some people just don't even know that it's there and you can limit your search just to meta-analyses if that is what you want.

 

Let me reopen these because I had them sitting open too long ... will do that again. Now you get to see that again. Lung cancer in the top box. Pretty broad. I am being a little more specific than Julie's example, but this is still a huge topic area. Lung cancer has a lot of research on it.

 

Publication type, I'm going to scroll through and get to meta-analysis. I will do this search here in CINAHL and we are going to do the same thing in MedLine. This is what Julie has only talked about but it is really interesting for a topic to do pretty much the same exact search from one database to the next and see how different of results you get.

 

That's a common question we get from students is, why do you have so many different databases? Well, they actually do search inside different journals. So the results I'm getting in CINAHL, even though I am limiting to meta-analysis there and I am going to limit here to meta-analyses in MedLine -- again, under publication type, which is in a slightly different spot and MedLine -- I am still going to get different results because they are searching inside a different set of journals. So what is just, different publishers of journals have agreements with different databases so they have agreement yeah, you can put my content in there so they are not all in the same place.

 

This is still pretty big. In CINAHL I did not get as many. These may not all be relevant in MedLine. But you can see also here our point that Systematic Reviews often include the meta-analysis. When Julie was searching for Systematic Reviews I saw some that came up that had meta-analysis in their title. They often do include that in a Systematic Review but not always.

 

But it is nice that, usually, if you are specifically wanting to find a meta-analysis, usually says it in the title. It will name itself as such and let you know it's a meta-analysis.

 

Again, there we go again, it was just the publication type that which is meta-analysis under in MedLine. It's just in a slightly different spot in MedLine than it is in CINAHL.

 

I'm just showing you this again, it's a lot of the same.

 

Let me go back to the top in both of these.

 

Now, the last review type I am going to talk about and show you how to find a called Integrative Reviews.

 

Again, I love it when people named things in a way that makes so much sense. [LAUGHS] Because it's an Integrative Review, it is integrating qualitative and quantitative evidence. So that is what we are integrating. That is the integration.

 

It is similar to a Systematic Review but it adds in all these qualitative studies. They are becoming more common. Integrative Reviews are a little more, they are not that new, anymore. But, they are still becoming more prevalent. They are still up and coming.

 

Unfortunately, because they are still on the upswing and how people see them as being very useful, there is no way to limit to Integrative Reviews in either MedLine or CINAHL. We don't have a nice checkbox or publication type for Integrative Reviews. But similar to what we saw when Julie looked for Systematic Reviews in MedLine, we can just type in Integrative Review as a keyword. I will show you how to do that.

 

But again, if you are, "What's an Integrative Review?" I will show you something in a minute that will answer that if you forget. For now I will repeat, they are like a Systematic Review but they are adding in qualitative studies. They are integrating qualitative and quantitative.

 

It seems to me, and I could be wrong, but it seems to me that would be even harder to do than a Systematic Review. Because that not only are you looking at all these different studies, all these different experiments or the non-experiments, all these different qualitative studies, with different variables, but then you are trying to come to these conclusions to provide evidence where you're not even just looking at data or statistics from experiments. You're also, then, trying to integrate in what people have learned to all these qualitative studies. It just seems really difficult. I don't think I will ever write one. [LAUGHS]

 

But, let's see how we can find them if we want to. I am going to stick with lung cancer. Then I'm going to type in Integrative Review. And I do suggest putting the quotes around that phrase so it glues them together. It has to be "Integrative Review" that it finds. That I'm going to click Search here in MedLine  that going to go over to CINAHL and do the same thing so we can see the difference.

 

In MedLine, let's see ... I got one Integrative Review about lung cancer. Again, they are still becoming more common. They are not that common yet! And I think probably because they are really, really difficult to do.

 

Then, over here in CINAHL, wow, it got two. What this tells me is it's too specific of a topic. I'm just not getting much on lung cancer, specifically, when I look for Integrative Reviews. There may not be an Integrative Review on whatever topic you are researching or interested in. That's okay. You are not doing anything wrong with your search you just have a topic where no one has taken the time and effort to do an Integrative Review yet.

 

I do have two, you probably want to make sure they are Integrative Review reviews, because there is no limiter that says, yes, it is a Systematic Review with an Integrative Review. Yes, it has the meta-analysis publication type on it. We don't have that with Integrative Review, so I would want to probably click on at least the title -- you can use this page with a magnifying glass on the right when you're looking at your results and it will give you the abstract that I can just skim through and make sure that it says it's an Integrative Review. And this one does. This article is an Integrative Review.

 

Look at that. I love it when they make it so blunt and obvious. Usually they do that. So, I can be assured now this is an Integrative Review if that is what I'm looking for and want to find.

 

That is finding Integrative Reviews.

 

Before we end the recording and before we take questions, I did want to show you one more time how to get to the nursing research home which is where we have accessed all these databases. Then I also want to show you a very special research guide, you can think of it almost like a toolkit or finding evidence-based practice research.  I am going to show you had to get to that, because it covers some of the things we talked about. It definitely covers Systematic Reviews and how to find them. And also gives some help with the specific databases. And also one that we don't really have time to show tonight called Joanna Briggs.

 

I am going to show you had to get to those things. Then another place you can go for help. That will open it up for questions.

 

I am back on the library homepage. I'm going to Subject Resources just like Julie did at the beginning, since to give a recap, click on Select a Subject then go to Nursing to get to all the things I'm going to show you. We are going to click on Nursing. I will open it up over here.

 

Here is this Nursing Research homepage. And if you want to just get straight to those databases we have used this evening, or today, you would click on evidence-based and clinical resources. And they are all there. There is Cochrane, there is Joanna Briggs. I am going to show you where you can see some help on that. And here is CINAHL and MedLine and some other clinical evidence-based databases.

 

If you keep scrolling down, I am going to make this go back up by clicking on it again, the evidence-based and clinical resources. If you keep scrolling down on the Nursing page, look at this. We've got research help. Please scroll down. We know that people don't scroll down on these pages. [LAUGHS] What you will find under Research Help is these guides -- or you can think of them as toolkits -- that librarians have made specifically for you, Walden students. And they walk you through a variety of topics or things that you were going to need to do in time as a Walden student.

 

Under Research Help, I am going to click on evidence-based research, this option, evidence-based practice research. First, we have our beautiful definition of what evidence-based medicine is. Then, a little description. And these are the guys I'm talking about. We have this evidence-based practice research guide.

 

This walks you through how to find different levels of evidence. If you think about it, it is to find different qualities of, these different levels of evidence quality. That is how you want to think of it. And this guide has so much on it. It, again, explains what evidence-based practice research is. It talks about different levels of quality of evidence. It even talks about how you build a clinical question.

 

But over here on the left, I want to point out, we do have specific help for these different databases. We have shown you CINAHL and MedLine. Is just a good place to get a reminder, here is a checkbox for this and I can select publication type for this but not for this. It just goes over how you can limit your searches in these different databases.

 

The one that we did not show you, Joanna Briggs, I'm going to click on this. This is a nice little overview of how to use the Joanna Briggs database. It can be really helpful if you are trying to find a Systematic Review on a topic and you are not finding anything in CINAHL or MedLine, you go to Cochrane, there is no Cochrane Systematic Review for it, then Joanna Briggs can sometimes save the day and come through for you. And maybe there is a Systematic Review in there.

 

This shows you how to set up a search, how to use the search screen. It is very different. I am not going to lie. It's the most un user-friendly database I've ever seen. [LAUGHS] It can be helpful, though, when you are not finding things and other places and sometimes you have to use it. This guide shows you how to limit to Systematic Reviews and there and how to find evidence summaries and how to find full text because it is hidden, the PDF full text links are hidden in Joanna Briggs. So you can explore that and that's always a great thing just through our Ask a Librarian form if you need help using any of these specific databases we have shown you tonight.

 

I want to highlight that as well. I am going to go back to the library homepage and remind you we do have our Ask a Librarian service up in the top right corner. You can contact the library with questions about anything that we're showing you tonight or things that we are not doing tonight. [LAUGHS] If you have those other questions, you can send them through our Ask a Librarian form.

 

The last thing I want to point out before we end the recording and open up our question time is the Search Everything on the library homepage. When I click Search Everything, this is going to let me see hope we have in the library, like those guides. But also, things that we call Quick Answers. Those are really our most frequently asked questions.

 

Guess what, if you can't remember what is the difference between a Systematic Review and an Integrative Review, if I just start typing in, "Systematic Review and Integrative Review" -- you're like I don't remember what she said the difference was. You feel like you should know that, what you're being asked to do something with that. Make sure you have this selected on Search Everything, first of all, so that will it will search all the help we have an library. Then if I click search over here, I get to in the middle, this Quick Answers. And look at that. "What is the difference between a Systematic Review and an Integrative Review?"

 

We didn't have these  Quick Answers forever. They have been around for several years, now. But these Quick Answers are so lovely. If you can't remember what a Systematic Review is, if you can't remember how to find an integrative Review Article, we have all of this. Pretty much everything we have shown you and talked about tonight is already in a Quick Answer. [LAUGHS] You can always go back and do that kind of search on the homepage. Make sure it is set Search Everything.

 

I want to show you one of these Quick Answers really quickly. It really fully answers the question and then it links you to other Quick Answers for more information.

 

Let's say I did want to remember how do I find a Systematic Review? I click on that one. Look, it doesn't even just give me a one line answer, it links me into all this different help. It shows how to limit in CINAHL.

 

Use the Quick Answers. It's very helpful. Starting on the library homepage, you do have to click on Search Everything because you have to find our library skills guide, quick answers, everything, you want to search across all that we have. You are going to then type in your question or the topic of your question. Let's say I don't know what is a meta-analysis. I can just type in meta-analysis and see what Quick Answers. There it is, "How do I find a meta-analysis research article?"

 

If you can't get a full answer to what you need and please do use our Ask a Librarian service.

 

I am going to make sure we have covered everything. Yes, we have. And I'm going to go ahead and end the recording now. Then we can open up the rest of our time to questions.

 

Thank you everyone, before I stop the recording, thank you everyone for attending this webinar and remember that you will get a recording in a few hours after.

 

 Let's see if we have any questions now. I don't see anything in there yet. If you do have a question, please use the questions box.

 

>> JULIE JAMES:  One of the questions that I see a lot in our Doctoral students who want to know if they can use the Systematic Reviews in their literature review, do they cite them?

 

>> ERIN GULDBRANDSEN:  That's going to depend on a lot of things. It depends on what program you are in, sometimes, and what your topic is and a lot of things.

 

Systematic reviews or any Review Article can be very helpful for a literature review like we said, if you are a doctoral student. Some DNP students, students who are getting their DNP, are doing a project where they are actually doing a Systematic Review themselves. But usually, you are going to want to make sure that is okay. You wouldn't want to exclusively, you wouldn't be able to exclusively look at Systematic Reviews because there would not be that many, probably, on your topic.

 

But usually, a literature review, you are doing the review of the literature. You might include some Systematic Reviews. But probably what you are going to find most helpful with a Systematic Review when you're working on the literature review is seeing how somebody else did a review of that topic in their Systematic Review or other type of review, and then finding all the research that they used to do their Systematic Review. Finding those primary sources that they looked at, and then you're probably going to want to include those on the same topic.

 

>> JULIE JAMES:  Great, thank you. What other questions do you have?

 

>> ERIN GULDBRANDSEN:  I wanted to address, again, reviews are secondary sources and this is an example of, just because it's a secondary source doesn't mean it's not useful. As we said, a Systematic Review is a higher level of evidence because it's a secondary source. That is not always true of secondary sources. Just because someone says it's a secondary source, not all secondary sources are the same and that doesn't always mean the same thing across different disciplines.

 

We're talking about these different review types in the scope of medical research. They do happen in other fields as well.

 

I think Julie mentioned in psychology you get Systematic Reviews, as well. That's the same thing. They are intensive and it's really good evidence  for whatever they studied, to draw conclusions about treatment or diagnosis or something.

 

So, just keep that in mind that sometimes students hear the word "secondary source" and they are like well, that's no good. [LAUGHS] Actually, Systematic Review is the highest level of evidence and it is a secondary source where somebody, it's kind of a secondary source and a primary source if they do a meta-analysis. Because they are drawing new conclusions based off all this data that other people have gathered and are doing something different and new with it.

 

So, it's another way that we talk about it is that it is a filtered resource. I think that is probably a better term to use them "secondary source," because it means they are filtering the information, the data, the conclusions of all these other researchers. They're filtering it for you and making conclusions, as opposed to something being unfiltered. That would be like a randomized controlled trial were there is nothing between you, the reader, and the person who did the experiment, the research, and they are writing the article. No one else is coming along and doing an analysis. It is coming from the person who did the randomized controlled trial themselves or the group of people. So, filtered and unfiltered is another way that we talk about these different types of evidence. So that can be helpful, a more helpful way to think about it than "primary" versus "secondary." It's still true, but "filtered" and "unfiltered" says a lot more.

 

It looks like we still don't have any questions so I guess we haven't confused anybody too much. [LAUGHS] We can stick around for a few more minutes, but otherwise, you are free to leave the webinar, unless you have a question. We will just stick around for a few more moments and see if any more questions come in. And then, look for the recording in your email, whatever email you used when you registered for the webinar. And if you don't see it tomorrow morning, go ahead and check your spam or junk mail because sometimes it goes there.

 

Still no questions, so I will go ahead and say, have a wonderful day. Thank you for attending. I hope this was helpful. If you do have any questions and you don't want to ask him here, you can always use our Ask a Librarian form. Any one of us would be happy to help you. Thank you so much for attending. Good night.

 

>> JULIE JAMES:  Good night.

 

 

End Transcript

 

Created June 2018 by Walden University Library