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Plagiarism Prevention: The Three Components to Avoiding Plagiarism

Presented May 13, 2020

View the webinar recording

Last updated 6/17/2020

 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Housekeeping

  • Recording
    • Will be available online within 24 hours.
  • Interact
    • Polls, files, and links are interactive.
  • Q&A
    • Now: Use the Q&A box.
    • Later: Send to writingsupport@waldenu.edu or visit our Live Chat Hours.
  • Help
    • Ask in the Q&A box.
    • Choose “Help” in the upper right-hand corner of the webinar room

Audio: [Beth] Welcome. We have the top of the hour so I'm going to get started by switching us to the presentation layout. I will be starting recording momentarily. Welcome again everyone. It's wonderful to have you here. My name is Beth Nastachowski, a member of the Writing Center and I will be one of the facilitators for today's session. It's great to have you here and I am calling in from St. Paul, Minnesota where we are looking forward to the sun coming our way this weekend. Jes, would you like to introduce yourself?

[Jes] I am Jes Philbrook. I will be one of the facilitators behind the scenes responding to your questions. I recognize names from other sessions for thanks for being here with us and wanting to learn APA 7. Please put questions in the Q&A box, and we are happy to respond. I am calling in from St. Louis Park, Minnesota.

[Beth] Thank you. We have our presenter today, Sarah, who will introduce herself, but before she does that, I’m going to go over housekeeping notes here. First, I have started the recording for the session and we will be posting the recording tomorrow afternoon in our webinar archive. So if you have to leave or if you’d just like to come back and review, you are more than welcome to do so. We have been presenting a whole host of webinars over the last week and a half helping students transition from APA 6 to APA 7. We've been recording all a host of webinars, so if you missed a webinar or do like to learn more about APA, those recordings are in our webinar archives.

During the session today, we encourage you to interact with us. I know Sarah has chat she will be using to engage in the content she has prepared for you today. But you can download the slides that Sarah has here in the Files pod at the bottom right-hand corner. The file titled “slides” is the one that is the slides that you can download and save. That's a way to save this information for future reference.

There are links through the slides that you can click. If you click the links, they will open on a new tab in your browser. As Jes mentioned, we will be monitoring the Q&A box. If you have questions or comments, we encourage you to submit those in the Q&A box and submit those as soon as you have them so we can get you an answer right away. I will be sure to submit questions to Sarah aloud when she has a moment to stop for questions during the presentation. If you have questions after the session, or sometimes we are unable to get all the questions, we encourage you to email those or visit our live hours. We will display that information at the end of the webinar.

If you have technical issues, let me know in the Q&A box. There's also the help button at the top right corner and that's the best place to go if you have significant technical issues.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the title of the webinar, “Plagiarism Prevention: The Three Components to Avoiding Plagiarism” and the speaker’s name and information: Sarah Prince, Associate Director of Resource Management

Audio: [Beth] Sarah, I will hand it over to you for the session.

[Sarah] Thanks, Beth. Hello. I hate to rub it into those Minnesota people, but I am calling in from Peachtree City, Georgia this evening, a suburb of Atlanta, and it is 75 degrees and sunny. The sun is going down as we approach the eight o'clock hour. We've been really lucky to have great weather. This evening or this afternoon or this morning depending on where you are calling in from, we will be talking about plagiarism prevention specifically three key components to help you avoid plagiarism.

Quickly a little about me. I am Sarah Prince, Associate Director of Resource Management at Walden. I am looking forward to talking to you all about plagiarism, so let's get started.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Transition to APA 7

  • New (7th) edition of APA manual released
  • APA 7 implementation dates: May 4 (semester-based programs) & June 1 (quarter-based and Tempo programs)
  • Some doctoral capstone students may continue using APA 6 for an additional grace period

Audio: [Sarah] Before we launch into all formal discussion about plagiarism, I want to touch on our transition to APA 7. Hopefully this isn't news, but if it is, don't fret. APA has switched to a new edition. That manual was released last year roughly in October. But now the Writing Center and the University, as of May 4 for semester-based programs, has implemented APA 7. If you are working within a semester-based program, you will be responsible for using APA 7 in your own writing as of May 4th. For those of you in quarter-based programs in Tempo programs that date is June 1. Our materials have been updated as well.

Some doctoral capstone students may continue using APA 6 for a grace period. That is until December 31 of this year, so if you get URR approval of your capstone by December 31 of this year, you can continue to use APA 6 throughout the capstone process, but if you don't have URR approval at that point, you will need to switch to APA 7.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Transition to APA 7

Audio: [Sarah] I know APA 7, a new edition, feels overwhelming but the truth is the Writing Center has made it easy for you with center APA 7 transition webpage linked on the slide. It'll provide a timeline and also resources to help you make that switch. You can also view our APA 6 to 7 comparison table to preview those changes. You can register for any of the Writing Center webinars that offer information on the APA 7 transition. Most of those webinars have already happened. We are rounding out that webinar blitz this evening. But as Beth mentioned, we have recordings of all the previous webinars and they've been fantastic so check those out.

Look for updated website content throughout the month of May. We will continue to update resources but our website is up-to-date with APA 7. If you have any specific APA 7 related questions, you can always email the Writing Center to the APA 7 specific role account at apa7@mail.waldenu.edu.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Today’s Webinar

Audio: [Sarah] Finally, a reminder today's webinar does use APA 7 rules. The rules for plagiarism and academic integrity haven't changed, but we will talk about pieces that are more nuanced or more clear in APA 7. For more details if you want to click overview, you can always look at the APA 7 at a glance changes in support for the switch webinar. That is linked here. If you are a doctoral student, we have a companion version for you which is also linked.

In the slides when I talk about the switch from APA 6 to 7, you will see me referring to a logo. That logo is in the top right-hand corner of the slides indicating this is a change in APA 7. What we will talk about tonight that has to do with APA 7 is a citation frequency. It's not so much a change but more of a nuance or clarity around citation frequency. I will remind us when we get to that slide, but a preview of what's to come.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Learning Outcomes

  • Identify and practice avoiding three types of plagiarism

Overt or direct plagiarism

Inadvertent or passive plagiarism

Self plagiarism

  • Identify three key strategies and to help avoid plagiarism

Effective paraphrasing

Citation formatting

Citation frequency

  • Review other strategies for successfully avoiding plagiarism during the writing process

Audio: [Sarah] Without further ado, let's talk about our learning outcomes for this evening. What we are going to focus on identifying and practicing ways to avoid plagiarism specifically three types of plagiarism that I will talk about in depth. The first is overt or direct plagiarism. The second is inadvertent or passive plagiarism. The third is self-plagiarism.

After we talk about identifying those types of plagiarism, we will practice strategies to help us avoid plagiarism. We will talk to how we can successfully paraphrase or effectively paraphrase. We will talk about citation formatting and then round out that discussion talking specifically about citation frequency. Then finally we are going to end tonight reviewing strategies for successfully avoiding plagiarism, tips and tools outside of those three mentioned above that will really help you during the writing process.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: What is plagiarism?

From the Student Handbook:

“Use of intellectual material produced by another person without acknowledging its source” (Walden University, 2020, para. 11)

  • Overt or direct plagiarism
  • Inadvertent or passive plagiarism
  • Self plagiarism

Audio: [Sarah] Let's get started. I know as a graduate student, and frankly probably throughout your tenure as a student engaged in higher education, you have heard about plagiarism and know you are supposed to avoid it. Many of us get uncomfortable about thinking about plagiarism. We don't necessarily have a good handle on when we are, what red flags or what slippery slopes we might go down that might lead us into plagiarism. Let's talk specifically about what plagiarism is.

From the student handbook, the “use of intellectual material produced by another person without acknowledging its source constitutes plagiarism.” This means that if you are using an idea from another person without acknowledging or giving credit to that person, you are plagiarizing. This can take several forms. The first is overt or direct plagiarism. The second is inadvertent or passive plagiarism. The third is self-plagiarism. We are going to talk a little bit about each of those.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Plagiarism in Context

  • Different standards depending on culture
  • Often (usually) due to environmental factors
  • Requires practice and learning the rules

Audio: [Sarah] Before we talk about those though, I want to highlight the different contexts for which plagiarism can occur. I talked about plagiarism feeling like a dirty word. We know we are supposed to avoid it. We are nervous about trying to avoid it, but we don't often think about why it might occur. Let's talk specifically about why it might occur.

First for some of us we might not have had the majority of our education using Western standards for academic integrity. Different cultures have different standards for academic integrity and they also have different definitions for what constitutes plagiarism. At Walden, we use a Western standard for academic integrity. If perhaps you are one of those people who got most of their education using a different standard, it is good to brush up on Walden's standards for academic integrity.

Second and hopefully -- not hopefully, but I think it rings true for a lot of us, there are environmental factors that pull us away from our work. It might be family demands, professional demands, all the things that we have to do on a day-to-day basis that keep us from dedicating 100% of our time to our schoolwork. What happens when we have limited time to do schoolwork is we might be tempted to just use an old paper or to copy something that isn't ours. Or just to do what I call sloppy scholarship. We might take notes and forget to cite. We might intend to cite something but we forget to include the citation or we might just engage in bad or poor paraphrasing tactics. All of these can contribute to plagiarism in our writing.

The third piece is the truth is even if you do understand Western standards for academic integrity, and even if you could devote 100% of your time to your schoolwork, avoiding plagiarism still does take practice. You have to learn the rules. You don't know what you don't know, so you've got to learn the rules and then you've got to practice with those rules. That's really what we will start doing tonight. We ensure we understand the rules clearly and having some joint act as with those rules or some elaborative practice with those rules.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Identifying Types of Plagiarism

Audio: [Sarah] Let's talk about identifying types of plagiarism.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Types of Plagiarism: Overt Plagiarism

  • Overt or direct plagiarism: Copying a source word-for-word without attribution (quotes without citations)
  • Original Source (Nix & Wilson, 2016, p. 15)
    • The PPACA legislation necessitates the development of new and innovative physician practice business models.
  • Plagiarism in a student’s writing
    • Nix and Wilson (2016) suggested that the PPACA legislation necessitates the development of new and innovative physician practice business models.

Audio: The first I mentioned in our previous slides was overt or direct plagiarism. This is defined as copying a source word for word without attribution. Typically, this is using quotes without citations. We are going to look at a named example from an original source. This source is from Nix and Wilson in 2016. “The PPACA legislations necessitates the development of new and innovative physician practice business models.” Let's say I want to directly quote the source of my own writing.

However, in this example this student has plagiarized. You will see this example Nix and Wilson suggested that the PPACA legislation necessitates the development of new and innovative physician practice business models. You'll see that I've underlined a portion of this student's sentence here. The reason I underlined that is because this is taken word for word from the original source.

Remember whenever we quote word for word from the original source, we have to provide quotation marks around that word for word copying because it is a direct quote. The student starts out well. They've got Nix and Wilson 2016 so they've included that narrative citation. But what they are missing are those quotation marks and the page number following the direct quote that is required when we are providing a direct quotation.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Types of Plagiarism: Overt Plagiarism

  • Overt or direct plagiarism: Copying a source word-for-word without attribution (quotes without citations)
  • Original Source (Nix & Wilson, 2016, p. 15)
    • The PPACA legislation necessitates the development of new and innovative physician practice business models.
  • Plagiarism in a student’s writing
    • Nix and Wilson (2016) suggested that “the PPACA legislation necessitates the development of new and innovative physician practice business models” (p. 15).

Audio: [Sarah] Let's look at this corrected version. Here you will see in the students corrected version Nix and Wilson suggested that quote -- I've got my first quotation marks -- the PPACA legislation necessitates the development of new and innovative physician practice business models. Then I have ending quotation marks and page number and a period at the end. I want you to take special note of where those ending quotation marks are and where that final period is. A lot of times I will see students put the period inside the direct quotation or they might put the quotation marks after the page number. But the order goes quotation mark, page number, then your final period.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Types of Plagiarism: Overt Plagiarism

  • Passive or inadvertent plagiarism: Using a source’s ideas without attribution (paraphrases without citations)
  • Original Source (Nix & Wilson, 2016, p. 15)
    • The PPACA legislation necessitates the development of new and innovative physician practice business models.
  • Plagiarism in a student’s writing
    • Hospitals and clinics need to adjust physician business practices because of the PPACA.

Audio: The next type of plagiarism I talked about is passive or inadvertent plagiarism. This happens pretty frequently when students are paraphrasing or I would say this is the most common type we see in the Writing Center. It's because we don't have all the elements required in a citation. We've got the same sentence, the PPACA legislation necessitates the development of new and innovative physician practice business models.

Then you see a student is trying to paraphrase, they are trying to write it in their own words. They have hospitals and clinics need to adjust physician business practices because of the PPACA. The student has started the process of a successful paraphrase. They have put it in their own words and sentence structure. What they are missing is a citation. There is no attribution to the original source. Why do they need to provide credit to the original author? Because even though the student has used their own words and sentence structure, that idea was not the student’s. That idea was Nix and Wilson’s, so we have to give them credit for that original idea.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Types of Plagiarism: Overt Plagiarism

  • Passive or inadvertent plagiarism: Using a source’s ideas without attribution (paraphrases without citations)
  • Original Source (Nix & Wilson, 2016, p. 15)
    • The PPACA legislation necessitates the development of new and innovative physician practice business models.
  • Plagiarism in a student’s writing
    • Hospitals and clinics need to adjust physician business practices because of the PPACA (Nix & Wilson, 2016).

Audio: [Sarah] You will see in this corrected version we have hospitals and clinics need to adjust physician business practices because of the PPACA, and then I have a parenthetical citation. You will notice when I paraphrase, I do not include a page number. But previously when I was providing that direct quotation, I did include a page number. That is an APA rule. If you are citing directly, quoting directly from a source, you need to include the author, year of publication, and page number. If you are paraphrasing, the author and the year of publication are all that is needed.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Types of Plagiarism: Self Plagiarism

  • Self plagiarism: Reusing your own work from a previous class or assignment
  • Original Source
    • A two-paragraph long discussion board post
  • Plagiarism in a student’s writing
    • The same two-paragraph discussion board post is used as an introduction in an essay.

Audio: [Sarah] Let us look at the third type of plagiarism. I know this is the type of plagiarism students get the most uncomfortable with. They think how could I plagiarize myself? I wrote it. I can see on its face how that could be a little confusing. But self-plagiarism is really reusing your own work from a previous course or a previous assignment. I want to ask Jes or Beth to go ahead and post our page that Walden Writing Center has for citing yourself in the chat box because this will provide you with a little more information on self-plagiarism.

I am going to share a couple of examples, but first I want to explain why self-plagiarism is an issue. Typically, throughout your academic career, we want to see you grow. We want to see you add new knowledge to existing knowledge and to build on that knowledge. If you are simply recycling old assignments or old passages from previous assignments in the same course, you are not really growing academically. So we do want to see that growth, which is why self-plagiarism is discouraged. It's discouraged in the classroom and also discouraged once you get outside of Walden and you might publish and then publish again. You wouldn't want to use something from a passage that was published previously.

Here is an example. An original source might be a two-paragraph long discussion board post that you write for course. Let's say in that same course or perhaps another course you realize that that same two paragraph discussion board post would be really useful as an introduction so you think oh I’m short on time anyway. I'm going to copy and paste that and plug it in and call it a day. That's discouraged. That's an example of plagiarism.

I will say because I know a lot of you are like wait a minute. Some courses do build. It is built into the course that you are writing pieces of a draft each week. One week you might write the introduction. The next week you might write a body paragraph and the following you might write another body paragraph and so on until you get to the end of the course. Then you actually are providing the final paper.

In those cases, where the course is structured for you to build the paper over weeks, you can put the pieces together and resubmit those. There might be instances where you will be using past assignments and that's okay. The key here is that you have to ask your instructor. If you are not sure about the policy for reusing work in a particular course, make sure you reach out to your instructor. Say I want to take a couple of sentences from a previous course. Can I do that? The instructor might say, sure, but you’re going to need to site yourself. Or a instructor might say the purpose of the course is to build from week to week until you get to the final assignment.

The key here is to make sure that you ask your instructor so you are not guilty of plagiarism.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Practice! Identifying and Correcting Self Plagiarism

Audio: [Sarah] Before we move on to identifying and correcting plagiarism or before we move onto that practice, I want to pause and see if there any questions. Beth, have been questions popped up?

[Beth] Thanks, Sarah. One student was asking about, what if there's a situation where they read something and then later on they write about it? Do they need to cite that? If so, do you have any strategies for helping students keep track of that information?

[Sarah] That's a great question. If you read something and I think we've all been in that situation where perhaps we've read something, a scholarly article for one course, and then two or three courses down the road we think, there was that piece of evidence or that thing that that author said that I think would be really good here. You do need to find that source and you do need to cite it. Because that was not your original idea. You have to think was this my idea? No. It was the authors that you read two courses ago. So you will need to dig it up.

Something I say is to always take really careful notes and when you are taking notes of sources, be sure to provide a citation or citations while you are taking notes. I think a lot of times and understandably so students like to take shortcuts because they are short on time. They think I will just put citations in later or I will take notes and then I will cite later. The problem is it becomes more and more difficult to remember where you read what. I would say taking good notes is a way to avoid that, but that would be have to be cited because it's not your original idea. Does that help?

[Beth] It does. Thank you. We also have a question about common knowledge. I wonder if you could address what common knowledge is and how students can identify common knowledge for their own particular discipline.

[Sarah] Great question. We hear “you don't have to cite common knowledge,” but understanding the line can be tricky. When you are thinking about common knowledge is to think about your audience. If I'm writing to a group of teachers, and I'm talking about IEPs or individualized education plans, I am going to refer to those. I am not going to cite them. I probably wouldn't spell them out because I know my audience knows what an individualized education plan is. It wasn't my idea but I follow it in my classroom. It is common knowledge in that discipline.

However, if I'm writing to a more general audience, I would probably need to cite that notion of individualized education plans and highlight where it came from. Thinking about your particular audience is really helpful in determining what constitutes common knowledge and what perhaps needs to be cited not only as a way to provide credit where credit is due for the authors, but also just as a way of to clarify and to root what you are saying incredible outside evidence. Again, I think common knowledge like I think Beth you were alluding to discipline-specific knowledge. I like to think about who my audience is to determine is this common knowledge or is it something that should be cited?

[Beth] If you are not quite sure, particularly if you are new to your program or discipline, another great resource is to ask your faculty. They can help you identify what common knowledge might be for your audience or discipline.

[Sarah] Great idea. Thank you, Beth. Now we are going to have some practice time.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Identifying Plagiarism Chat 1

[Chat box activity]

Frank reads the assignment prompt for his course and realizes a paper he wrote for a previous course could simply be resubmitted to meet the assignment requirements. He is short on time, so he submits that past paper and does not cite himself.

Has Frank plagiarized? Why or why not?

Audio: [Sarah] Hopefully everyone is excited and feels up to the challenge of a little bit of practice. Our first chat, and I just want you to respond in the chat box, has to do with Frank. Frank reads the assignment prompt and realizes a paper he wrote for a previous course could simply be resubmitted to meet the requirements. He is short on time, so he submits that past paper and does not cite himself. Has Frank plagiarized? Why or why not? I will give you a couple minutes to weigh in in the chat box.

[Pause in audio]

You guys are on top of that. It is a form of self-plagiarism. He didn't cite himself, and also he could have determined if something like this was acceptable by checking with his instructor. I think some of you said that as well, but Frank didn't do that. This is a form of self-plagiarism. Nicely done.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Identifying Plagiarism Chat 2

[Chat box activity]

Read the original source and the student’s sentence. Has the student plagiarized? Why or why not? Let us know in the chat box!

  • Original Source (Marques, 2016, p. 286)
    • “There have been MBA students who later attested that the service-learning project instigated such a tremendous perspective change within them, that they redirected their careers into more socially engaged directions. A few of these former MBA students even started small non-profit entities.”
  • Student’s sentence
    • MBA students who engage in service learning are often so affected by the project that they refocus their business focus.

Audio: [Sarah] Chat number two. This will be rapidfire chat so bear with me. I will read the original passage to you and I want you to compare that against the student sentence. Then I want you to answer has the student plagiarized? Why or why not? The original source reads quote there has been MBA students who later attested that the service-learning project instigated such a tremendous perspective change within them that they redirected their careers into more socially engaged directions. A few of these former MBA students even started small nonprofit entities. Then the student sentence is MBA students who engage in service learning are often so affected by the project that they refocus their business focus.

[Pause in audio]

Has the student plagiarized? Why or why not?

[Pause in audio]

Good, I like how some of you are even highlighting how to fix it. Nicely done.

I clearly can't get anything past you guys. Fantastic job. You are right. The student has plagiarized in this instance. The student is starting to do exactly what we are looking for an academic writing. They have put it in their own words and sentence structure, so paraphrasing is down, but what they forgotten to do is to provide a citation. We will see in the correction which some of you mentioned: they need to supply a citation. The author and the year of publication. Very nicely done.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Identifying Plagiarism Chat 3

[Chat box activity]

Read the original source and the student’s sentence. Has the student plagiarized? Why or why not? Let us know in the chat box!

  • Original Source (Vallone et al., 2016, p. 424)
    • “Leveraging the social power of the much larger universe of teens who do not smoke—to influence the small percentage who still do—created a very focused and feasible target for a successful social change activation.”
  • Student’s sentence
    • Vallone et al. (2016) found that changing teenager behavior is best done through a very focused and feasible target for a successful social change activation.

Audio: [Sarah] Third chat. I told you this will rapidfire. Read the original source. I will read it and the student sentence. Tell me has the student plagiarized? Why are we not? Leveraging the social power of the much larger universe of teens who do not smoke to influence the smaller percentage who still do created a very focused and feasible target for a successful social change activation. The student sentence Vallone et al. found that changing teenager behavior is best done through a very focused and feasible target for successful social change activation. Has the student plagiarized? Why or why not?

[Pause in audio]

You guys are on top of it. You are absolutely right. Using quotation marks because they have word for word copied part of the original source.

 

Visual: Slide changes to a slightly updated version with student sentence that now reads the following:

  • Vallone et al. (2016) found that changing teenager behavior is best done through “a very focused and feasible target for a successful social change activation” (p. 424).

Audio: [Sarah] As you say, missing a page number. Bonus points. Why is a page number necessary here? You can put that in the chat box as well.

Anybody? Why would a page number -- yes, nicely done. Because it is a direct quotation. We use page number because it is a direct quotation. Vallone et al, it's a clear, narrative citation. Quotation marks around a very focused and feasible target for a successful social change activation. You’ll see in quotation marks, page number and period because that's the order we wanted to go into. Nicely done. Somebody identified direct plagiarism. Bonus points.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Strategies to Avoid Plagiarism

Audio: [Sarah] Now we will move on to strategies to avoid plagiarism. I feel really confident that everybody is confident in being able to identify plagiarism perhaps in others’ writing and also in your alone. But I get what it looks like; how do I avoid it?

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Strategies to Avoid Plagiarism

  • Make sure you are citing both quotes and paraphrases
  • Make sure you are effectively paraphrasing
  • Make sure you understand APA’s rules for citation frequency

Doing these things will help you avoid overt AND passive plagiarism.

Audio: Three key strategies I like to use when to try to avoid plagiarism. First make sure you are citing both quotes and paraphrases and we've talked extensively about that this evening.

The second is to make sure you are effectively paraphrasing. I think this is the root of a lot of plagiarism concerns. People or students are not necessarily sure that they are effective or strong paraphrasers. They are just sort of winging it and having their fingers crossed. We are going to talk about ways to ensure that you are effectively paraphrasing. Then finally making sure you understand APA's rules for citation frequency. Which we will also talk about this evening. We need things will help you to avoid not only overt plagiarism but also passive plagiarism.

 

Visual: Slide change to the following: Citing Quotes and Paraphrases

  • Quotes
    • Quotation marks, author, year, page number
    • “Involving organizational members is paramount not only to organizing but also to mobilizing society toward social change” (Angel, 2016, p. 259).
  • Paraphrases
    • Your own words/sentence structure, Author, year
    • Implementing social change in an organization can best be achieved by involving all employees and stakeholders (Angel, 2016).

Audio: [Sarah] As we talked about, you want to make sure that you are citing after or alongside direct quotations and also paraphrases. If I am citing or using direct quote, I want to include quotation marks around the passage I am directly quoting. Then I want to make sure that I have a citation that includes the author, the year, and the page number. An example here involving organizational members is paramount not only to organizing but also to mobilizing society toward social change. We will see that direct quotation is in quotation marks both at the beginning and the end. Then I have parenthetical citation with Angel who is the author, year of publication, and Page 259. That is where I found the direct quote. As a reminder, you will see I have the ending quotation marks, then my parenthetical citation, so whatever's in parentheses, and then finally my sentence ending period.

Let's talk about paraphrases. Paraphrases which are preferred in APA style writing, use your own words and sentence structure, but you still need to make sure that you have a citation that includes the author and year of publication. An example here is implementing social change in an organization can best be achieved by involving all employees and stakeholders. I've taken the above quotation, put it in my own words and sentence structure, but it is not my idea, so I still need to cite using the author and year of publication.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Strategies: Effective Paraphrasing

  • To Do

Use your own sentence structure

Use your own word choice

Include a citation

  • Strategies

Paraphrase ideas and information, not sentences

Look away from the original

Revise and clarify your paraphrase

Audio: [Sarah] How do I effectively paraphrase? I know that I need to use my own sentence structure, make sure I am using my own word choice, and include a citation. But I'm not quite sure how to do that. Three key strategies that will help you to do that are first, remember you are paraphrasing ideas and information not sentences. I see students that take a four sentences excerpt and they will help try to paraphrase the first sentence and then the third sentence and then the fourth sentence in my own words and sentence structure.

What you want to do is to read those four sentences and think okay, four sentences taken together. What is the take away, the key idea? What is the bare-bones idea that I need to take away? Paraphrase that idea. Don't try to paraphrase each and every sentence that makes up that idea. A good way to make sure you are doing this is to read the passage until you feel like you understand it and then look away from the original.

So turn off your computer, cover your monitor screen, close the book, flip the article over and imagine someone walks in and asked you what you are reading. I should be able to verbalize what I am reading to that colleague. If I cannot do it, I probably need to reread the original passage again because I don't understand it well enough to paraphrase it.

But if I understand it, generally I can then even verbally put that into my own words and sentence structure to explain it to that imaginary colleague. Then finally go ahead and write something. It's always easier to edit once you've got something on the page. If you are paraphrasing, don't make your initial paraphrase sound beautifully academic. Just get the idea on the page and then you can revise and clarify after the fact. After you have done these three steps, what you can do now is look at the original. Also, that you want to make sure you do when looking at the original is at a citation.

Even though I have used my own words and sentence structure, I still have to provide a citation. I have to provide the author, year of publication.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Strategies: Effective Paraphrasing Example

Original

“Unfortunately, students do not seem to perceive themselves as having learned grief competencies in the process of their education experiences. Very few students (about 1 out of 10) are exposed to courses in grief counseling or grief interventions.” (Cicchetti et al., 2016, p. 12).

Paraphrase

Graduating students often do not receive any training in grief counseling, and therefore report low confidence in working with clients dealing with grief (Cicchetti et al., 2016).

Audio: [Sarah] So let's look at an example here. Here is an original passage that I am aiming to paraphrase. Quote unfortunately students do not seem to perceive themselves as having learned grief competencies in the process of their education experiences. Very few students about 1 out of 10 are exposed to courses in grief counseling or grief interventions. If I'm going to take the bare-bones idea from this passage it might be something like students are not prepared to work with grief. I didn't take the first sentence and think how do I put this into my own words and then I didn't look at the second sentence and look at that. Instead I looked at the entire passage and thought what is the key idea here? What is the key takeaway?

A paraphrase of that might be what I've come up with. Graduating students often do not receive any training in grief counseling and therefore report low confidence in working with clients dealing with grief. After that you will see that I've got my parenthetical citation, authors and my year of publication after the paraphrase. Although that box popped up in about two seconds on the slide, it doesn't mean that that is how quick a paraphrase happens. Sometimes it takes a little finesse. Sometimes it takes revision and clarifying to ensure you've got your point across so it might take a little time to get the paraphrase where you want it.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Strategies: Citation Frequency

  • What

Properly paraphrasing throughout your paragraph ensures appropriate citation frequency

  • Why

Differentiates between your ideas and source’s ideas

Avoids inadvertent plagiarism

Audio: [Sarah] After we do this, properly paraphrasing throughout our paragraphs, throughout an entire draft, we want to make sure that we have appropriate citation frequency throughout. So we are not over citing, under citing throughout our paper. The reason we want to make sure we are doing this when we incorporate evidence is because it helps differentiate between your own ideas and the sources ideas and also differentiate between one source’s ideas and another source’s ideas. Ultimately, it helps you to avoid inadvertent or unintentional plagiarism, which is the goal.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Strategies: Citation Frequency

  • Overcitation
    • Repeating the same citation within or after each sentence, even when the source and topic have not changed
  • Undercitation
    • Failing to give credit to authors’ original ideas that you have quoted or paraphrased in your draft

Audio: [Sarah] Let's talk a little bit about citation frequency. I promised you at the beginning of tonight session that when I would talk about something that was specific or a change in APA 7 you would see that logo in the top right-hand corner of the screen, so hopefully you will see that logo now. We will talk about citation frequency. It has not really changed in APA 7, but we have just gotten additional clarity from the manual writers on what constitutes nice balanced citation frequency.

What you want to avoid as a writer is both over citation and under citation. Over citation occurs when you are repeating the same citation within or after each sentence even when the source and topic have not changed. Now what might this occur? Think about when you are summarizing a single source, and so you've got a lot of source information from Smith. You don't want to say Smith said X. Smith also said Y. Smith said ABC. In addition, Smith said XYZ. You want to avoid repetition of the citation when the author hasn't changed and the source hasn't changed. That often occurs when you are summarizing.

Additionally, we want to avoid under citation, which is failing to give credit to authors original ideas that you have quoted or paraphrased in your draft. In other words, you always want to make sure that readers are clear where source information is coming from. Now a lot of time students get really nervous about how do I know that I've achieved the right balance? That makes me -- what if I over cited or under cited? What it tells students is if you are nervous, not sure, I would always err on the side of over citation. Why? Because over citation worst-case scenario means your instructor is going to say hey Sarah, you are over citing and you can take out the citation. You've already included it in the previous sentence. It's really not necessary. Whereas under citation you could wind up being accused of unintentional plagiarism which is not a road we want to go down. If you're not sure, erring on the side of over citation doesn't really hurt much.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Strategies: Citation Frequency

  • Citation frequency is a balancing act
    • Ensuring that my reader can always identify what ideas are mine and what ideas are from outside sources
    • Avoiding the repetition of the same citation when the source and idea have not changed
  • Why?
    • Ensures reader knows which source the information is coming from
    • Avoids distraction and unnecessary citations

Audio: [Sarah] I talked about citation frequency as a balancing act. What is that balancing actually look like? Ensuring that my reader can always identify what ideas are mine and what ideas are from outside sources. You want to make sure that that is evident in my writing. But I also want to make sure that I am avoiding that repetition of the same citation again and again in the summary type assignments where the idea [author] has not changed. Why do we do this?

We talked about this in a previous slide. Because this helps us ensure the reader knows which source information -- which source information is coming from, whether that information is coming from us or if we are using multiple sources, which source information we are referencing. Avoiding over citation also helps us to avoid unnecessary distractions to our reader. If I see the same name over and over and over, it might be a distraction to me as a reader. Citation is a balancing act. It also takes some practice.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Citation Frequency: Example 1

              Cyber bullying is often discussed in the context of high school, but it is also an issue for higher education. According to Minor et al. (2013), a third of the instructors surveyed reported they had been cyberbullied. For faculty, then, it is important that a university have clear processes for reporting such student behavior. They found that faculty, particularly part-time faculty, may encounter barriers in reporting student cyber bullying. These barriers may include unclear processes or processes that are not easily accessible. These findings underscore the responsibility of universities to make improvements by auditing their bullying processes and making changes if necessary.

Audio: [Sarah] Let's look at some examples. The first here cyber bullying is often discussed in the context of high school, but it is also an issue for higher education. According to Minor et al., a third of the instructors surveyed reported that they had been cyber bullied. For faculty then, it is important that university have clear processes for reporting such student behavior. They found that faculty, particularly part-time faculty, may encounter barriers in reporting student cyber bullying. These barriers may include unclear processes or processes that are not easily accessible. These findings underscore the responsibility of universities to make improvements by auditing their bullying processes and making changes if necessary.

This is appropriately cited. Why? Because all of the evidence in this paragraph comes from this Minor et al source. It all has to do with the same topic of cyber bullying. You will also see that I have used key phrases like they found to indicate that I am still talking about the Minor et al. source. I also want to draw your attention to that last sentence where I say these findings underscore the responsibility. This highlights or signals to my readers a shift. I am talking about these findings of the Minor et al. source. So this is my analysis because I'm able to talk about these findings. So remember this is appropriate citation because I only am using or summarizing one source here, and I am signaling to my readers by saying these findings when I moving from summarizing that source to then providing analysis of that evidence that I am providing.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Citation Frequency: Example 2

Online instruction can be effective when delivered synchronously or asynchronously, so universities should determine which mode works best for their student context. To accommodate the needs of students accustomed to the structure of traditional on-site classrooms, synchronous lectures that occur on a specific date and time will better mimic the physical classroom and ensure accountability (Thompson, 2019). However, for those students who are spread across different geographies and time zones and who may have responsibilities outside of school, asynchronous modes of instruction might ensure they are able to get their schoolwork done (Thompson, 2019; Wells, 2017). Regardless of how universities choose to construct their virtual instruction, online learning is only successful when student context is considered.

Audio: [Sarah] Let's look at another example with multiple sources. Online instruction can be effective when delivered synchronously or asynchronously, so university should determine which mode works best for their student context. To accommodate the needs of students accustomed to the structure of traditional on-site classrooms, synchronous lectures that occur on a specific date and time will better mimic the physical classroom and ensure accountability. You will see I have a citation there. However, for those students who are spread across different geographies and time zones and who may have responsibilities outside of school, asynchronous modes of instruction might ensure they are able to get their schoolwork done. We will see I've got that Thompson source again here in my citation, but I've also got Wells. Regardless of how universities choose to construct their virtual instruction, online learning is only successful when student context is considered.

In this example I do have appropriate citation. I've got Thompson after that first piece of evidence to indicate that it is attributed to the Thompson source. Then in the second citation, you will see that I have used that Thompson and Wells. The reason I include Thompson again here is because I want to indicate to my readers that Thompson, this information is attributed to Thompson, but also this information is attributed to Wells. Now two sources are responsible for that second piece of evidence.

So again, I am making sure that my readers understand what information just Thompson is responsible for and then what pieces of evidence or what information both Thompson and Wells are responsible for. As a writer, I have to think about my readers. In reading is, will they be able to determine who or what author is responsible for what piece of evidence or information?

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Practice! Citation Frequency

Audio: [Sarah] Before we move on to practicing a little with citation frequency, I want to pause here and ask for questions. Beth, do you have any questions that have come in?

[Beth] Yes. One question was along the lines of what you were talking about here. Student is concerned about under citing and said they were curious about whether over citing is really an issue and how to think about that balance between the two if they are unsure.

[Sarah] Over citing is not an issue per se, but it's something that we would probably revise or edit out of your draft in a second or third round of a draft. A good way to think about over citation and under citation, over citation is simply a mistake like a typo that would easily be edited out of your draft in a second or third round. Under citation on the other hand could constitute plagiarism so again, if you are unsure, it is always better to err on over citation.

However, citation frequency and balancing citations is part of mastering academic writing. It is a skill you want to get under your belt especially as you move towards the end of your degree process, perhaps a capstone or master’s thesis or even just larger research papers. It's a good idea to get a handle on when this is appropriate and to get a handle on that balance. Just like good paraphrasing and good citation, it takes practice. So do citation frequency. Don't get frustrated with yourself. Err on the side of over citation but it will make sense as you practice. Is there something you want to add, Beth?

[Beth] I would just say that your faculty are there to help you with that as well as the Writing Center. We are always happy to help you walk through that and help you feel more comfortable as you develop that citation frequency.

[Sarah] Perfect. I think we have time for one more question.

[Beth] We had a question about how to cite a quotation if the source does not have a page number.

[Sarah] Great question. Most of your sources that you are going to cite -- a lot of your sources that you cite will have a page number but some of them won’t. Let's say you are setting a webpage. And there isn't a page number to be found. Webpages don't have physical page numbers. If there is no page number, which is the gold standard, you want to look for a paragraph number. How do I identify a paragraph number?

Let's say I have a webpage and the direct quotation I want to use is in the fourth on paragraph on that webpage. Instead of p. 259 to indicate Page 259 I would write the abbreviation para. 4 to show that it was paragraph four on a webpage. Paragraph numbers are what you should look for if there are no page numbers. A lot of times they may not be available and you can always use headings or sections, but really if you keep those two in mind, page numbers, the gold standard, and then para., if you are looking at a webpage. That's a great tip to keep in your back pocket.

I am going to move forward to citation frequency practice.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Citing to Avoid Plagiarism: Chat 4

[Chat box activity]

Chat #4: Which paragraph contains the most balanced citation frequency if all source information is from Corbin (2015)?

Paragraph #1

              One way that local business owners can engage with their local government is through town halls and forums. Corbin (2015) found that most local governments have periodic open forums that the public can attend. Further, attending these forums correlates with being better informed and engaged in local government. These findings suggest that local business owners should stay up-to-date with these local forums and make attending them a priority.

Paragraph #2

              One way that local business owners can engage with their local government is through town halls and forums. Corbin (2015) found that most local governments have periodic open forums that the public can attend. Further, attending these forums correlates with being better informed and engaged in local government (Corbin, 2015). These findings suggest that local business owners should stay up-to-date with these local forums and make attending them a priority.

Audio: [Sarah] We are going to have another round of rapidfire chat so I hope you're ready. Chat number four. Which paragraph contains the most balanced citation frequency of all source information is from Corbin, 2015? They both read the same. Just pay attention to the citations. I will read ahead. One way that local business owners can engage with their local government is through town halls and forms. Corbin found that most governments have periodic open forms that the public can attend. Further attending these forms correlates with being better informed and engaged in local government. These findings suggest that both local business owners should stay up-to-date with these local forums and make attending them a priority. Yes, nice job. One of you even pointed out that further is one of those keywords or signaling to my readers.

You guys are awesome. Yes, further signals to my reader that this is further information from the same source so this is a summary from Corbin. All the information is coming from that same source and you will note that I further signal or a signal later to my readers by saying these findings are in analyzing or providing my own spin or interpretation of the evidence I've provided above. So yes, excellent job. Nice work, folks. We will see paragraph one highlighting green is the correct answer.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Citing to Avoid Plagiarism: Chat 5

[Chat box activity]

Chat #5: Which paragraph contains the most balanced citation frequency when source information is varied?

Paragraph #1

              Empathy plays an important role in both professional and personal interactions. In professional settings, empathy can build effective team culture and increase employee productivity (Pressley, 2012). In social interactions, empathy can create deeper, more meaningful connections with friends and family members (Molenburg, 2017). In both situations, empathic individuals can assess and respond to the needs of others, which is important to building relationships built on trust and understanding.

Paragraph #2

               Empathy plays an important role in both professional and personal interactions. In professional settings, empathy can build effective team culture and increase employee productivity (Pressley, 2012). In social interactions, empathy can create deeper, more meaningful connections with friends and family members (Molenburg, 2017). In both situations, empathic individuals can assess and respond to the needs of others (Pressley, 2012), which is important to building relationships built on trust and understanding.         

Audio: [Sarah] Next chat. Empathy plays an important role in both professional and personal interactions. In professional settings, empathy can build effective team culture and increase employee productivity. In social interactions, empathy can create deeper more meaningful connections with friends and family members. In both situations empathetic individuals can assess and respond to the needs of others, which is important to building relationships built on trust and understanding. Is it paragraph one or paragraph two that has the most balanced citation frequency?

I will give you a couple of minutes to weigh in. This one is a little more varied. Yes. Someone says paragraph two because Presley was broken up by another source. So hard to assume. That's right. If you think about paragraph one and two we have monthly authors. We have Presley and Molenburg. If I'm reading that last sentence in both situations -- the second two last sentence In both situations, empathic individuals can assess and respond to the needs of others, I don't know if that can be attributed to Molenburg or Presley. As a reader that wouldn’t be clear unless I provide a citation. So I provide a citation to indicate that that information came from Presley not Molenburg.

So keep that in mind. When you have multiple sources, and they are broken up, as one of your colleagues said, you cannot assume where a particular piece of evidence is coming from unless you provide a citation. So here because I've got Presley, Molenburg and Presley again, I need to make clear to my readers that Molenburg is associated with that one piece but I moved back to Presley when I'm talking about empathetic individuals being able to assess and respond to needs of others. You have to keep that in mind. In this instance, paragraph number two, in which I have varied sources, more than one source, is the correct most balanced form of citation frequency. Now for those of you are thinking maybe I don't understand this as well as I did, just keep that in mind.

Put yourself in the shoes of the reader. If I didn't provide that final Presley citation, how would I know how to attribute the source information?

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Other Success Strategies to Avoid Plagiarism

Audio: [Sarah] Finally, I want to wrap up this evening by providing other successful strategies to avoid plagiarism.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Set Yourself Up for Success: Other Tips for Avoiding Plagiarism

  • Read critically
  • Take careful notes
  • Double-check and revise your writing
  • Manage your time effectively
  • Check with your instructor
  • Keep practicing

Audio: [Sarah] I'm going to talk about things I guarantee you already knew intellectually, what I'm going to try to get you to commit to tonight is doing at least one of these things that you perhaps haven't done before.

We all know that it serves us well to read critically, to take careful notes, double check and revise our writing, to manage our time effectively, check with our instructor if we have questions, and to keep practicing. However, if we look at this list as the sum total of all the things we need to do, it feels overwhelming and a lot of times that means we just say maybe I will try that another time. It just makes us feel overwhelmed. If you walk away from anything tonight, try to commit to doing one of these things to set yourself up for success in avoiding plagiarism.

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Success Strategies: Read Critically

Plagiarism can happen when we…

  • Are not familiar with the formal voice in scholarly sources.
  • Are not familiar with APA citation standards.
  • Are entering a new field or are not familiar with the topic.

Audio: [Sarah] First let's talk about reading critically. Plagiarism can happen when we are not familiar with the formal voice and scholarly sources, not familiar with APA citation standards, or are entering a new field and are not familiar with the topic. What can we do to work on to ensure we don't fall into those traps?

If you are reading, academic writing can sometimes be incredibly dense, incredibly dry, and especially if you are unfamiliar with the field, there are also might be words that we don't know or phrasing or ideas or concepts that we are unfamiliar with. Look those up. Make sure that you are doing a fair amount of wrestling with the text. You don't want someone to ask you what you just read and not be able to tell them so make sure you are reading, engaging with the text and looking up those words or concepts you are unfamiliar with.

Take your time reading an article and don't read an article right before bed after you've taken melatonin. This is not creative reading or fantasy reading right before bed where you can skip a few chapters and everything works out well in the end. Instead you want to make sure you are actually engaging with the text, that your brain is turned on, that you are really focusing and honed in on what you are reading so you can take it in and think critically about it. I'm saying this knowing that it is not always easy. Especially now that we have everybody's at home with us so kind of finding that golden hour or that quiet time to take time and focus in on your reading is important.

Then practice your critical reading and paraphrasing skills. Once you find a method that works for you, continue to practice those, continue to hone that process so you are comfortable with how you do it and what works best for you.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Success Strategy: Take Careful Notes

Plagiarism can happen when we…

  • Copy and paste quotes from sources without attribution
  • Paraphrase a source without attribution

Audio: [Sarah] Also take careful notes. Plagiarism can happen when we copy and paste quotes from sources and we don't attribute them. As you take notes, make sure you cite alongside those notes. Also make sure that when you paraphrase, even in taking notes, you still provide a citation. Because it's really easy to take notes and then through osmosis think later that you are responsible for those ideas. If you take good notes and you cite as you are taking notes, you will remember what ideas are your own and what ideas came from an outside source.

Again, always add citations in quotation marks your notes. Don't rush when you are taking notes. Take your time, think thoroughly about what you're writing and reading. And be sure to note the page number. That is always important. I am guilty of taking notes, not including the page number and then wanting to look back up what the author said and having to dig through or read the whole article so save yourself some time while you are taking notes. Be sure to include page numbers as well.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Success Strategy: Double-Check and Revise Your Writing

Plagiarism can happen when we…

  • Make APA citation errors.
  • Poorly paraphrase a source.
  • Forget quotation marks or citations.

Audio: [Sarah] Double check and revise your writing. I know a lot of you are rolling your eyes saying I don't have time for revision. You can save yourself a lot of points in your classroom and time on the backend if you do build in time for revision. Plagiarism can happen when you make APA citation errors, not because you intended to, but we talked about sloppy scholarship at the beginning of the session. Sometimes that results in APA citation errors or poor paraphrasing the source. We might forget closing quotation marks or forget a citation. All these things happen. We are human, but revision helps us notice those mistakes. Schedule a time to review and revise your writing.

If you can, just take an hour away or 30 minutes away. I've written my draft. I'm going to step away for an hour or 30 minutes. I will come back to it with fresh eyes. Did I make any mistakes? Did what I write make sense and did I properly attribute source information? Do I have citations and quotation marks where they need to be? Highlight and double check all your evidence. That's a great tool. Quickly highlight. I have paraphrasing here, here and here. Do I have citations? Is this quoted? I need to add quotation marks.

Finally create a checklist to follow. On the last slide I talked about getting into your own groove and knowing what works for you. The same is true in your revision. I like to take an hour away and then come back and read my paper. I know some folks like to read their paper from the last sentence to the first sentence because that really helps you focus sentence by sentence and look, does this have a citations? Once you find a revision process that works for you, stick to that. Hold yourself accountable for that revision process.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Success Strategy: Manage Your Time Effectively

Plagiarism can happen when we…

  • Rush through our research
  • Fail to note quotes and citations
  • Hasten our writing process

Audio: [Sarah] Manage your time effectively. Plagiarism can happen when we rush through our research, when we fail to note quotes or citations. And when we hasten through the writing process. If we are trying to rush through things, it inevitably takes 10 times longer because we have to redo what we did sloppily the first time. I say this with full acknowledgment of how busy everyone in this room most likely is. But if you really can build in time to start working on assignments a little earlier, I promise it will help you produce better quality work because you will have time to write a first draft before the day of the deadline.

I know no one in this room would ever start a draft at 11 p.m. on a Sunday night the day their paper is due. None of us. None of us have ever been in that situation. But if we start working on Wednesday or Thursday so we can get a little bit ahead of the game, we have time to revise, that can really be helpful. Ensure that when you write, you are focused. If you are 100% focused on the task at hand, it is easier to get to the task and you also produce better quality work.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Success Strategy: Check with your Instructor

Plagiarism can happen when we…

  • Recycle old assignments
  • Use previous classwork to help start new assignments

Audio: [Sarah] Finally, check with your instructor. Plagiarism can happen when we recycle decide, use previous classwork to help start new assignments so check with your instructor. Can you use work from a previous class? Just asking that question is important. Can I reuse work from this class? If you are more interested in learning more about self-plagiarism, check out our self-plagiarism podcasts and go link that was posted earlier about reusing work previously.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Success Strategy: Practice Using Writing Center Resources

Audio: [Sarah] I have included several pieces of information that you can check out or some resources that you can check out if you are interested. I've got our citations overview page. We have several effective paraphrasing videos. One of my favorite videos at the writing center demonstrates the paraphrasing process from start to finish. I think that's a four-minute video so if you want those quick tips, click on that link. We have an APA citations and references module that allows you to interactively go through a module to ensure that you are on the right track with APA citations and references.

Then a plagiarism prevention resource kit if that's something you are interested in can help you avoid plagiarism and work on the lessons we've worked on this evening.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Questions: Ask Now or Later

Closing slide with links to writingsupport@waldenu.edu and the Make a Paper Review Appointment

Audio: [Sarah] I really appreciate all of the engagement. I know we are probably not going to have time for questions because I am long-winded but thanks for sticking with me this evening. If you have any questions, please email us at writingsupport@waldenu.edu or make a paper review appointment. We would love to help you become a better writer, and as I mentioned earlier, please check out our plagiarism prevention modules. Thank you all so much for joining us this evening and we hope you will come to another webinar. Thanks so much.

[Beth] We've got all these in the files pod and if you'd like to download the slides, you can. We will go ahead and close out as Sarah said, thank you so much, Sarah, and thank you everyone for all of your engagement, and Jes for your help in the Q&A box. It's been great to wrap up this series of APA webinars and we appreciate it, everyone. Have a wonderful evening.