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Plagiarism Prevention: The Three Components to Avoiding Plagiarism

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Presented December 6, 2018

Last updated 1/25/2019

 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Housekeeping 

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    • Now:Use the Q&A box.
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  • Help
    • Ask in the Q&A box.
    • Choose “Help” in the upper right-hand corner of the webinar room

Audio: Michael: All right, hello, everyone. Welcome. My name is Michael and I'm a writing instructor here in the Walden Writing Center joining from Duluth Minnesota. Thanks again for joining us today for this webinar about preventing plagiarism, and plagiarism prevention in a different order. Before we get started and I hand things over to Melissa, I just want to mention a few housekeeping items. First this webinar is being recorded and, in a day, or two you will be able to access it through our website. So, if you have to leave early or want to go over portions of this webinar again later, you'll be able to access the recording. Along with it you'll find many other recorded webinars on various other writing related topics. 

There will be several chances to interact with your colleagues and with our presenter Melissa. So please be sure to participate during the chat sections in the large chat box just like you did before the webinar started today. Also, all of the links in the slide show are active. So, you can click directly on them for access to more information now or later if you are watching the recording. 

We also have a few helpful files in our Files Pod and you can download them by clicking the downloads file at the bottom of the pod. There's going to be a lot of information in this webinar. And if you have any questionings, you can use the Q & A Box. I will be watching the Q & A Box and I will answer any of your questions as quickly as I can. If we run out of time however, or if you have questions later, please send them to writingsupport@waldenu.edu. And you will get a response through email within 24 hours. 

Finally, if you encounter any technical difficulties, there's a help button in the upper right-hand corner of the webinar screen. This is a great resource. This is actually Adobes help page. So, this would probably be the way to go also you can reach out to me in the Q & A Box. However, again, the help button is probably the better way to go to get any tech issues resolved. Thank you all for joining us and now I will turn things over to our presenter Melissa Sharpe.

 

Visual:Slide changes to the title of the webinar, “Plagiarism Prevention: The Three Components to Avoiding Plagiarism” and the speaker’s name and information: Melissa Sharpe, Writing Instructor, Walden University Writing Center            

Audio:Melissa: Thanks, Michael. Hi, everybody. My name is Melissa Sharpe and I'm a writing instructor here at the Walden Writing Center. And today we’re going to be taking a look at three components to avoid plagiarism. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Learning Outcomes

•       Identify the three types of plagiarism

•       Learn the APA citation rules that will help you avoid plagiarism

•       Identify writing strategies and tools that will help you avoid plagiarism

Identify + Cite + Write = Avoid Plagiarism

Audio:At the end of this webinar, you should be able to identify the three types of plagiarism, you should also be comfortable with APA citation rules which will help you avoid plagiarism. And you should be able to identify writing strategies and tools that will help avoid plagiarism. So throughout tonight’s webinar we're going to talk about these as sort of three separate entities. How to identify, cite, and write in order to avoid plagiarism. 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: What is plagiarism? 

Identify

From the Student Handbook:

“Use of intellectual material produced by another person without acknowledging its source” (Walden University, 2017, para. 11)

  • Overt or direct plagiarism
  • Passive or inadvertent plagiarism
  • Wholesale copying or buying of writing

Audio: And we'll start with identifying. In order to avoid plagiarism, we have to know when it has stumbled into our writing. We have this official definition from the student handbook that says "Plagiarism is the use of intellectual material produced by another person without acknowledging its source." However, there is a lot of variety that falls under this large definition. And, so, in a little bit, we're going to dig into some of these types of plagiarism, including direct plagiarism, passive and wholesale copying or buy of writing. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Plagiarism in Context

•      Different standards depending on culture

•      Often (usually) due to environmental factors

•      Requires practice and learning the rules

Audio:Before we define the all of types of plagiarism, I want to talk a little bit about the context that surrounds this topic. We all know that plagiarism is something we want to avoid. However, when we talk about plagiarism, we always have to keep in mind that there are different standards, depending on the culture, the place in which work is produced and published. 

In some areas, citation, and this is geographic areas as well as areas of study. Citation norms and standards may differ a little bit from APA, which prefers us to cite a lot. I'm sure that you are familiar with APA's rules where they like to see a citation at the end of every sentence that contains some phrase from a source. Some other style are a little bit more relaxed where that citation appears. In some cultures, outside of the United States, in academic writing, it's actually okay to take ideas and present them in your writing without a citation. It's just seen as a norm. However, here at Walden, we follow APA style. And we follow the norms of academic writing within the United States. And, so, that shapes our definition of plagiarism. 

We also want to keep in mind that plagiarism is usually due to environmental factors. As student writers who are quite commonly already working professionals in their field of study, life is busy and hectic, and we have these packed schedules. And plagiarism sometimes is accidental. It slips into our writing, because during the writing process, we may have forgotten to put a citation in a draft and we forget by the time we sit back down to work on it that we had to cite that. Or when we're taking notes, maybe we copy an entire sentence because we like the way it sounds and then a week later, when we’re write our paper, we take that sentence from our notes forgetting that it was an actual quote from the original article. 

So, a lot of times plagiarism is the result of our environment. And, so, that's why these strategies today, looking at some of the writing strategies, along with some citation best practices, will help reduce that risk, that plagiarism will creep into your work. Like all parts of academic writing, avoiding plagiarism requires practice and learning the rules. And as you work and grow as an academic writer, know that the Writing Center has a lot of support for you. You're here at this webinar which is a great start, and we'll look at some additional resources today and probably talk a little bit about our paper review service as well. 
 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: What is plagiarism?

  • Overt or direct plagiarism: Copying a source word-for-word without attribution (quotes without citations)
  • Original Source
    • The PPACA legislation necessitates the development of new and innovative physician practice business models.” (Nix & Wilson, 2016, p. 15)
  • Plagiarism in a student’s writing
    • Nix and Wilson (2016) suggested that the PPACA legislation necessitates the development of new and innovative physician practice business models

Audio: So, we had that official definition of plagiarism, which was using somebody else's work or ideas without giving them any credit for it. And one of the ways that this appears is through what we call overt or direct plagiarism. And this happens when we copy one of our sources word-for-word without giving them any sort of credit. That would mean we're not putting quotation marks around that and we're not citing that work. 

Here, on the left-hand side of the slide, you will see there is a quote from an article. And in the students writing on the right-hand side, you'll see that the student has named the authors and has cited the source by giving us the year of publication. But the text that follows is exactly the same as that original. When we use the exact same words, and I'm not sure if it's an official rule, but we typically recommend if you're using three or more words in the same order, it needs to be quoted. Here we have many words. We have this whole sentence that has been copied word-for-word exactly the same. And so, it's plagiarism because it’s going to need quotation marks around the words that are the same. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: What is plagiarism?

  • Overt or direct plagiarism: Copying a source word-for-word without attribution (quotes without citations)
  • Original Source
    • The PPACA legislation necessitates the development of new and innovative physician practice business models.” (Nix & Wilson, 2016, p. 15)
  • Corrected in a student’s writing
    • Nix and Wilson (2016) suggested that “the PPACA legislation necessitates the development of new and innovative physician practice business models” (p. 15).

Audio:Now here we have the corrected version. Once we put the quotation marks around that praise and add to the citation, notice that we now have the page number where this quote can be found. This is no longer plagiarism. This is just a integrated quote. We use quotation marks, because if you do any fiction reading you know that when a character speaks what they say is in quotation marks, and this is a similar equivalent in academic writing, you're allowing your source to speak within your paper. So, this is what Nix and Wilson actually said word-for-word it is a quote. So, we need the quotation mark to avoid overt or direct plagiarism. Which again is when you copy your source, the research did you, the articles you've read, when you copy those word-for-word the same in your writing, you need quotation marks and a citation. Or else it is plagiarism. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: What is plagiarism?

  • Passive or inadvertent plagiarism: Using a source’s ideas without attribution (paraphrases without citations)

 

Original Source

  • The PPACA legislation necessitates the development of new and innovative physician practice business models.” (Nix & Wilson, 2016, p. 15)
  • Plagiarism in a student’s writing
    • Hospitals and clinics need to respond to the PPACA by adjusting their business practices.

Audio: Another type of plagiarism is what we call passive or inadvertent accidental plagiarism. And this is where you use the ideas of one of your sources without giving them credit. And, so, what this looks likes is a paraphrase or summary but, without a citation. Again, on the left-hand side of the screen, you're going to see what that source said, and this is the original the article the student read. And on the right-hand side is what they wrote. And this counts as plagiarism. Even though these are not the same words as the original, it is the same idea. And in APA style and in academic writing norms within the United States, we have to give credit to where those ideas come from. So, we need to know where this idea about hospitals and clinics responding to PPACA. We need to know where that comes from.

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: What is plagiarism?

  • Passive or inadvertent plagiarism: Using a source’s ideas without attribution (paraphrases without citations)

 

Original Source

  • The PPACA legislation necessitates the development of new and innovative physician practice business models.” (Nix & Wilson, 2016, p. 15)
  • Corrected in a student’s writing
    • Hospitals and clinics need to respond to the PPACA by adjusting their business practices (Nix & Wilson, 2016).

Audio: And we do that by adding a citation. So now you'll see the corrected example on the right-hand side has a citation that shows us this idea comes from Nix and Wilson 2016 article. That citation is now helping the student avoid passive plagiarism. And it's also bolstering them as an expert, because this student is now able to say, hey, look, experts agree with me. They said this. It makes the writing stronger to have research supporting what you're saying. So, it strengthens the argument as well as it helps avoid plagiarizing. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: What is plagiarism?

Overt and passive plagiarism also applies to learning resources, information, and research you access within your BlackBoard classroom.

 

These still need to be properly:

•       Quoted

•       Paraphrased

•       Cited

Audio:Overt and passive plagiarism also apply to learning resource that is you may find within your classroom. So, when you're in your class, there's probably some handouts in there. They probably have like a Walden U logo on it. You may find lecture notes or PowerPoint slides, or all these classroom learning resources that are not research you find in the library, for example. Those are still external resources that need to be properly quoted if you're going to repeat what they say word-for-word. Properly paraphrased and whether you quote or paraphrase, you need to properly cite them. 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: What is plagiarism?

Self plagiarism: Reusing your own work from a previous class or assignment

Original Source

•      A two-paragraph long discussion board post

Plagiarism in a student’s writing

•      The same two-paragraph discussion board post is used as an introduction in an essay.

Audio:There is another type of plagiarism which is called self-plagiarism. And this is when you reuse your own work from a previous or current class or assignment. So, an example of this would be if you were to write a two-paragraph long discussion board post. That was your original assignment that you completed for a class. And then if later, you take that exact same two-paragraph post and turn it into your introduction in a longer essay, it could actually count as self-plagiarism. We are discouraged from using our own work from a previous work or current class, unless you ask the instructor if it is okay to reuse your own work. 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Identifying Plagiarism

Chat #1: 

Frank learned about the continuity of care model from a book chapter he read. He defines the model and explains it in his paper using his own words, but doesn’t cite the book.

Has Frank plagiarized? Why or why not?

Audio:All right. We're going to practice identifying plagiarism now. And, so, in the chat box, I want you to think about and then respond to this chat. Frank learned about the continuity of care model from a book he read. He defines the model and explains it in his paper using his own words, but does not cite the book. Has Frank plagiarized? Why or why not? And I'll give you a few minutes to respond to this. 

[silence as students respond]

All right, I see lots of responses coming in. And it looks like many people are saying, yes, this is plagiarism. And you guys are correcting. Frank has plagiarized and the reason as your pointing out is that he did not cite the book. So here even though Frank has presented some information in his own words, the information he is presenting is the work or idea of somebody else. And he must give that person credit. So here, he would need to cite the author of the book. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Identifying Plagiarism

Chat #2:

Read the original source and the student’s sentence. Has the student plagiarized? Why or why not? Let us know in the chat box!

Original Source

•      “There have been MBA students who later attested that the service-learning project instigated such a tremendous perspective change within them, that they redirected their careers into more socially engaged directions. A few of these former MBA students even started small non-profit entities.” (Marques, 2016, p. 286).

Student’s Sentence

  • MBA students who engage in service learning are often so affected by the project that they refocus their business focus.

Audio:Let's try to identify another example of plagiarism now. Here we have a quote from an original source. And then the students’ sentence. I want you to read the original source and read the sentence. And then let me know in that chat box if the student has plagiarized and explain why or why not. I'll give you another few minutes to determine if this is an example of plagiarism. 

[silence as students respond]

You guys are on a roll tonight. Yes, this is also an example of plagiarism. Now, one of the things that you're going to see here is that the sentence the student wrote does not copy the exact same wording as the original source; however, as you have pointed out, it is talking about the same idea. So, this student is presenting the same idea. And in order to do that, they must also add a citation in order to tell us where this idea originally came from. So, yeah, great job. This is another example of plagiarism. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Identifying Plagiarism

Original Source

•      “There have been MBA students who later attested that the service-learning project instigated such a tremendous perspective change within them, that they redirected their careers into more socially engaged directions. A few of these former MBA students even started small non-profit entities.” (Marques, 2016, p. 286).

•      Correction

MBA students who engage in service learning are often so affected by the project that they refocus their business focus (Marques, 2016).

Audio:This is what it would look like corrected.  So here we see that the student does not need quotation marks, because this is written in their own words. However, it's the ideas that they read about in the source. So, they are going to cite it. And by adding that little citation at the end of the sentence, this is no longer an instance of plagiarism. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Identifying Plagiarism

Chat #3: 

Read the original source and the student’s sentence. Has the student plagiarized? Why or why not?

Original Source

 

•      “Leveraging the social power of the much larger universe of teens who do not smoke—to influence the small percentage who still do—created a very focused and feasible target for a successful social change activation.” (Vallone et al., 2016, p. 424).

Student’s Sentence

  • Vallone et al. (2016) found that changing teenager behavior is best done through a very focused and feasible target for a successful social change activation.

Audio:We'll look at one more example for identifying plagiarism before I move on. And here, again we have an original source and then the student sentence. And I'm just going to ask you to read the original and the sentence that the student wrote and determine if the student has plagiarized and tell us why or why not. 

[silence as students’ type]

This one is a little more difficult. So, we'll break it down a bit as we talk about it. One of the first things we see is that the student has given credit to the author. So, you see we have the author's name, and we have the year of publication. So, they have definitely started to cite it here. And then at the beginning of the sentence, the student is presenting this summary in their own words. But about halfway through, the student starts using the same words as the original. 

So, if we look, we have Vallone et al., found that changing teenager behavior is best done through a very focused. Now if we take a look at original about four lines up from the bottom. I guess I can grab an arrow and show you. Right about here, the student has started using the same words as the quote. A very focused and feasible target for successful social change activation. So, half the sentence is original and about half of it is using the same words. So, this is an example of plagiarism, even though the plagiarism doesn't exist in the entire sentence, it's definitely there and part of it. 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Identifying Plagiarism

Original Source

•      “Leveraging the social power of the much larger universe of teens who do not smoke—to influence the small percentage who still do—created a very focused and feasible target for a successful social change activation.” (Vallone et al., 2016, p. 424).

Correction

•      Vallone et al. (2016) found that changing teenager behavior is best done through a very focused and feasible target for a successful social change activation” (p. 424).

Audio: So, I'll show you how we can fix this. And this one is fixed by adding quotation marks. And, so, the quotation marks you see appear part way through that sentence. Exactly where the quote starts. And then we've also added the page number where the quote can be found. Because in APA style, when we quote, we need to help people find the quote when needed to. So, by giving the page number, they don't have to flip through all 400 pages of a book to find a quote. It is okay for this quote, for the quotation marks to start in the middle of the sentence, because that's the beginning of the quote. 

So, if you need -- if you, I guess if you want to quote a partial sentence like this, that is, of course fine. What matters is that the quotation marks are in place along with that full APA tile citation. 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: What is plagiarism?

Cite

What is plagiarism?

•       Citing quotes and paraphrases

•       Properly paraphrasing

•       Citation frequency

•      Doing these things will help you avoid overt AND passive plagiarism.

Audio: Really good job identifying plagiarism in those three examples. So, we'll move on to look at citation strategies to help us avoid all types of plagiarism. We know that we have to include a citation any time we quote, which is using the same words as one of our sources, or any time that we paraphrase which is when we put those ideas in our own words. Citation style and frequency are great ways to help avoid plagiarism. Because if you don't have a citation, obviously, that's going to put you at-risk. Along with citation, we'll look at proper wording strategies. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Citing Quotes and Paraphrases

•      Quotes

•      Quotation marks, author, year, page number

•      “Involving organizational members is paramount not only to organizing but also to mobilizing society toward social change” (Angel, 2016, p. 259).

•      Paraphrases

•      Your own words/sentence structure, Author, year

•      Implementing social change in an organization can best be achieved by involving all employees and stakeholders (Angel, 2016).

Audio:We need to cite all quotes and paraphrases. In order to properly cite a quote, we have to take some time and go through this checklist. We have to make sure that around those words or sentence that is the same as our source, that we have quotation marks surrounding that phrase or sentence.  And then our citation includes the last name of the author, or authors, the year of publication, and the page number where the quote can be found. Now, if we do not have page numbers, say, it is a website or an online document that is not paginated, then we use the paragraph number. Something to help the reader locate the quote. And, so, in this example, what you will see is that we have a quote that has quotation marks at the beginning and end of that sentence. It also has a citation that contains the name of the author who originally wrote this sentence. The year it was published and the page number where the quote can be found. So, this means that this has been properly quoted and cited. 

We also cite paraphrases. And when we cite paraphrases, we're showing that the idea we're presenting was originally stated or thought up by somebody else. A paraphrase is written in our own words and in our own sentence structure but we still cite it and when we cite it, we include just the last name of the author and year of publication. So, here in this paraphrase example, you’ll see that there's a sentence the student wrote and the sentence is their own words and their own sentence structure. And then we have a citation, which is just the last name of the author who originally wrote this idea, along with the year of publication. 

We really don't need to put a page or paragraph number when we're paraphrasing. And the reason for that is because a paraphrase could be a restatement of a sentence or two on a single page. But it can also be a larger summary that expands couple of pages or paragraphs. So, we don't need to identify the exact location. The official APA rule tells us it's optional. But typically, I tell students that they don't need to include that page or paragraph number because it is optional. And I think it really helps paraphrases stand aside from quotes when it's just a last name and year. 

If you have an improper citation, that could lead to issues of plagiarism. And that's why it's important to make sure that we take the time to check that our quotes and paraphrases are written correctly, and that they are cited in APA style.

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Properly Paraphrasing

•      To Do:

•      Use your own sentence structure

•      Use your own word choice

•      Include a citation

•      Strategies:

•      Paraphrase ideas & information, not sentences

•      Look away from the original

•      Revise and clarify your paraphrase

Audio:When you choose to paraphrase, you want to make sure that you are using your own sentence structure. So instead of doing something like taking a sentence from an article and changing out a couple of words with new ones, we want to have an entirely new sentence structure. So, the strategy is you want to focus on the ideas and information, not just the sentences. You want to capture the main point that, that author had. You don't want to remix their existing sentence. So, when you're paraphrasing, it's important that you also use your own word choice. One of the things that we recommend is when you're paraphrasing, read your source material, put it away, and then write your paraphrase. It's really hard to repeat sentence structure and same word choice when you're not looking at the original article. 

And, of course, when you're paraphrasing, you still want to include a citation. When you put the citation, you want to, I think it's always helpful to include it in the earliest drafts and in your earliest notes so that way the citation is always attached to those ideas. And, you want to make sure that as you revise and clarify your paraphrasing, or revise your work, or move sentences around, that, that citation is always attached to the paraphrase no matter where it goes. So, if you're citing even in your earliest notes, that you’re scratching down on paper as you read, it makes the rest of the writing process much easier to have the citation there from the beginning. And remember again, that having an improper citation or improper paraphrase, could lead to issues with plagiarism. That's why we're so careful to take the time to properly paraphrase. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Properly Paraphrasing 

Original

“Unfortunately, students do not seem to perceive themselves as having learned grief competencies in the process of their education experiences. Very few students (about 1 out of 10) are exposed to courses in grief counseling or grief interventions.” (Cicchetti et al., 2016, p. 12).

Paraphrase

Graduating students often do not receive any training in grief counseling, and therefore report low confidence in working with clients dealing with grief (Cicchetti et al., 2016).

Idea = students aren’t prepared to work with grief

Audio:Here is an example of some paraphrasing. Gone both right and wrong. So here we have our original source and this is a quote from an article. And then we know that the main idea from this quote is that students aren't prepared to work with grief. So, as a student writer, if you're reading your source that presents these ideas about how unfortunately students do not seem to perceive themselves as having learned grief competencies in the process of their education experiences. 

Very few students, about one out of ten, are exposed to grief counseling or grief interventions. We've read it. We're going to take a moment and say, okay, the main idea is that students aren't prepared to work with grief. They just don't see themselves as being able to do that. Now, if we kind of cover up that left-hand side of the screen, and if we were asked to write a paraphrase, without looking at the original, whatever you would write would probably have new sentence structure and new word choice. 

So, here's an example of what that would look like. Here we have a student who read the original, determined the main idea, and then wrote it themselves. And this student wrote graduating students often do not receive any training in grief counseling, and, therefore, report low confidence in working with clients dealing with grief. Notice at the end of the paraphrase, we have that beautiful perfect APA style citation. So, this one has been properly paraphrased. It's the same idea as the original, but it's not the same words. It doesn't have the same sentence structure and it has a citation. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Properly Paraphrasing

•      What

•      Cite throughout a paragraph

•      Cite in each sentence that includes source information

•      Why

•      Differentiates between your ideas and source’s ideas

•      Avoids inadvertent plagiarism

 

Improper citation frequency could= plagiarism

Audio:So, this paraphrase is good to go. When we are thinking about properly paraphrasing and citing those paraphrases, a couple of things we want to keep in mind is that you need to cite throughout a paragraph. Every time you include a sentence that contains ideas from one of your or more, one or more of your sources, you want to cite that. Even if you have three sentences in a row that are all cited, from the same source, put that citation on the end. It seems excessive, however, what that does when you cite each and every sentence that includes information from one of your sources; what that citation frequency does, is it helps us differentiate your ideas and a sources idea. Because every single sentence is flagged as either being cited from source material or not. In which case we know to attribute it to you as the writer. Having the proper citation frequency helps us avoid plagiarism and it really helps us avoid inadvertent accidental plagiarism where you are writing a paraphrase and you just decide that it needs maybe two sentences. So, you write your two sentences and cite. That could be an example of accidental or inadvertent plagiarism because you only cited the one sentence when they both needed it. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Citation Frequency 

Cyber bullying is often discussed in the context of high school, but it is also an issue for higher education. A third of the instructors surveyed reported they had been cyberbullied. For faculty, then, it is important that a university have clear processes for reporting such student behavior.  It was also found that faculty, particularly part-time faculty, may encounter barriers in reporting student cyber bullying. These barriers may include unclear processes or processes that are not easily accessible. Universities can make improvements by auditing their bullying processes and making changes if necessary. These audits should be done periodically to ensure improvement when needed. (Minor et al., 2013)

Not the appropriate frequency—Not quite.

Audio:So, when we look at citation frequency, we can see here that there's only one citation for this whole sentence, for this whole paragraph, sorry. However, what that means is that, just that last sentence came from the research, and that everything else is the student’s own observation. And, as a reader, if I were to look through this paragraph about cyber bullying, this phrase here that says it was also found that faculty, particularly part-time faculty, may encounter barriers in reporting student cyber bullying. There is no citation at the end of this sentence which means I'm not entirely sure who found that, however, it suggests that the student who wrote this found it in their own research somewhere. But to me, it seems like for a course paper or discussion post, a student writer probably did go not out and survey part-time faculty, and that this likely needs a citation. Now the student in citing the end of this, which I want you to note we have a little typo here, this period should come after the citation. We always put the period after the citation because it helps to attach the citation to the sentence. Now back to the citation frequency, this student when they placed this citation here, they were probably thinking that it was giving credit to the entire paragraph. That just this paragraph has been informed by minor. However, in APA style, we want to see a lot more citations. We want to see citations at the end of any sentence that contains information from a source. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Citation Frequency

Cyber bullying is often discussed in the context of high school, but it is also an issue for higher education. According to Minor et al. (2013), a third of the instructors surveyed reported they had been cyberbullied. For faculty, then, it is important that a university have clear processes for reporting such student behavior. They found that faculty, particularly part-time faculty, may encounter barriers in reporting student cyber bullying. These barriers may include unclear processes or processes that are not easily accessible. Universities can make improvements by auditing their bullying processes and making changes if necessary. These audits should be done periodically to ensure improvement when needed.

Not the appropriate frequency—Not quite.

Audio:Now, just like we can't put one citation at the end of a paragraph and have it count for that entire paragraph, we can't put a citation at the beginning of a paragraph. And just let that count for the rest of it. Once again, we want to go through and make sure that each and every sentence that repeats idea from the research that those are cited. 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Citation Frequency

Cyber bullying is often discussed in the context of high school, but it is also an issue for higher education. According to Minor et al. (2013), a third of the instructors surveyed reported they had been cyberbullied. For faculty, then, it is important that a university have clear processes for reporting such student behavior. Minor et al.also found that faculty, particularly part-time faculty, may encounter barriers in reporting student cyber bullying. These barriers may include unclear processes or processes that are not easily accessible (Minor et al., 2013). Universities can make improvements by auditing their bullying processes and making changes if necessary. These audits should be done periodically to ensure improvement when needed.

Appropriate frequency—Yes!

Audio:And here's an example of what that would look like. In this particular paragraph, there are three sentences that repeat information from the source. And, so, if we look at this one sentence at a time, our very first sentence is the topic sentence. And this is the student identifying the topic of the paragraph. So, we know that cyber bullying is often discussed in the context of high school. But it's an issue for higher education. As a reader, I know that the topic of this paragraph is now going to be cyber bullying and higher education. 

Next, we have a sentence that's cited, so I know for sure that this sentence is repeating information from the research. That is then followed by the student’s own analysis for follow-up about what is important. What is a takeaway, what is the idea the student is presenting? This is the student's idea. Which is that it's important for university to have processes for reporting. And then we jump back to what the research says, and here the research says this finding that we noted about barriers and reported bullying. And we have another sentence that's cited. So, I know that we are still summarizing or paraphrasing what the original article had to say. And then here at the end, the student tells us again what’s important or interesting to them or what their take away is. 

When you look at this paragraph, and the research, which is now cited wonderfully is layered and woven in with sentences that are the student's own. However, all of us can tell immediately which of the sentences are the student's own analysis and explanation and which are just repeats of what the research had to say? The citation frequency makes that obvious to us. And it helps the student avoid plagiarism. Maybe when you're looking at this paragraph, you notice something that's a little bit different looking than some citations we have talked about before. 

That citation in the middle where it just names the author, you probably noticed that there's not a publication year after the name. And this is the student using a, I think not so well-known APA rule that says within a single paragraph, if you name an author as part of your sentence, like we have here, according to Minor, and cite them with the year, every other time you want to talk about that author within your sentence, what we call a narrative citation, or where the author's name is part of the sentence, you do not have to cite them. So here the student is taking advantage of that rule by not putting the year after the name. 

You'll notice that here, where the student is using the author's name within the parentheses, they are named again. Now, this citation rule that allows us to skip including the year, only works one paragraph at a time so, now that this paragraph is over, if the student starts a new one, they're going to have to cite Minor all over again. But that's a little rule that you can use if you find your paper looking citation-heavy, you can use this to sort of thin it out. 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Citing to Avoid Plagiarism

Chat #4: Which paragraph best avoids plagiarism?

Paragraph #1

Local businesses often benefit from close relationships with local government officials. When business owners know local officials, they can often lobby for favorable regulations (Halinen, 2017). Local business owners who meet with officials on a regular basis also reported a better working relationship with local officials. Thus, local business owners should ensure they engage with local government to reap these benefits. 

            Paragraph #2

One way that local business owners can engage with their local government is through town halls and forums. Corbin (2015) found that most local governments have periodic open forums that the public can attend. Attending these forums correlates with being better informed and engaged in local government (Corbin, 2015). Local business owners should stay up-to-date with these local forums and make attending them a priority.

Audio: All right. Now let's practice talking about citing and paraphrasing to avoid plagiarism. Here are two paragraphs. I want you to read them over. And then choose which one seems to best avoid plagiarism. Go ahead and tell us which one in the chat box, and explain why. 

[silence as students respond]

I see some responses coming in and it looks like some of you are pointing out which paragraph best avoids plagiarism and also some of you are pointing out why the one that is in more danger of plagiarizing, is in danger of that. I see a lot of responses coming in that says paragraph 2 is better at avoiding plagiarism. And I see that it's because they have a correct use of citing, that there are enough citations. And that is correct. When you look at paragraph 2, we’ll see that the student has taken the time to cite both of the sentences that are informed by research. Whereas, paragraph 1 only has a single citation. 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Citing to Avoid Plagiarism

Chat #4: Which paragraph best avoids plagiarism?

            Paragraph #1

Local businesses often benefit from close relationships with local government officials. When business owners know local officials, they can often lobby for favorable regulations (Halinen, 2017).Local business owners who meet with officials on a regular basis also reported a better working relationship with local officials (Citation). Thus, local business owners should ensure they engage with local government to reap these benefits. 

            Paragraph #2

One way that local business owners can engage with their local government is through town halls and forums. Corbin (2015)found that most local governments have periodic open forums that the public can attend. Attending these forums correlates with being better informed and engaged in local government (Corbin, 2015). Local business owners should stay up-to-date with these local forums and make attending them a priority.

Audio: Here they are bolded so it's easier to see. However, when we look at that first paragraph, we can tell there's some ideas there that come from research. And any time you find yourself in a position where you could say, well, who said that? Who discovered that? Who did that research? That’s usually a sign that you need a citation and that’s what we have in paragraph one. So you’re correct, that the second paragraph best avoids plagiarism because it has the appropriate citation frequency. 

 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Citing to Avoid Plagiarism

Chat #5: Which paraphrase best avoids plagiarism?

Original quote: “Beginning in 2009, TMMU has offered a student-centered genetic counseling training program that enables third-year medical students to apply theoretical knowledge to clinical problems. The training program, using the instructional strategy of role-playing, was accepted by most students and had significant positive effects on their mastery of key components in genetic counseling” (Xu et al., 2016, p. 8).

 

Paraphrase #1

The TMMU training program showed that role-playing is an effective strategy for teaching students how to incorporate their theoretical knowledge in a real-world clinical situation (Xu et al., 2016).

            Paraphrase #2

TMMU offered a student-centered genetic counseling training program that had significant positive effects on students’ mastery of key components in genetic counseling (Xu et al., 2016).

Audio:Now, let's do another chat. Here, we have two more student paragraphs. And I want to know, or paraphrases I guess, these are single sentences. And I want to know which paraphrase best avoids plagiarism in that gold Color Box we have the original quote. So, take a look at the original quote and look at both of those phrases. When you're done with that, tell me in the chat box which best avoids plagiarism and why. 

[silence as students respond]

Once again you guys are right on top of this one. I see that it looks like so far everybody agreed paraphrase 1 best avoids plagiarism and you are exactly correct. Paraphrase 1 best avoids plagiarism because it is 100% in student's own words, own sentence structure and it’s properly cited. Whereas, paraphrase 2, as some of you noted, you counted out the exact words. Paraphrase 2 starts off using, well, actually does it start with the quote? 

 

Visual: slide changes to the following: Citing to Avoid Plagiarism

Chat #5: Which paraphrase best avoids plagiarism?

Original quote: “Beginning in 2009, TMMU has offered a student-centered genetic counseling training program that enables third-year medical students to apply theoretical knowledge to clinical problems. The training program, using the instructional strategy of role-playing, was accepted by most students and had significant positive effects on their mastery of key components in genetic counseling” (Xu et al., 2016, p. 8).

Paraphrase #1

The TMMU training program showed that role-playing is an effective strategy for teaching students how to incorporate their theoretical knowledge in a real-world clinical situation (Xu et al., 2016).

            Paraphrase #2

TMMU offered a student-centered genetic counseling training program thathad significant positive effects on students’ mastery of key components in genetic counseling (Xu et al., 2016).

Audio:Paraphrase 2, there we go. Ends up using the same words as the original source. What it has done is it has sort of omitted the middle so that the beginning of this paraphrase is the beginning of the quote. And the end of the paragraph is the end of the quote. So just by moving the middle part, does not make this a paraphrase, we need our own words and we need our own sentence structure. And this definitely fails at that. And, really, it should be a quote. If you like the original words that much, go ahead and quote it. Nice work on this one. So, paraphrase 1 is better because it's uses the student’s own word and sentence structure. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Citing to Avoid Plagiarism Resources & Practice

Citing Quotes and Paraphrases

•      APA Citations Part 1 webinar recording

•      Basic Citation Formatting module

•      Citations webpage and videos

Proper Paraphrasing

•      Paraphrasing Source Information webinar recording

•      Paraphrasing webpage and videos

Citation Frequency

•      How and When to Include APA Citations webinar recording

•      Basic Citation Frequency  module

•      Citations webpage and videos

Audio:We have a lot of resources related to the topics we have just looked at. So, I want to share couple of these with you. If you're interested in having these links to save, in the Files Pod you will see that there is a document that has all of the slides from tonight. And in that, these links will be live. So, you can download that and have these links. 

We have a lot of sources that will help you with how to cite quotes and paraphrases, including another webinar. We have a module. We have a ton of information on our website, including individual pages along with videos. We also have a lot of resources that will help you with proper paraphrasing. If going through this you felt you need more direction and tips for how to paraphrase, we do have a webinar about paraphrasing. And we also have a page devoted to paraphrasing skills. We looked at citation frequency a little bit. And, again, if you feel like you want to dig deeper into citation frequency, we have a webinar and a module. And, of course, a webpage and videos on that. So, I know this was a quick overview. You can use these links if you need to dig a little deeper into any of the topics related to citing and paraphrasing. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Writing Strategies to Avoid Plagiarism

Write

•      Read critically

•      Take careful notes

•      Double-check and revise your writing

•      Manage your time effectively

•      Check with your instructor

Audio:Now that we have looked at how to identify plagiarism, how to cite to avoid plagiarism, we're going to look at some writing process strategies to help avoid plagiarism. And in writing process, I don't mean just how you quote or how you paraphrase. I mean how you write that entire assignment from when you get the prompt all the way until you submit it.  And some of the things we're going to talk about are how you can read, how you can take notes, how you can double check and revise, some time management skills and also the value of just checking in with your instructor with any questions that you may have. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Read Critically

Poor paraphrasing can happen when we…

•      Aren’t familiar with the formal voice in scholarly sources.

•      Don’t speak English as our first or only language. 

•      Are entering a new field or aren’t familiar with the topic.

Look up words that you’re unfamiliar with.

Take your time reading an article.

Practice your critical reading and paraphrasing skills.

Audio: So first on that list, we want to read critically. Poor paraphrasing or even quoting or citation issues, anything related to plagiarism can happen when we aren’t familiar with the formal voice and scholarly sources. Sometimes we may feel like we are not yet prepared to enter into the academic discussion related to the topics that we're reading and writing about. And sometimes it might just feel more comfortable to quote more than we should, or to use similar phrasing from our sources, because we're just getting used to that tone. And it can be tempting to lean a lot on copying the style of our sources.

And we can also have issues if English is not our first or only language that can make paraphrasing more difficult, because it's difficult to have a new sentence structure and new words if you're style getting used to writing in English. And it can be difficult to paraphrase if we're new to the field or not familiar with the topic. All of these things can result in writers using quotes a little bit too much, or maybe copying 3 words in a row and thinking they can get away without quoting it and we really want to take the time to be able to paraphrase. Because when we're able to paraphrase, it means that we are entering in as new experts in the field. And we have read critically enough to understand these topics. 

You have to understand what you're reading about in order to paraphrase it. So, if you are struggling to paraphrase a document for any of these or any other reasons, take the time to look up words that you're unfamiliar with. This does slow down the reading process. However, once you know with a something means, it's going to clear up the rest of that source. 

Also, take your time reading an article. I know it happens to all of us, where you're reading and 15 minutes later you realize you have no idea anything you have just read. So, if you are a little bit, if you're kind of like me and you have a hard time focusing on something for more than a few minutes, you want to make sure you take some time to get into the act of reading your sources, that you're going to kind of set the intention, hey, I'm reading now, I'm paying attention. If you find yourself drifting off, refocus, come back, read it again. If it's particularly dense, feel free to break it up over several sessions. Whatever it takes for you to actually absorb and understand what it is you're reading. Whatever it takes, that's what matters. 

You also want to take time to practice your critical reading and paraphrasing skills. As you're reading, there's many note-taking activities you can do that will help you engage with that source. Some people like to, as they're taking notes, also have a column of questions. And then those questions are answered, and they're able to jot those done. Some people like to take more visual note, like a mind map or a web of ideas. Some people highlight and write in margins. As long as you're doing something actively as you're reading and thinking about and engaging with that source, all of these things will help you grow as an expert in your field, but they will also help you be comfortable enough with that article or that book or webpage in order to paraphrase it. 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Take Careful Notes

Read more about note-taking and preventing plagiarism

Poor paraphrasing can happen when we…

•      Copy and paste quotes from sources without attribution

•      Paraphrasing a source without attribution

Always add citations and quotation marks to your notes.

Don’t rush when you’re taking notes.

Be sure to note the page number in your notes.

Audio: Also, throughout the writing process, when we take notes, we want to be very careful with those. Because poor paraphrasing can happen if we are copying and pasting quotes without giving credit and this may happen if you're doing some research on line and you’re like, oh that’s a great idea. And you copy and you paste it into a Word document for later use. As a week go by, you might forget where that came from. So even if you wanted to paraphrase it, you are going to struggle to find the source you got it from. Also, this happens if we're paraphrasing, if you're taking notes in your words and ideas as you go, you will still find it can be difficult to tie back to what that source originally is. So, some of the things I recommend are to always cite as you take your notes. 

If you are citing as you take notes, that citation is in place for you to write your draft. And it actually makes drafting go a lot faster. For some people, it really helps to put a lot of additional work before they start drafting. And this is one of those ways to put some additional work in before you start drafting. Everything will be cited for you already. 

 

Something else, don't rush, when you're taking notes. You want to be able to identify what's a quote, what's in your own words and whether it came from when it comes time to write the draft. I like to rush, so I know that this can be a difficult one. But if you rush when you’re taking notes, you can't rush when you're writing your draft, because you have to go back and figure out where did this come from? Is this a quote? Is this a paraphrase? So, taking careful notes where you add citations as you go is pretty effective. 

And it helps if you're going to note the page number where you found an idea in your notes, because should you choose to quote, you'll have the page number ready. Also, say when you're writing your paper and you find an idea that's interesting and you would like to go back if read more about it, you would know exactly what page to go to. So, this can help you with the writing process part as well. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Double-Check and Revise Your Writing

Poor paraphrasing can happen when we…

•      Make APA citation errors.

•      Poorly paraphrase a source.

•      Forget quotation marks or citations.

Schedule time to review and revise your writing.

Highlight and double-check all evidence.

Create a checklist to follow.

Audio: Once you have a draft, you want to take some time to draft your writing. Because we all make APA citation errors. Even here in the Writing Center, we make APA errors, probably every day. All of us. So, it helps to double check. If you have the APA manual, it's a great to have that at hand or to have our website open. And I also want to, as you double check and revise, to make sure your paraphrases are all strong. It's really easy to have a poor paraphrase. It’s also, easy to forget a citation or forget the quotation marks. So, if you write a draft and you do one quick revision, some of these things might still slip through. So that mental checklist you keep as you revise, you want to ensure these things are on there. 

And this means you may need to schedule time to review and revise your writing. If there is a particular time of day that works best for you or day of the week, you want to just have that reserved so that you have time to fully revise your work. I am also not a fan of revising. I'm sharing all of my poor habits with you here tonight. And in order for me to revise, I have to make sure I have dedicated time set aside for it. Or I just won't feel like going back to it. 

It's also helpful if you highlight or mark in some way all of your evidence. And then double check that it is properly paraphrased or quoted, that it's cited with the right source, that it appears frequently throughout your work. Double checking your evidence in the use of it is one way to make sure that you're avoiding plagiarism. 

If you need a revision checklist to follow, create that for yourself. Create that for yourself also consider making an appointment with us here in the Writing Center. In our one-to-one paper review appointments, we will give you some tips to help you get started with revision. Even though we are not here to detect plagiarism or correcting all of your citations, we will give you tips for how to do both of those things. So, this could be one part of your revision process that you might want to add to your checklist. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Manage Your Time Effectively

Poor paraphrasing can happen when we…

•      Rush through our research

•      Fail to note quotes and citations

•      Hasten our writing process

Start working on assignments early in the week.

Write a first draft before the day of the deadline.

Ensure that when you do write, you’re focused.

Audio:Along with that, it helps if you manage your time effectively. Poor paraphrasing or plagiarism can slip in if we’re rushing. If we have sloppy notes where we just haven't kept track of, of our quotations and our citations. Or if we try to shorten the writing process. So, we read two articles and just jump into a draft and post it that night in a discussion board. All of those things can lead to plagiarism. Just because we are under that time crunch, and as we speed things up, it can often lead to sloppier work. 

So, we recommend that you start working on your assignments early in the week. And the day or time this is going to vary from individual to individual. So, think about what works best for you and your life. When is the ideal time to start work on that assignment? And if you kind of create that as being the day and time that you start your work, and make that a ritual and a habit and a routine, it becomes easier to stick to. 

Write your first draft before the deadline. If you are just drafting one day before an assignment is due, it doesn't leave a lot of time to get through the revision process. Or at least not in the way that the revision process should be completed. So, try to get the draft out with enough time to revise. So, when you think about, I'm going to do some reading and note-taking, I'm going to draft, leave time to revise in there as well. 

And then when you are writing, make sure you're focused on that task. This is similar to what I said about when you're doing the reading and you zone out and you realize you haven't paid any attention. This can happen when you're writing too. If you set your intention that you're going to write for this period of time, or you're going to write for, or you’re going to come up with at least two more pages, if you set that intention, it will help you keep focused when you begin your period of writing or revising. 

When you're managing your time, I also want to note, if you choose to submit your work for a paper review with one of the writing instructors here at the Writing Center, note that your work will be returned to you the day of your scheduled appointment. Or the day after. And, so, you can use this to help you schedule when you're going to reserve time. Note that you can reserve an appointment up to two weeks in advance. And just attach your work the night before. That way, you'll have your appointment with enough time to revise. But you don't have to worry about attaching the draft until the day before the appointment. 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Check with your Instructor

Poor paraphrasing can happen when we…

•      Recycle old assignments

•      Use previous classwork to help start new assignments

Can we re-use work from previous classes?

Can I re-use work from this class?

Self Plagiarism Podcast

Audio: Something else to keep in mind that will help you avoid plagiarism is to check with your instructor. Remember that there's such a thing as self-plagiarism and if you're feeling that time crunch or you have been working in courses for a while, you probably have a lot of material that you feel you can just recycle. Or that your previous work can help with you new assignments. However, note that self-plagiarism can be an issue in many classes. So best thing to do is to ask your instructor some of these questions. Can we reuse work from previous classes? You can also ask can I reuse work from this class? 

We have a podcast all about self-plagiarism, because it is kind an interesting topic to think about. Many of you are probably thinking, well, it's my work. Why couldn't I reuse it? It's my ideas. It was my sentences. But self-plagiarism really is a thing. And because the guidelines and preferences vary from course to course and instructor to instructor, the best thing to do is ask.

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Writing Strategies to Avoid Plagiarism

Chat:

Which writing strategy do you think will be most helpful for you in avoiding plagiarism? Why?

•      Read critically

•      Take careful notes

•      Double-check and revise your writing

•      Manage your time effectively

Audio:All right. We have one final chat. Now that we have looked at some strategies related to the writing process, I want you to tell me which strategy you think will be most helpful for you to avoid plagiarism and why that will be helpful for you? 

[silence as students respond]

Thank you for taking the time here to think about which one of these strategies will be helpful for you. This task is sort of something that you can do before you start on reading or writing or revising is to stop and think, ok what strategy am, I going to use here? I have a tool box of all these writing or thinking skills. Which one am I going to employ? And it sort of gets you in the mood for that reading or writing or revising. So, thank you for participating in this chat here. I'm glad that some of these strategies will work for you. Note that if some of them don't, then you just don't use those ones. Go with what works for you. 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Additional Tools and Resources

•      Using and Integrating Quotes webinar

•      Avoiding Overt Plagiarism module and Avoiding Passive Plagiarism module

•      Grammarlyfeedbackand test Turnitindropbox

•      Identify

•      Cite

•      Write

•      Avoid Plagiarism

Audio: All right. Now is the time where I'm going to share some of our additional resources that will help you with the topics you looked attitude. First, we have a “Using and integrating quotes webinar”. In this webinar you will learn how to actually include and use quotes in your writing in an effective way of this will help both with idea development if also with avoiding plagiarism. 

We do have two modules that are about plagiarism. One of them is focused on that overt, sort of copying and pasting plagiarism and then we have one for avoiding passive plagiarism, which would be, you know, something like including a paraphrase without a citation. These modules will give you hands-on practice with these skills as you click and interact with the slides. Also note that Grammarly and Turnitin are two resources you have access to for free as Walden students. That serve as plagiarism detection tools. Both of these are computer software, so they can only do their best. However, they do work pretty well. What they do is they scan your document and compare it to published resources and internet resources to see if any of the content is the same word-for-word is what they can find. And so, using these can help you identify maybe you haven't quoted properly or you haven't paraphrased well enough. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Plagiarism Prevention Resource

Plagiarism Prevention Resource Kit

Audio: We also have the plagiarism prevention resource kit. There's a screenshot of it here that shows you what the page looks like along with an active link to get you there. This resource kit contains a lot of different tools to help you avoid plagiarism. And it also collects all of our paraphrasing, citing, using evidence, writing process, all of the things related to plagiarism are sort of collected here for you, so that you don't have to jump around the entire website in order to find them. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Questions: Ask Now or Later


writingsupport@waldenu.edu•  Live Chat Hours

Learn More:

Visit our plagiarism prevention modules to learn more and for practice preventing plagiarism!

Audio:All right. I guess with the couple of minutes that are left, I am going to stop and check in with Michael if there's any questions I should answer before we wrap-up. 

Michael: Yeah actually Melissa, it's been quiet in the chat box. I think you went over these concepts pretty thoroughly. So, thank you for that. I'd like to also say thank you to everyone for attending and being very participatory. And I'll remind you if you have questions beyond this webinar, you can go ahead and send them to this writingsupport@waldenu.edu link. There are also some chats available, depending on what time of the day it is. And as Melissa mentioned a minute ago, check out the plagiarism prevention modules, too, to help refine your skills in citation and paraphrasing. So, with that, I'm going to sign off. Again, thank you, Melissa, thanks, everyone. Have a lovely evening.