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OASIS Writing Skills

Citation Variations

This guide includes information on APA style citations.

Citation Variations

Below are some common variations of sources and how to cite them.

For examples of how to format reference list entries for cited sources, consult our common examples list.

Type of Source Narrative Citations Parenthetical Citations
Book Pezalla and Culver (2010) (Pezalla & Culver, 2010)
Course Study Notes (No Author) "Public Speaker" (2010) ("Public Speaker," 2010)
One Author Lai (2020) (Lai, 2020)
Two Authors Dusek and Spates (2019) (Dusek & Spates, 2019)
Three or More Authors Rhodes et al. (2007) (Rhodes et al., 2007)
Group Authors Veteran Affairs (2012) (Veteran Affairs, 2012)
Multiple Sources With the Same Author and Year

Walden University (2012a)

Walden University (2012b)

(Walden University, 2012a)

(Walden University, 2012b)

Multiple Sources in Same Citation Walden University (2012a, 2012b), Franklin (2010), and Brander (2009) (Brander, 2009; Franklin, 2010; Walden University, 2012a, 2012b)
No Date Mayo Clinic (n.d.) (Mayo Clinic, n.d.)
Organization's Website Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2012) (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2012)
Personal Communication M. Smith (personal communication, February 3, 2012) (M. Smith, personal communication, February 3, 2012)
Secondary Source Oyler (2009, as cited in Skarbakka, 2011) (Oyler, 2009, as cited in Skarbakka, 2011)
Republished work Freud (1923/1961) (Freud, 1923/1961)


Adapted from APA 7, p. 266.

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