Although sometimes revising and proofreading seem interchangeable, they are, in fact, different. Revision means to see (vision) again (re). Revision is more than proofreading. It is looking back at whole ideas to make sure that everything fits the purpose of the document. It may be looking back at the type of or amount of evidence provided to support the ideas, or it may be looking back at the organization of paragraphs and their relation to one another.
In U.S. academic English, the process of writing is emphasized. In other words, it is expected that a document go through multiple drafts instead of being written once. In fact, experienced writers often say that the majority of their time is spent rewriting, reorganizing, and rewording their first draft.
Writing is also often very personal. Once something is placed on the page, it can be difficult to decide to delete it. True revision, however, may require deletion. It may be necessary to delete entire paragraphs (or entire pages). It might also be necessary to move ideas from one part of the text to another. Do not be afraid of the bigger changes—this is part of the process.
Writers may tend to be more linear or more recursive. A linear writer may have clearly defined steps in the writing process. This type of writer might begin with brainstorming, then produce an outline, then write the draft, then revise the draft, and then proofread the draft. A recursive writer often has a less clearly defined approach. The outline of the document may not be clear until after the first draft is written. The writing and the revision may happen throughout the production of the document. There is no one correct approach to writing, but understanding what type of writer you tend to be may help you to understand the process of writing and where revision occurs in your process.
Please read the following pages for some revising strategies.
- Revising in General
- Revising Based on Feedback
- Revising for Focused Ideas
- Revising for Stronger Evidence
- Revising for Effective Organization
- Revising for Scholarly Voice
- Revising for Grammar
- Reflecting & Improving
Also check out our blog posts on revising. We add new posts continually, so check back often.
Our Paper Review Service
Our Paper Review Service is another beneficial way to enhance your revision skills. In addition to the revision strategies listed above, we also encourage you to set up a paper review appointment with our writing instructors to receive individualized feedback on your project. We, at the Writing Center, look forward to partnering with you in your journey to academic writing and revision success!
Applying Feedback in Your Paper Video Playlist
Note that these videos were created while APA 6 was the style guide edition in use. There may be some examples of writing that have not been updated to APA 7 guidelines.
- Applying Feedback in Your Paper: Applying Feedback Principles (video transcript)
- Applying Feedback in Your Paper: Thesis Statement Feedback (video transcript)
- Applying Feedback in Your Paper: Transition Feedback (video transcript)
- Applying Feedback in Your Paper: Paragraph Feedback (video transcript)
- Applying Feedback in Your Paper: Grammar Feedback (video transcript)
- Applying Feedback to Your Paper: APA Feedback (video transcript)
- Applying Feedback to Your Paper: Word Choice Feedback (video transcript)