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Transcript - Health Policy and Medical Law Research - June 18 2018

Video Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sEcMGfPYjAI

Begin Transcript

 

Narration:

>> JULIE JAMES:  If you haven't already, the handout is our PowerPoint slides for today. It's not the Nursing Research of Drug, that was our last webinar. This is the one we've got tonight. The Health Policy and Medical Law Research.

 

We are going to get started here in one more minute. So I just wanted to make sure ... I guess we can turn our cameras on. Taylor are you going to join us here as well? Hi, I'm Julie James, I'm Health Sciences Librarian here at Walden.

 

>> TAYLOR LEIGH:  That in Taylor Leigh, I am the Liaison to the School of Public Policy and Administration.

 

>> JULIE JAMES: Taylor is not actually Susan Steckel, that is just the owner of the account here. He doesn't really look like a Susan, does he? [LAUGHS]

 

So they are seeing the housekeeping slide about the PowerPoint. We will be recording this session and you will probably get the link in a couple hours depending on whether they get this done or not. You can ask questions to the questions panel, we have a huge gathering of people tonight, so please, save noncontent related questions until the end.

 

So I am going to start the recording, unless you have anything else you would like to add there, Taylor.

 

>> TAYLOR LEIGH:  Let's see, we covered the slide. We covered questions. I think we should be good to go.

 

>> JULIE JAMES:  I am starting the recording and we are going to turn off our cameras so you're not distracted by our smiling faces. If you lose the little panel that you see here on the screen, if you lose that part, look for an orange arrow, that's how you get back to that panel if it minimizes automatically.

 

So, health policy and medical research, is that what we're doing tonight? Yes. And we have some objectives to define what is health policy and why should you care about it? What implications does it have for your own work here at Walden? We would like to help you identify relevant library resources so that you can conduct health policy and medical research without spending hours and hours and hours giving it. We are going to show you this little health policy guide that will have links to a lot of the things we're talking about tonight. I put the URL on the screen, it will also be in the PowerPoint that you get and I bet we can also get Taylor to put it in the chat box, as well.

 

>> TAYLOR LEIGH:  I just did that.

 

>> JULIE JAMES:  I did forget to mention, we do have closed captioning if you would like to use closed captioning, that link is in the chatbox.

 

Government websites can be a great source of information here and we will help you do that. So what is health policy? There's a whole lot of different ways to define it but we are going by the definition from the World Health Organization since we are an international university and people are doing work all over the world. Health policy refers to decisions, plans and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society.

 

So this is going to be interdisciplinary. You will need to log in a variety of places for your research, depending on the subject that you're studying. So if it has something to do with social issues or psychological issues, you can use PsycINFO, we have a couple different databases for special populations, as well.

 

Health policy can be kind of a sticky subject, so we are going to walk you through some of this.

 

How do laws happen in the United States, historically, it follows the steps that it will is introduced to Congress, they provide evidence, they debate, they debate, they debate. They might have to go back to a vote again. If a bill is passed into law, and really that doesn't happen very often, about 4% of bills turned into law, the regulatory agency have to work on rules and regulations, they can't do that before it turns into law if only 4% get there. But then it takes a long-term to get those rules and regulations down and then it may be challenged on legal grounds and the Supreme Court may get into it.

 

That kind of gives you a timeline that pulled up a visual here to show you how it starts with a bill over here and how many steps it has to go through to become law. And that's why this is not such an easy topic to study. But this infographics link will also be in your PowerPoint slides.

 

So why do you care? Because we are part of the Walden community and Walden provides a diverse community of career professionals with the opportunity to transform themselves as scholar practitioners so that they can effect positive social change. So that is really dovetailing into health policy because in your research, most of you will become familiar with the health policy on a particular subject, hopefully one you are really interested in.

 

You can investigate past or ongoing legislative activity on your topic, and you can pull up the evidence, pull it all together and/or show how laws have changed over the years and maybe the different jurisdictions. And then you can adjust the grievances or you can cut out a lot of the biases and injustices. And that is what we are talking about when you talk about social change, because you can be an advocate for social change by your research.

 

So how do we identify health policy research? We can start with the population affected. It can be a worldwide phenomenon, it can be confined to one country or right now confined to one country, but has the potential to come bigger. It can be a region of that particular country, a state, a county, all the way down to a really, hyper local municipality kind of issue that may just be in one little neighborhood.

 

So, searching for relevant organizations  and by that we mean associations and centers, they may be like a professional association or it may be a homeowners Association. Browse their websites for ideas and really go out there to some of the larger think tanks -- and we will get great literature in a minute. But you also look at the relevant databases in Walden Library. We will do a simple search in Medline/CINAHL but it works the exact same way in the other four databases, listed but it works the exact same way because they are all from the EBSCO company. Once you search one of them you will be able to do them all.

 

Some health policy topics, to give you some examples, access to healthcare, equitable access to healthcare. Healthcare financing can be a lot of different things. It can be the changes in the reimbursement rules when the Affordable Care Act came along. It could be the single-payer versus regular insurance companies like we have now. There's a whole lot of different ways to define that.

 

Medical research and ethics is a huge thing, too, and is becoming more and more research-based. Reproductive health, obesity and smoking, substance abuse, they are all ongoing public health issues. So we will look into one or two of those tonight.

 

I said something about grey literature. That is really the publications that are outside of a formal publishing and distribution center. We are seeing a lot more of that with self-published information and the last 20 years of Internet information, quite a lot of that can be grey literature.

 

Government information is not peer-reviewed but it is authoritative, it is considered grey literature. There may be a conference that is real particular to your topic. A newsletter of an association, like the American Heart Association might put something in [indiscernible] toward something progress. Annual reports, something like that. And then, research reports, because not all research gets published. So something like the clinicaltrials.gov has some preliminary research reports from studies they've done that haven't been published in the literature, yet.

 

This also includes theses and dissertations. You may know how to search these here at Walden, we have quite a lot of resources for you there. More and more it's becoming blogs, tweets, podcasts. All of this is being added to the great body of information. But for all of this type of thing, the types of things you are seeing listed on the screen here, you have to be the person that evaluates them.  We are finding the peer-reviewed scholarly resources in the database, that has been peer reviewed for you.

 

You are looking at grey literature that may not even add a formal editing process, then you have to judge where the line is as whether or not this is a reliable resource. So we are going to help you a little bit with that, too. But just know that you don't have to cite everything that you put your eyeballs on. The grey literature may lead you toward more respectable literature sources, but it can be very current because it doesn't take months or years to get out there.

 

We are going to do a little exploratory searching. I guess for most people, Wikipedia and Google searching is not a problem, that you are able to find Wikipedia and Google on your own and figure out how to get something out of it.

 

We are going to do a little bit different, things that Google may not find very well. That is where we go to the library homepage. In case you didn't know, you don't have to go through the portal to get to the library homepage. If you just type library.waldenu.edu it will go to this location. Bookmark it, put it in your toolbar then put it in your head.

 

Our multidatabase search, Thoreau, on the front page, searches quite a lot of databases. It does not search all of them by any means. That's just not possible when there are so many different formats. We have about 150 different databases. It's good for a preliminary search, like exploratory searching.

 

One of those public health topics we were talking about is smoking. And I put smoking in here. You may need to log in. That will take us to preliminary hit list and advanced search screen at the top. I really like working from this screen because it has the three search boxes.

 

Before we go there I am going to show you this research starter. Cigarette Smoking Overview, you will only see research studies like this when you have a big, broad, overview topic. When you don't put in many words, it will give you research starter like this for medical theories, topics, a whole bunch of different things. Then you can read the background. This is March 2017. They are not all that new, but it does help to have a history of your topic. This is a great way to quickly get a grip on what your research is going to look like, because you have to know the history of it before you can move forward. If you see that research starter, by all means, click on it and see if it can lead you to some better things.

 

Then you can scroll down here, this is an e-book that's all about smoking and the health effects. You can scroll down and see what type it is, you can also look at the subject headings under each of these to see if they might be together relevant. But we are really looking for that health policy. So we were going to go to add policy here and then, I am going to click Search again. And this time, I'm not really going to look at the subject headings as much as the database it came out of. That one is out of PsychINFO. This one is also out of PsychINFO. But that's Egypt. We don't really want, and we don't really want Australia.

 

We just want to talk about the United States today. It doesn't always work well, but it can work really well, if you put United States or U.S. You don't have to capitalize anything, I did it more so we see it. Or, USA. So that will find any one of those three terms and that can narrow it down so that you don't have to switch through all the different countries. Because for some searches, you will find more literature outside the United States then you will find inside the United States.

 

So this is pretty good progress in the Hundred Year War Against Tobacco. That is from 2009. So at this point you might want to go down, and oh my goodness, this search goes back to 1928. So you might be able to find the primary literature there from that early. But if you want just the last five years you put in 2013 and then you wait for it to update the search. Then you can limit it to peer-reviewed scholarly journals if you are at that point. But this is a pretty good point as far as the smoking search goes in the general database. You can see this is from U.S. News & World Report and they are not necessarily scholarly journals.

 

If we go back to the library homepage and reselect a subject, we can go look at individual database collections for these different subjects. So depending on what it is that you are looking up, you may want to go to psychology or social work, public policy. Taylor is going to talk about that in a little bit. Counseling, criminal justice. Then we are going to go to health sciences.

 

And this database search here is like Thoreau except, it's a more limited list of databases that is going to be searched in this go box. But I'm kind of unsure about that, so I'm going to go down to health sciences database and try the CINAHL and Medline combined search.

 

If you are searching something that is specific to healthcare, this is not only to give you a more focused set of answers, you're going to have many more search options here from the get-go. You're not able to get  all these search options when you're searching many, many databases at once because they are set up differently. But if you search from the CINAHL and Medline search here, you will be able to go and apply related words. You can limit it to having an abstract, but you can also go down to clinical queries and some journal subsets here. Don't go crazy  with these different options. But you can go ahead and put in 2013 here, since we're just working on the last five years. You can put in human, because they do do some experiments on animals.

 

So, different things you can do here with that. Then we will Search, then we will evaluate the results. It's something I do almost every time is, I will put in one or two words, look at the results, and then I will put in some more words and look at those results. Because you don't want to start off too big, too soon. So this is getting a little more focused. This is a policy change. We don't know yet ... there we go, it's a public policy because this is public housing. You do have to watch for that. We can put public policy in here and you can see how that flies. Or you can put health policy. We don't want it to return anything that's about the apartment complex policy on whether or not you can smoke on the grounds or something like that.

 

Then we've got these Australians. They are doing a lot of research here. So let's go back and do the United States or U. S. or USA and hit search again. Remember, we have already limited to the last five years so don't freak out when you see that you've only got 214 hits. Then if you'd like to add more terms to this search you can click the plus sign here and add another row. If you decide you are really interested in teenagers, you can say teenagers or adolescents. Frequently it will suggest things for you. Then that will narrow your search even further.

 

>> TAYLOR LEIGH:  Well, so, thank you Julie, for that look at some of those subject specific databases. I'm going to talk a little bit about a couple of legal databases that we have. Really, specifically, Nexis Uni. Then we will go to a government website to see how we can use government sites, as well. But I just wanted to include a bit more information before we do that.

 

Julie mentioned the policy by which a bill becomes a law, previously. And I just wanted to follow that up with a few different kinds of laws or policies that you're going to encounter as you go about your research.

 

So, there's three kinds of laws. There is statutory law, and those are laws that emerge from a legislative body. So the U.S. Congress being one of them or a state Congress or a town council.

 

And, the case law. And that comes out of those court opinions. And that issues from the judicial branch.

 

Then finally, the executive branch of government, those bodies issue the regulations that constitute regulatory law.

 

You might be looking for one or more of those policies depending on your needs.

 

Another thing to be looking for before you begin researching policy is that there's a lot of different terms used when we are talking about policy. So within the legal world, laws are really referred to as such. They're most often statutes or regulations or court opinions, among other things. You might also say bills, public laws, private laws, etc.

 

To make matters worse -- not that they're particularly bad -- they're also ascribed seemingly unintelligible citations. So they can be very confusing, so don't feel bad if you see a citation for a policy and you have no idea how to interpret it. But if you do have that citation, you can use it to search which we will talk about in a moment.

 

A couple more notes here, at the federal level, in the United States, all statutes, so those are things emerging from Congress, they will eventually be published in something called the US Code.

 

Regulations, on the other hand, end up in the Code of Federal Regulations.

 

And all case law end up in the US Court Opinions. That's just where these different kinds of laws are published.

 

Now for individual state information, you can use this link that I have posted in this slide. That's going to help you determine where policies are published in your particular state.

 

On this slide, I have just listed out a whole lot of places that we can go to look for policies and we are going to see a couple of these in a moment. But if you wanted to come back and explore some of these other ones after the presentation, be my guest. There's actually more government websites that I could have listed for health policy and a lot of those are going to be located in the health policy guide that I linked in the chatbox.

 

Here on this slide, just some additional law resources.

 

So how do we search for legal materials? Three main ways. One, by citation, if you do happen to have that citation that's great, and you can use that. And I just wanted to follow-up something Julie mentioned at the beginning about Wikipedia, even though Wikipedia is not going to be a good, scholarly source that you're going to cite in your research, one of the best things about Wikipedia is that it will give you the citations for specific policies. So you could do some exploratory research on Wikipedia and get the citation of a specific policy and then come to some of these databases and search for more authoritative information about the policy. So keep that in mind.

 

Another way you might search is by common or popular name like the Freedom of Information Act.

 

Finally, you can browse by topic, which is probably what you'll be doing in the initial stages of your research.

 

I'm going to pop over here to Nexis Uni. Just a little bit about Nexis Uni, Nexis Uni is a database for legal and business information. It's going to provide you access to all three kinds of laws that we've talked about. Statutory, regulatory and case law, as well as a whole bunch of other stuff. So law reviews, journals, case notes and briefs. News articles and much more.

 

The other thing about Nexis Uni is there are a lot of ways to search. You see a big search box on the homepage here. I have another webinar that's in our webinar archive that goes into much more detail about Nexis Uni and how you can search. Feel free to check that out if you want some more information. But we are just going to use this main search bar today and we are going to leave it set to all Nexis Uni over here. Although you can change it to tell it exactly how you want it to search.

 

I am just going to do a quick search for a broad health policy topic like obesity. I type obesity in and you can see that it auto populates some recommended documents and legal phrases below as you type that in.

 

We are going to talk about that in a second, but for now, I am just going to go ahead and search.

 

When you do a search in the main search bar off Nexis Uni, it's going to default to show you the news category for these results. So you can see over here all these different categories. We are showing the news articles here. That may be what you want, it may not be. If you are looking for official policies, you may want to select a different category.

 

Let's go to statute and legislation over here, so you can see that, we still have over 10,000 results here. I'm going to go down here on the left-hand side and I'm going to limit to a specific state under jurisdiction. I'm going to go to Georgia.

 

So this is what one of your results lists might look like. As you can see that, all of these lists are going to have these confusing citations as their titles. But don't be afraid, you can usually tell where this is coming from by looking at the information under each of the titles. You can look  at the table of contents down here. If you go into one of them, you will be able to, you see this big button in the middle of the document that says Copy Citation. That can be really helpful because as I mentioned, legal citations can be a little confusing so you simply click on that, copy that citation, paste it wherever you need it to be.

 

You can also see down here, you have the hyperlinked parts of the Georgia code for this particular policy appears.

 

Up here in the search document box, you can search within this document for any other terms that you're interested in. Let's say, for example, you were interested in childhood obesity. We'll see an example of how you could do that. But you can search for child up here or children. And you would see everywhere in this document which children are mentioned.

 

Finally this go to box is also helpful, this acts as an easy way to navigate within this document, and you can go all the way to the bottom here and look at the annotations and the notes in the commentary. And a lot of times, you will see references, and that's how you can follow additional leads to get to other policies or other pieces of information that have gone in to the formation of this policy.

 

I'm going to go back now and when I do go back to our list of results, I see this eyeglass icon over here. That tells me that I've seen this document already. And that can be helpful because a lot of these things look really similar.

 

>> JULIE JAMES:  Taylor, before you move on, can you make one distinction for us? We have a student asking, is policy the same as law?

 

>> TAYLOR LEIGH:  Policy is the same as law, yes. Although these two individual words might be used differently in particular contexts, the general meaning and understanding, the way we all use those terms is the same. Yes.

 

So, on this results page, another thing that you can do is, over on the left you have the option to search in your results and this can be helpful. I'm going to go ahead and run a search for children or childhood, but I'm going to do it by cutting off the end of these words adding an asterisk. This is called a truncated search. You are using this when you are using a word that could have many different variations and you are interested in seeing any and all of them. In this case, this search is going to returns results for child, children or childhood. I'm going to go ahead and do this. So we started with 332, this drops us down to 194.

 

I'm going to jump back over to the homepage and show you the recommendations Nexis Uni makes as you search. You first have documents and a lot of times you will see these ones that say ARTICLE: and then the title. Anything that says ARTICLE like that, it is going to be from an Journal [indiscernible]. Then you scroll down and you start seeing things from individual policies. Here we have the California childhood obesity prevention act. Under that, the Georgia morbid obesity antidiscrimination act, etc., etc. Definitely take a look at these recommended terms and documents, because they might be really helpful to you.

 

Now the last thing I will say about... And if you do end up searching for a specific policy by name, so the California Childhood Obesity Prevention Act, for example, you can search for that right up in the main search bar, but just make sure you put that phrase in quotation marks, and that is going to hold true for any phrase that you search for in our databases. These quotation marks are going to tell the database that you're interested in seeing the results for that exact phrase as opposed to all the individual words that go into that phrase.

 

If you come back to Nexis Uni after this presentation and are running some searches and get confused, have some questions, they really do have some great instructional content that you can access. One way is to click over here this help link. And another way is to click down here on Tips. Both of these links are going to be really, really helpful for you as you're working on your own.

 

Another way to search down here is this Guided Search, which is pretty self-explanatory. So you might give that a try, as well.

 

So that's Nexis Uni as a very basic search.

 

Now we are going to hop over to FDsys. Is the largest government provider of [indiscernible]. You know by the suffix,.gov, that it is a trusted source of information. It's going to cover all three branches of government, including statutes, regulations and court opinions.

 

Similar to Nexis Uni, it has a lot of really good instructional content and you can access a lot of that via these links over here to the left.

 

Alternatively, you can use these links to the right under Browse to browse different resource types. Different kinds of information that you can access in FDsys. For example, we can click on United States code over here then you would be able to select a year, a title, a chapter, etc. However, if you do that, it really is just for browsing. You are not going to be able to use search terms.

 

But we want to be able to use search terms so I am going to go ahead and type obesity into the main search bar in the middle of the page. You can see that it's much less conspicuous than the one in Nexis Uni. I'm going to click Search.

 

So we are getting over 24,000 results when we do this. So we're going to want to narrow this down.

 

Again, your limiters are going to be located over here to the left. For today's demo, we are going to limit this to statutes.

 

Actually, let's do Code Of Federal Regulations for the CFR. Now again, these are where all national regulations are going to be published. So that drops us down all the way to 39 results.

 

You have, let's see, I'm going to add a term to this search. So you see up here at the top, your term is in the search box. But you also have this option that says Within Results, I'm going to check that and that is how we search within results just like we did in Nexis Uni. So I am going to do child with an asterisk again. And this is going to leave us with 16 results. From this point, you can simply click on one of your results, this is going to take you straight to the document and is going to be in PDF format. Some of these can get quite lengthy. This one is not, it's only two pages. But for the longer ones, you can hit Ctrl F on your keyboard that's going to allow you to search within the document for any terms that you want.

 

Okay, let's go back now or close this out. And let's see, what else do I want to show ...

 

>> JULIE JAMES:  We are going to do some CDC, statistics by topic, as well.

 

>> TAYLOR LEIGH:  I was going to show ... here we go, I'm sorry. If you click on more information, this gives you a little bit, some additional information about the document you're viewing up here. But then there's this part that's really helpful Document in Context. You can see where this part ... I'm sorry, this is the Code Of Federal Regulations, where the policy you have accessed fits in to the entire code. So you can do that, then you can scroll through and see all the various other parts of the CFR that might be relevant to you. For example, for health policy, title 42 is public health. Title 45 is public welfare. So you can go ahead and explore those areas as you wish.

 

Now another thing you can do at FDsys is access those CRS reports. I don't think we mentioned those at the beginning, actually. I meant to. Let's go back here to FDsys.

 

CRS reports are a great place to do some exploratory searching or background information on your topic. CRS means Congressional Research Service reports. I am actually going to hop back over here to ... where were those ... sorry about this. Here we go.

 

These are reports that are produced for Congress by individual committee. So they function, essentially, as a nonpartisan, legislative branch housed in the Library of Congress. And they research on all these various topics when Congress is considering a particular piece of legislation.

 

They're really good for background information, they are really good for statistics, as well, that relate to an active public laws as well as to propose legislation.

 

The ones I have hyperlinked in this slide are particularly good for health policy.

 

The way they work is, they are accessible in FDsys. And I will show you that in a moment. But it only goes back to 1995. So if for some reason you are interested in CRS reports from prior to 1995, these sites on these slides are going to be a good place to look for those.

 

In FDsys, you can access those congressional reports over here on the right where it says congressional reports. But again, that's only going to let you browse. So what you could do, alternatively, is do a search like we did before and that over here in the collection, you could limit to congressional report. And this is how you access this Congressional Research Service reports.

 

All right, now, for statistics, as Julie mentioned, we have some resources for you, as well. One of the most helpful resources is probably going to be this combined statistics search, which is located in the health policy guide that I linked in the chatbox.

 

So this is the guide. And if you scroll down here to search tips, we have a box for statistics. It's not here ... is it in databases? Julie, do you remember where we put that?

 

>> JULIE JAMES:  I usually just search for it.

 

>> TAYLOR LEIGH:  You can certainly do that too. But it is in this guide if you go to government websites we have this box that says Statistics and you have the option for Statistics Combined Search. If you click on it it will give you this search box you can type in what you're interested in, obesity, for example. And is going to return results for a whole range. It searches hundreds of different government sites and is going to return results for any sites that return statistics related to obesity.

 

Also this database that we have, Sage Stats is going to be good. The Center for Disease Control has a lot of data and they have a statistics by topic site. Data.cdc.gov is a very similar site. Finally, the US Census Bureau has a feature called American FactFinder which is a pretty user-friendly way to access statistics.

 

That concludes what I wanted to cover. Julie, I think we are getting close to our conclusion here. I do want to show you how you can access additional webinars. So we have a webinar archive and you can access that of the library's homepage by clicking down here on Library Skills.

 

Then, in this central box here, this is where our webinars are. So we have a link for upcoming webinars and recorded webinars and you can come about, you can search by topic or you can search by general library skills.

 

Also, I wanted to show you how to contact us if you have any questions about anything we discussed in this session, today, or anything in general. You can contact us using this Ask a Librarian button in the top, right hand corner of our website. When you click on that you are going to see these various options for contacting us. You can email us, you can chat us during specific times, it lists out the times for each day. You can also call a question in. And if you are a doctoral student, you have the opportunity to schedule a research appointment with one of our liaison librarians.

 

Normally, you would be meeting with the liaison for your particular subject area. But a lot of times, your topic will be multidisciplinary, so you might be a nursing student, but you might want to meet with the psychology librarian. So that is an option you have if you are a doctoral student.

 

 

 

For example if we had a question about peer-reviewed, type that into our guides are going to appear over here, you can see all the guides and sections of guides that we have on peer-reviewed. And in the central column you are going to see Quick Answers. These are very concise answers to commonly asked questions and they are going to link out to related information on the bottom. So, really, really helpful. Whenever we as librarians have questions, this is where we,. That is a testament to their utility.

 

But that's it for me. Julie, do you have anything else?

 

>> JULIE JAMES:  Think that's good. That is how I usually get to the statistics combined search is putting it in that search box. So I would encourage you to try that if you are stuck on something or you don't remember where something is on the library website. I'm going to go ahead and stop the recording at this point and see if anybody has any questions. We will be emailing you a link to this recording. You will probably get it overnight tonight. If you don't see it in the morning, do look in your spam folder or the other email and Google or  whichever program you're on. We can also get you a link from the Ask a Librarian.

 

Yes.  Camille, you will get a copy of the link sent to you by email at the address that you registered for this webinar.

 

Any other questions? Thank you for the compliments, we really appreciate those. And I suppose I could turn my camera on there it is. Hi.

 

>> TAYLOR LEIGH:  I look really big, so thanks for joining me.

 

So what kinds of questions do we have?

 

>> JULIE JAMES:  Well, we did have a very specific question early on. "In your opinion, why is smoking being slowly banned in the United States but eating red meat is not when both are harmful to health?"

 

>> TAYLOR LEIGH:  [LAUGHS]

 

>> JULIE JAMES:  I told this questioner that he should research it, and he is already researching. I guess we were expert opinions but I will refrain from giving my opinion on this particular topic.

 

>> TAYLOR LEIGH:  When do you recommend doctoral students schedule an appointment for research? Christine, that can really be any time. That can be when you are still doing your coursework and you have an idea of what you want to focus on in the dissertation. It can be as you're starting to brainstorm the dissertation, gather resources, or when you're actually writing. We see students at all different stages.

 

>> JULIE JAMES:  Or it can be when you're prospectus gets kicked back because your literature is not up to snuff. That's when you might want to contact us, too.

 

>> TAYLOR LEIGH:  Right, we see some of this, too. So really, any time is the answer.

 

Joseph has a question about the difference between the policy and law. Joseph, that might be a very nuanced topic there. We can sort of follow up on that through email if you like.

 

There should be two different links in the chatbox. One will be for the captioning and one would be for the health policy guide. Are others seeing that? Again, this is the chat window, as opposed to the questions window.

 

Julie went ahead and posted the guide URL again.

 

Are people able to see that? I want to make sure....

 

>> JULIE JAMES:  You may need to expand part of it. Great. Perfect.

 

That about wraps it up. Thank you for coming and be sure to watch our upcoming webinars to see if there might be something else you want to learn in this format.

 

>> TAYLOR LEIGH:  Thank you for joining us, guys. Have a good rest of your day and get in touch if we can be of any further help.

 

 

End Transcript

 

Created June 2018 by Walden University Library