For additional capitalization rules, see APA 7, Sections 6.13-6.21.
Words Beginning a Sentence
- The floor caved in.
- No one responded to the final question of the test.
Major Words in Titles Used in the Body of the Paper
- In the book Modern Warfare, Clinger (1998) envisioned a world where ground troops are unnecessary.
This includes all words with four or more letters, all linking verbs, and the first word of a subtitle after the colon.
Major Words in All Headings (Levels 1-5)
- See our webpage on headings and APA 7, Section 2.27 for more information.
- Few psychologists were more influential than Freud.
Racial and ethnic group names are proper nouns and therefore require capitalization. This rule is a new clarification in APA 7.
- I interviewed Latina women between the ages of 25 and 39.
- My dog loves Purina Puppy Chow.
Names of Specific University Departments or Courses
- I enrolled in Scholarly Writing 101.
- Glassner was the associate dean of the Department of Psychology, Iowa State University.
Nouns Followed by Numerals
- On Day 2, the rats became more aggressive.
- I visited my grandmother on Floor 3.
Exact Titles of Tests
- The students needed to take the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills test.
Do Not Capitalize
Job Titles and Positions
- I interviewed the chief executive officers of a dozen technology companies.
Only capitalize a job title or position when it precedes the name of the job holder.
- I interviewed Chief Executive Officer Jennifer Owusu.
Proper Adjectives as Defined by Webster's Collegiate Dictionary
- Because her baby was already 14 lbs, her doctor insisted that she have a cesarean section.
Generic References to Courses or Departments
- I failed my psychology course.
Names of Laws, Theories, Models, Hypotheses, Effects, Diseases, Disorders, Therapies, or Variables
- The student was unfamiliar with Gardner's multiple intelligence model.
- Floyd and Rivers (2003) were influenced by the hierarchy of needs.
- Forty percent of participants have diabetes.
The Words "Page" and "Paragraph" Before a Numeral
- My teacher told me to reread page 5 of the textbook.
This guideline follows common usage and differs from the general rule to capitalize nouns that precede a numeral.
Generic titles of tests:
- The students needed to take the vocabulary test.