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Webinar Transcripts

How and When to Include APA Citations

Presented May 13, 2020

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Last updated June 8, 2020

 

Visual: Opening slide is titled Housekeeping

  • Recording: Will be available online within 24 hours.
  • Interact: Polls, files, and links are interactive.
  • Q&A
  • Help
    • Ask in the Q&A box.
    • Choose “Help” in the upper right-hand corner of the webinar room.

Audio: [Beth] All right. Welcome, everyone. As I said, my name is Beth Nastachowski. I'm a member of the Writing Center and one of the facilitators for today’s session. I'm going to start us off by going over a few housekeeping notes here. The first is that I have started the recording for this session and will be posting the recording in our webinar archive this afternoon. If you have to leave for any reason or you'd like to come back and review the session, you’re more than welcome to do so. As we've been doing so many webinars last week and this week, I wanted to take the chance to remind everyone that we've been recording all of the sessions. If you saw a webinar that was being presented live, you couldn't attend, note that those recordings are all available in our webinar archive and I encourage you to take a look at.

We also have lots of ways to interact with us today. It was great to see everyone responding to the question and let us know where you're calling in from in the lobby. And I know that Claire has additional chats to help you practice with the contents of the session. Please continue to do so. Notice the file spot is in the bottom right‑hand corner and that includes the files that Claire is using today so you're welcome to download the slides and save those. Links for the slides are available for further information. Click on the links and that will open up a page in your browser so you can look at that as well. I'll be answering questions along with my colleague Michael on the Q&A box on the right side of the screen. Please let us know what questions and comments you have throughout the webinar. We encourage you to submit them as soon as you have them so we can respond to them as soon as possible.

Of course, we also have our email address and live chat hours. If you have questions after the session, feel free to let us know after the session at those places. We'll make sure to display that information at the end of the webinar. And then finally, note if you have technical issues, let us know in the Q&A box and we'll provide you a couple tips and tricks we have. The help button on the right‑hand corner is a great place to go if you have significant technical issues.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the title of the webinar: How and When to Include APA Citations and includes the presenter’s name and role: Claire Helakoski, Writing Instructor, Walden University Writing Center.

Audio: [Beth] With that, Claire, I will hand it over to you.

[Claire] Thanks, Beth. Hi, everyone. I'm Claire Helakoski. I’m a writer instructor at the Walden Writing Center. Today I am presenting from Grand Rapids, Michigan where it's finally feeling warmer and like spring. Today are going to cover how and when to include APA citations.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Transition to APA 7

  • New (7th) edition of APA manual released
  • APA 7 implementation dates: May 4 (semester-based programs) & June 1 (quarter-based and Tempo programs)
  • Some doctoral capstone students may continue using APA 6 for an additional grace period—details TBA

Audio: [Claire] So, I want to note before we get started that we at Walden are transitioning or have transitioned, depending on your program, into the seventh edition of the APA Manual. It was released in the fall. But we just transitioned last week for most programs to APA 7. So, if that sounds totally new to you or you're a new student that just started, then great. You're going to work in APA 7 and start off. If you've been working in APA 6 and this sounds, you know, confusing or you're worried about it, don't worry. I'm going to highlight special changes from APA 6 to 7 in today's presentation. And a lot of the changes are pretty minimum overall and make things easier.

All right. So, with those notes, and you can reach out to your individual faculty or check with your individual course if you're not sure which edition you should be using.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Transition to APA 7

Audio: [Claire] So, we do have lots of resources for you, too, of course. You can check out our APA 7 transition page. We have a comparison chart between the two editions. We have been doing all our APA webinars this month. So, you can watch those recordings, like Beth mentioned, or just check out the ones that are coming up if you've been attending. And we will be updating our website content. We've updated a lot of it already. We also have a special email address for you right now, APA7@mail.waldenu.edu where you can go for additional questions and support.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Today’s Webinar

Audio: [Claire] In today's webinar, I'm going to use those APA 7 rules. Like I said, I'm going to indicate these large shifts with a kind of special slide in this fancy logo here with arrow in APA 7. And you can check out our APA 7 at a glance webinar, and that will kind of go over some of the key changes as well.

That was a lot of information. But we're going to launch this webinar and it'll be easier than you think it will, I suspect.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: We’ll answer these questions:

  • Why do we cite?
  • What do we cite?
  • How do we cite?
  • When do we cite?

Audio: [Claire] So today, we're going to answer these questions: Why do we cite? What do we cite? How do we cite? And when do we cite?

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Why do we use citations?

  • Chat Box: Why do you think writers use citations?

Audio: [Claire] All right. So, to get us started, I want to do a quick chat. Why do you think that writers use citations? [Pause as students are writing in the chat box.]

I'm seeing lots of great responses here. Giving credit to those original ideas from other people, which is of course, avoiding plagiarism because plagiarism is taking credit for somebody else's idea. I see a lot of mentions of that too. I saw one that says to show the research pathway, and I like that phrasing. I haven't heard it before, but it is kind of a research pathway where you're showing the reader where things came from and where they could find more. It's kind of like a little arrow in your work to help point readers in the right direction. Yeah, to help out your reader. That's a great response because oftentimes your readers will be fellow experts in the field who might want to read sources you're citing as well for their research.

Great, okay. So, the responses have trickled down, so I'm going to go ahead and move us forward.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Why do we cite?

  • Indicate when you’re using sources
  • Direct reader to the reference list
  • Maintain integrity and credibility
  • Avoid plagiarism
  • Give credit to sources you’re quoting and paraphrasing

Audio: [Claire] So, we use citations because they let the reader know when you're using sources. They direct the reader to the reference list, like some of you said that sort of research pathway so that's showing the reader here's where I found this, here’s what they wrote about, here’s where you can find more. It maintains your integrity and credibility, and you want to be sure to give credit to those original sources. And it shows that you're saying, I'm not the No. 1 authority on this topic. Other researchers have found information that support my theories and thoughts. And again, we're going to avoid plagiarism by giving credit to those outside sources.

So, you want to give credit to sources that you're both quoting and paraphrasing. So those are two terms I'll be talking about in this presentation. I'll have some examples. You need to cite sources that you're quoting and that you are paraphrasing. So, both need those citations.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Why do we cite? (cont’d)

  • A citation’s purpose is to direct your reader to its match in your reference list
  • Reference lists include publication information for a source.
  • The reader might want to:
    • Check your accuracy
    • Find more information about its topic and ideas

Audio: [Claire] All right. So why we cite continued. A citation's purpose is to direct your reader to that match in the reference list. Right? So that's kind of the directory that you're giving the reader.

Reference lists include all the publication information for the source. So, the reader can then find that original source if they want to check your accuracy or they might just be really interested in whatever ideas or statistics or findings you're paraphrasing or quoting in your work and want to learn more.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Why We Cite: Example

  • Teenage girls are more likely to do poorly in math and science courses when compared to boys of the same age. Researchers found that one reason for the increased rate of female failure in these subjects is the low self-esteem of female students. Often, female students begin courses in these subject areas with the preconceived belief that they will not to do well. However, with the help of college-aged female mentors, these high school girls can improve their confidence in math and science and successfully complete courses in these subject areas.

Audio: [Claire] All right. And here's some other reasons why we cite. Here's a little paragraph. I'll read through it really quickly. “Teenage girls are more likely to do poorly in math and science courses when compared to boys of the same age. Researchers found that one reason for the increased rate of female failure in these subjects is the low self‑esteem of female students. Often, female students begin courses in these subject areas with the preconceived belief that they will not do well. However, with the help of college aged female mentors, these high school girls can improve their confidence in math and science and successfully complete courses in these subject areas.”

So, there's a paragraph. As you'll see, there's no citations here. As a reader, I have questions.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Why We Cite: Example Explained

  • Teenage girls are more likely to do poorly in math and science courses when compared to boys of the same age. Researchers found that one reason for the increased rate of female failure in these subjects is the low self-esteem of female students. Often, female students begin courses in these subject areas with the preconceived belief that they will not to do well. However, with the help of college-aged female mentors, these high school girls can improve their confidence in math and science and successfully complete courses in these subject areas.
  • Questions about this passage:
    • Who are the “researchers” the writer refers to in her paragraph?
    • Who says girls fail more often than boys? How does the writer know this is true?
    • Is it simply the writer’s opinion that self-esteem contributes to this failure, or have actual studies proven this?
    • Has this writer done any research? If so, is she plagiarizing?

Audio: [Claire] Who are the researchers? We have a sentence about researchers found. Who are the researchers? Is this the writer's opinion about female students and self‑esteem? Or do they have research that supports it? They say that female students fail more often than male students. But how do we know? How does the writer know that that's true? Is this just their own experience? Has the writer done any research? And if so, are they plagiarizing? These are questions we might have as the reader we're wondering; how do they know this? What's some more specific information? Is this just their own opinion?

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Why We Cite: Example Revised

  • Teenage girls are more likely to do poorly in math and science courses when compared to boys of the same age (Reece, 2013; Ziger & Marks, 2010). Researchers found that one reason for the increased rate of female failure is frequently due to the low self-esteem of female students (James et al., 2008; Ziger & Marks, 2010). According to James et al. (2008), female students often begin courses in these subject areas with the preconceived belief that they will not do well. However, Kelly (2012) found that with the help of college-aged female mentors, these high school girls can improve their confidence in math and science and successfully complete courses in these subject areas.

Audio: [Claire] And you might revise to have those appropriate citations. Let me start with a generalization. Teenage girls are more likely to do poorly in math and science compared to boys of the same age. We have two sources now that help us support that. Researchers found. It's James, Ziger & Marks. So, we know which researcher the writer is talking about. According to James et al., female students begin courses. However, Kelly found. So, we're clearly identifying who said what and that we have lots of different sources to support our ideas here.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: What do we cite?

  • Paraphrase: Putting an author’s ideas into your own words and original sentence structure.
  • Direct quote: A word-for-word direct repetition of a source’s original text

Audio: [Claire] All right. What do we cite? So, like I said, we cite paraphrases. So that's the examples we have here. That's where you're not using quotation marks. You're not using exact wording from the source. Those are paraphrases: put the author's ideas in your own words and sentence structure; whereas, a direct quote is a word for word repetition of the source's original text. And that has to be followed by a page or paragraph number, an indicator of exactly where the reader can find it.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Citing Paraphrases

  • Original from Tomlinson: “Differentiation as an instructional approach promotes a balance between a student’s style and a student’s ability. Differentiated instruction provides the student with options for processing and internalizing the content and for constructing new learning in order to progress academically.” (Tomlinson, 2008, p. 12)
  • Paraphrase: Teachers use differentiated instruction to cater lessons to the way each student learns and each student’s skill (Tomlinson, 2008).

Audio: [Claire] Okay. So, citing paraphrases. And I'll have an example here. We have a nice original quote from Tomlinson. This is what we're reading. Tomlinson says “differentiation as an instructional approach promotes a balance between a student's style and student's ability. Differentiated instruction provides the student with options for processing and internalizing the content and for constructing new learning in order to progress academically.” So, Tomlinson said all of that. What we want to do is condense and kind of pair that information down into a sentence or two in our own words. Here's an example. “Teachers use differentiated instruction to cater lessons to the way each student learns and each student's skill.” So, you'll notice here that I don't use any of the exact words in the exact order as Tomlinson. Right?

That makes it an effective paraphrase. If I use the exact words in exact order that would be a quote and need to use quotation marks instead. I will say that while both types of source use are correct in APA and neither is more scholarly than the other, APA does encourage students and writers to use paraphrasing whenever possible because you're really condensing it down for readers. You're showing critical thinking and you are keeping the reader in your own voice.

So, after you paraphrase, you take that original phrasing, rephrase it in your own words. Then you need to have the author's name and the publication year. So, you always need the author name and the year. That's an easy way to remember it. So, for paraphrase you'll need both of those things.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Citing Quotations

  • Original from Tomlinson: “Differentiation as an instructional approach promotes a balance between a student’s style and a student’s ability. Differentiated instruction provides the student with options for processing and internalizing the content and for constructing new learning in order to progress academically.” (Tomlinson, 2008, p. 12)
  • First Draft Quotation: More importantly, “differentiation as an instructional approach promotes a balance between a student’s style and a student’s ability” (Tomlinson, 2008, p. 12).
  • Better Quotation: An advantage of differentiation is that it gives students “options for processing and internalizing the content” (Tomlinson, 2008, p. 12).
  • Learn more in our Quotation Webinar!

Audio: [Claire] Now a direct quotation. We have our same quotation from Tomlinson. Here's how we might potentially integrate it. More importantly, “differentiation as an instructional approach balances between a student's style and student's ability.” So that's a really long kind of meaty quote and might be hard for our readers to follow. So, instead of having quite so much language there, we might pair it down a little more and have our own analysis and sentence structure. So, it's sort of a paraphrase, quote combination where we're adding more context for our readers. An advantage of differentiation is that it gives students, quote, “options for processing and internalizing the content.” So, we're just pulling the phrasing that we really feel does the job here in expressing exactly what we want to say.

For citing a quotation, you always need that author and year just like a paraphrase. But for quotation, you also need a page or paragraph number. So, the reader needs to be able to find exactly where you read this. And that's a difference for quotes. If that sounds overwhelming, if you paraphrase, you don't have to do that. And you can consider that as an option too and a bonus for paraphrasing. We do have an entire webinar dedicated to quotations. So, if you want to learn more about how to format quotations and how to integrate them effectively, you can check that out.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Quoting a source without page numbers

  • APA 6:
    • Count the paragraph the quotation appears in and include that information in the citation like so: (Walden University, n.d., para. #).
  • APA 7:
    • Writers may count the paragraph number or include a relevant heading (full or abbreviated) or both.
    • (Walden University, n.d., Instructions, para. 7)
    • (Walden University, n.d., Instructions)
    • (Walden University, n.d., para. 7)
  • Image: APA 7 transition symbol

Audio: [Claire] So, some of you will inevitably have the question, what do I do if I have a source without page numbers? This is common for online sources. Right? So, in an online source, you might not have a page number. In APA 6, you would use a paragraph number. You would count what paragraph on the page you're on the quotation appears in and include that information prefaced by p‑a‑r‑a, period (para.). In APA 7, that's still what you do, but you can alternately use a heading on its own or a heading followed by a paragraph number or just the paragraph number. So, whatever is going to help your reader find the information most directly. It depends on your source, when you're looking at it ‑‑ maybe it's a long web page with several different headings and your paragraph that you're quoting from is way down at the bottom of the page. It would be most helpful if you tell the reader that your source is Walden University and the quote is from the instructions section, which is paragraph 7.

You could also just have the instructions section, especially if it's short, easy to find, there aren't a lot of paragraphs in the section. That would be nice and accessible for them. Or you could just count. Maybe it's a shorter page and you feel like the paragraph number is going to be sufficient. It's really up to you and it depends on the context of your source and what you think would be most helpful. So, think of yourself in the reader's shoes here. You read that quote. You want to go find it and read it yourself. What would help you navigate that online source and find the exact quotation location?

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: How do we cite?

  • Narrative: Author (year)
    • The source names are part of the meaning of your sentence.
    • Ex: Shiell (2013) stated that APA, while difficult, is important.
  • Parenthetical: (Author, year)
    • The source names are not part of the meaning of your sentence.
    • Ex: APA, while difficult, is important (Shiell, 2013).
  • Citation Basics Page

Audio: [Claire] All right. So, some of you may have noticed that there are two different types of citations. So, these are narrative and parenthetical. They both involve the author and the year. Like I said, you are going to have both of these aspects. However, in a narrative citation, the author is outside of the parentheses and just the year stays in parentheses. And in a parenthetical citation, both the author and year are in parentheses. The nice, easy thing to remember is that the year always goes in parentheses. But, when you're using them in text, it helps you vary things up and kind of choose the approach and emphasis you want in each individual sentence. For a narrative citation, the author's name is part of the meaning of the sentence. So, in this example, Shiell stated that APA, while difficult, is important. So, you can see the author name is outside a parentheses, and that means that I'm going to say it aloud when I read a sentence. That's a good way to check if you maybe accidentally used a parenthetical citation where you meant to use a narrative citation.

So, for a parenthetical citation, the source name is not part of the meaning of the sentence. The parentheses are parts of the sentence that you would not need to say out loud if you're reading the sentence out loud. So, “APA, while difficult, is important.” So, I wouldn't say Shiell at the end here. So, I can tell that that works and flows well without having the author name as part of the meaning of the sentence.

Those are your options and you use them for quotes as well. So, you have narrative, author, followed immediately by the year in parentheses, or you have parenthetical, author year always next to each other but in parentheses. And you'll notice too that when you have a narrative citation, you need some kind of leading language. So Shiell stated, researchers found, according to Shiell, those kind of leading sentences. You'll need that in there to make sure it makes sense with the flow of the sentence and directs the reader clearly.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: How to Cite: Paraphrases

  • Paraphrases: Include the author(s) and the year of publication of source paraphrased
  • Narrative: According to Jones (2012), regular consumption of carrots reduces the need for cataract surgery in adults who are 65 and older.
  • Parenthetical: Regular consumption of carrots reduces the need for cataract surgery in adults who are 65 and older (Jones, 2012).

Audio: [Claire] All right. So again, here we have some more examples. For citing a paraphrase, you want to include the author and year. According to Jones, regular consumption of carrots reduces the need for cataract surgery for adults who are 65 and older. And there's a parenthetical after it. Regular consumption of carrots reduces the need for cataract surgery in adults who are 65 and older.

In both of these, we have our author and our year. This one has our leading phrasing according to. And this one has parentheses after the parenthesis or source information.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: How to Cite: Quotations

  • Direct quotations: Include the author(s), year, and page or paragraph of the quote
  • Narrative: Malone (2012) reported that “women who exercised regularly during pregnancy have children who score…5 points higher on intelligence tests” (p. 297).
  • Parenthetical: Exercising during pregnancy is important, as “pregnant women who exercised regularly during their second and third trimesters were 45% less likely to have gestational diabetes than those who did not exercise” (Harper, 2013, para. 4).

Audio: [Claire] How to cite quotations is slightly more complicated because we have the page number we have to include, but the same sort of thing applies. You have that author and year that always, always go right next to each or other. But the page or paragraph number should always go at the end of the quote. So, in a narrative citation, that means they are separated and the quote is in between. Malone reported that “women who exercised regular during pregnancy have children who score 5 points or higher on intelligence tests” with page after. Parenthetical, exercising during pregnancy is important. And then we have our quote. And then we have author, year, and the paragraph information. So, you always need all three aspects for a quotation. You need author, year, and page or paragraph number. It just depends if they're all together or if they're separated if you these narrative or parenthetical.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: How We Cite: Practice

  • Chat: Review the excerpt. Find the quotes and identify which quote is cited parenthetically and which is cited narratively.
  • Excerpt paragraph 1: Is this type of writing plagiarism? #1.Hull and Rose (1989) claimed that this form of writing is not cheating but a legitimate attempt to interact with the text, relate it to your own experiences, derive your own meaning from it” (p. 150). This is something most writers do in unfamiliar contexts or with difficult-to-understand texts. It is, indeed, how humans learn: by mimicking or copying others whom we consider exemplary in an academic discipline or in terms of their linguistic competence.
  • Excerpt paragraph 2: One could also say that in a “cut-and-paste” style of writing a beautiful patch-work #2.(Dryden, 1999, p. 80) may indeed be valued. It seems correct to assume such patchwriting implies a serious attempt to make sense of and engage with the material, as was claimed by several Greek and UK students.

Audio: [Claire] All right. So, I gave you a lot of information. We're going to do a quick practice. Take a look at this excerpt. And what I would like you to do is we have #1 and #2 here with two different sources. Which one is parenthetical, and which one is narrative? [Pause as students respond in the chat.]

I'm seeing a little bit of debate, but ultimately, it seems the consensus is #1 is narrative and #2 is parenthetical. And that is correct. And we know because #2, the parenthetical one, is all in parentheses. The author, year, and page number are all in parentheses, whereas in the narrative #1, the author's names are part of the meaning of the sentence. Hull and Rose, the verb there is a nice indicator. And those are separate from the page and paragraph number. So great job, everybody.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: When do we cite?

  • When? In most assignments and cases, cite sentences where you include information from a source. It should always be clear to readers when you are using a source and which source you’re talking about
  • Why? Citing sources this often helps your reader. Citing also establishes your credibility as a writer.

Audio: [Claire] Now that we know how to cite, we need that author, year, page, paragraph, now when do we cite? You should cite sentences, in most assignments in cases, cite where you include any information from a source. It should always be clear to the reader when you are using a source and which source you're talking about. You should do this because it helps your reader and establishes your credibility and the numerous other reasons we already talked about and you provided in the chat box.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Citation Frequency

  • APA 6:
    • Cite each and every sentence informed by a source in all situations
  • APA 7:
    • Cite each sentence informed by a source. In some cases where you are summarizing or relaying a large amount of source information all from the same source, you may cite less frequently while using key words so that it is clear you are still referencing the same source
  • Image: APA 7 transition symbol

Audio: [Claire] So, I do want to say that there is a clarification in APA 7. In APA 6, it was a little bit more sort of direct where it said that you needed to cite each and every sentence informed by a source in all situations, whereas APA 7 clarified that you should generally cite sentences informed by a source. But in some cases, like when you're summarizing or relaying a large amount of source information that's clearly from the same source, you may not need to cite as often because you're using key words to direct the reader and clarify that you're talking about the same source. I want to note it does not mean that you should only cite at the end of the paragraph. And we have examples on our summarizing web pages to help ‑‑ kind of give a visual to go along with that.

But in most cases and in most of your course work, you should just cite sentences informed by a source. And if you're not sure, cite anyway. It's not wrong. If you happen to have an assignment that's summarizing a lot of information from the same source, you might be able to cite less while still clearly referring to your source.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: When We Cite: Example #1

  • Not Enough Citing: Environmental or behavioral factors found to be associated with CVI such as smoking, prolonged standing and sitting posture at work. Over the past 20 years, several gene variants have been identified as risk factors for venous thrombosis. Thrombophilia is an inherited blood clotting disorder caused by one or more genetic risk factors or mutation that make a person susceptible to DVT. This factor includes deficiencies in the anticoagulation factors protein C, protein S, factor V Leiden mutation, and antithrombin. Over 35% of DVT patients have at least one of these five factors. An individual with such a genetic mutation will develop a detectable blood clot each year (Hematol, 2007).
  • Questions about this passage:
    • Is this information plagiarized?
    • Are these the author’s opinions? If she is using sources, which sources?

Audio: [Claire] So, here is a when we cite example. This is an example of not enough citing. “Environmental or behavioral factors found to be associated with CVI such as smoking, prolonged standing and sitting posture at work. Over the past 20 years, several gene variants have been identified as risk factors for venous thrombosis. Thrombophilia is an inherited blood clotting caused by one or more genetic risk factors or mutation that makes a person susceptible to DVT. This factor includes deficiencies in anticoagulation factors protein C, protein S, favtor V Leiden mutation, and antithrombin. Over 35% of DVT patients have at least one of these five factors. An individual with such a genetic mutation will develop a detectable blood clot each year.” And I have just one citation. That is not enough. It is very obvious from reading this that this is a lot of source information. We're very specific. Over the past 20 years. We're talking about specific gene variants that have been identified by researchers, I'm assuming. We have definitions of terms. We have explanations of conditions. We have statistics. Those are all indications that we're dealing with sources here.

But if we don't cite throughout, the reader has no idea which of these are from Hematol. Is this all from Hematol as a source? Or are there other sources? Is any of this ‑‑ the writer providing analysis for us or not? There's a lot of questions, and that's why there's not enough citing here. We're wondering, is this plagiarized? Is it just their opinion?

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: When We Cite: Example #2

  • Not Enough Analysis: Environmental or behavioral factors found to be associated with CVI such as smoking, prolonged standing and sitting posture at work (Eberhardt & Raffetto, 2005). Over the past 20 years, several gene variants have been identified as risk factors for venous thrombosis (Hematol, 2007). Thrombophilia is an inherited blood clotting disorder caused by one or more genetic risk factors or mutation that make a person susceptible to DVT (Hematol, 2007). This factor includes deficiencies in the anticoagulation factors protein C, protein S, factor V Leiden mutation, and antithrombin (Huether & McCance, 2012). Over 35% of DVT patients have at least one of these five factors. Hematol (2007) found that an individual with such a genetic mutation will develop a detectable blood clot each year (Hematol, 2007).
  • Questions about this passage:
    • Where are the author’s original ideas, analysis, and critical thinking?
    • Why is a source cited twice in a sentence?

Audio: [Claire] In this example, there's not enough analysis. So, this is actually the exact same paragraph I showed you. But we have appropriate citing, which is great. We're citing, showing all these different authors that it's not just Hematol. It's actually five different sources or four different authors we're dealing with here. So, citing throughout is great. It's important. It's going to let us know that the writer found this information elsewhere. However, it's so much source information that as a reader, I don't know quite what to make of it. You want to have balance in your paragraphs and show how to bring all this information together, how it supports your thesis, what the takeaways are for the reader.

Because as a reader, you might be wondering where are the author's original ideas and analysis? Why is a source cited twice in a sentence? That's a little confusing.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: When We Cite: Example #3

  • Appropriate Citing: There are many factors which influence CVI. These include smoking, prolonged standing and sitting posture at work (Eberhardt & Raffetto, 2005). Gene variants may impact CVI as well. Thrombophilia is an inherited blood clotting disorder caused by one or more genetic risk factors or mutation that make a person susceptible to DVT (Hematol, 2007). Over 35% of DVT patients have at least one of these five factors (Huether & McCance, 2012). Additionally, Hematol (2007) found that an individual with such a genetic mutation will develop a detectable blood clot each year. Healthcare professionals need to consider environmental and behavioral factors as well as gene variants when working with this patient population.
  • Note about this passage:
    • I can see the author is using and citing sources, but I can also see the author’s critical thinking and analysis.

Audio: [Claire] So instead, we have our appropriate citing example. So here, we still got our source information but we've condensed it a bit. There are many factors which influence CVI. These including smoking, prolonged standing and sitting posture at work. Gene variants may impact CVI as well. That's a nice transition sentence that's not cited because we're going to support it with a source right here. Thrombophilia is an inherited blood clotting disorder. Over 35 percent of DVT patients have at least one of these five factors. Then we have another connector. Additionally, Hematol found that an individual with such a genetic mutation will develop a detectable blood clot each year. And now I’ve got some more analysis. Health care professionals need to consider environmental and behavioral factors as well as gene variants when working with this patient population. So, here's sort of the point, right, the takeaway for readers. There are many factors; we're going to identify. This is why this is important. This is what the takeaway should be. And then we had some connecting phrasing and sentences that show how these ideas build on each other. So that's appropriate citing and analysis in our third example there. We can see that the author is citing but also see their own critical thinking.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Questions?

Audio: [Claire] All right. I just threw a lot of information at you guys. And we did some examples. So, do you have any questions?

[Beth] Hi Claire.

[Claire] Hi.

[Beth] I have two questions that we’ve heard a few versions of. One goes back to what you mentioned earlier in the session. You had mentioned briefly common knowledge and a couple students were asking how they would identify college knowledge? I was wondering if you can define common knowledge and any tips for students on how to define common knowledge.

[Claire] Good question. So, for those of you who haven't heard the terminology before, common knowledge is something you don't need to cite because your reader is going to know that. You don't have to support it. The earth is round, the earth is a planet in the solar system. Those kinds of things are common knowledge. You don't need to go find a source because most people know that.

Where it gets tricky, right, is that common knowledge will differ depending on your discipline. Whereas for me as an outside reader, I definitely know that I wouldn't need to cite that the heart is a muscle; a nurse might feel like they don't need to cite the four names of the chambers in the heart or something like that. So, it gets a little tricky which means that you should really talk to your faculty about what can be considered common knowledge in your own field or for that assignment or that class. That way, you know kind of where you should expect your reader's knowledge to be and what information and terms you really need to define versus which ones you can kind of just clarify on your own.

[Beth] Wonderful. Thank you so much, Claire. That's really helpful. We also had a couple of questions from students that when they're paraphrasing, they don't want to lose the original meaning of the original source. I wondered if you can talk a little bit about strategies or tips for students in helping them feel more comfortable in paraphrasing and losing that original meaning.

[Claire] Definitely. And I think having that thought is a really good thing. It means that you care about the original source. It means you care about the integrity of that source and that you really don't want to plagiarize or misrepresent that source. That's great, good things to be thinking about. We do have a webinar solely dedicated to paraphrasing that I definitely recommend that you check out because there's lots of exercises that I think help kind of alleviate that feeling. But also, I feel like if that's how you're feeling, then you may not fully understand the original source in its context, in which case you should maybe take some more time with it. Take a break, come back, and reread it. And then you can always compare. So just because you write a paraphrase doesn't mean that you have to just stick with that paraphrase and you can't ever look back at the original source. Try to look away from the source. Then try your paraphrase, then look back at the original source and say, okay, oops, I misrepresented this information or I really feel like that detail that I left out is really important in this context. So, kind of taking the time to go back and forth can really help with that, too, I think.

[Beth] Wonderful. Thank you so much, Claire. I think that's it for now.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Process for Ensuring Citations

  • Double check that:
    • Each sentence using outside information from a source gives credit to that source.
    • Sources are not cited twice in one sentence.
    • There is a balance of citing and analysis
  • Summary Citation Page

Audio: [Claire] Okay. I will continue then. Thanks, folks.

All right. So now we'll talk about ensuring that we have correct citations and we have them everywhere we need them. So, you want to double check that each sentence using outside information gives credit to that source. So. even if you're talking about the same thing you talked about in the last sentence, you know, you still need to cite and give credit to that because you're going to be dealing with lots of different sources and the reader needs to know which one you're referencing. Make sure that your sources aren't cited twice in one sentence. You know, it's redundant. It's not necessary. It happens by accident. It's just good to proofread and take out. And make sure there's a balance of citing and analysis like I showed you with that third example a couple slides ago where you're contextualizing, clarifying, directing the reader in your own words as well.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Citation Quick Tips: Formatting

  • Parenthetical citation: Use “&”
    • Writing centers are great (Gaga & Bieber, 2010).
  • Narrative citation: Write out “and”
    • Gaga and Bieber (2010) stated writing centers are great.
  • List authors in alphabetical order
    • (Lennon & McCartney, 1964; Rodgers & Hart, 1946)

Audio: [Claire] All right. So, here's a few formatting tips. So, in a parenthetical citation, within parentheses, you can use ampersand for and. So, when you have two authors, you'll go Gaga and Bieber with an ampersand in between. That's also what you'll do in your references list. So, if you’re using a narrative citation that’s more of the body of your work, that’s more formal. in your references and within parentheses, ampersand is what you should use. However, in part of the narrative citation, it's more formal. So, you should spell out a‑n‑d, and. Gaga and Bieber stated Writing Centers are great. If you have more than one source in a citation, which I showed you earlier, but more than one source that supports an idea which can happen, then those should be listed in alphabetical order. So, the first author, Lennon & McCartney; Rodgers & Hart.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Et al.

  • APA 6:
    • In-text citations for authors with 3, 4, or 5 authors should be cited listing all authors the first time, then use first author and et al. in subsequent citations. Only sources with six or more authors should include et al. each time.
  • APA 7:
    • In-text citations for sources with more than two authors should be cited using the first author and et al.
    • Example: Helakoski, Barnes, and Townsend (2017) would be Helakoski et al. throughout the entire work.
  • Image: APA 7 transition symbol.

Audio: [Claire] So, I wanted to note that in APA 6 for in‑text citations for authors with 3, 4, or 5 authors, you had to list all of those authors the first time and then abbreviate et al after that. But in APA 7, in‑text citations for sources with more than two authors should be cited using the first author and et al. So, if you have more than two authors, you'll use et al throughout the whole work. Which is great. It really simplifies things. So, you ‑‑ if you had this source with three authors, Helakoski, Barnes, and Townsend, it would be Helakoski et al. the first time and every single time throughout the whole work.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Citation Quick Tips: Publication Year

  • There are many factors which influence CVI. These include smoking, prolonged standing and sitting posture at work (Eberhardt & Raffetto, 2005). Gene variants may impact CVI as well. According to Hematol (2007) thrombophilia is an inherited blood clotting disorder caused by one or more genetic risk factors or mutation that make a person susceptible to DVT. Over 35% of DVT patients have at least one of these five factors (Huether & McCance, 2012). Additionally, Hematol found that an individual with such a genetic mutation will develop a detectable blood clot each year. Healthcare professionals need to consider environmental and behavioral factors as well as gene variants when working with this patient population.

Audio: [Claire] There is a little short cut that I wanted to tell you guys about. I know I said earlier that you always need a publication year with your author, which generally speaking is true. However, if you want to employ this short cut, you can. So, if you have already mentioned an author's name followed by the publication year in a narrative citation ‑‑ not a parenthetical citation ‑‑ and you mention the author narratively again later, you don't have to include the year again because it'll be clear to the reader which year and author you mean. And if that sounds confusing or difficult to keep track of, you don't have to. But you can do that as sort of a simplification if you're using one source throughout a lot in the same paragraph. And then each new paragraph, that rule kind of starts over. So, it's better for situations where, you know, you're writing maybe your capstone or your master’s thesis, things where you have a lot of information and are dealing with a lot of sources over and over again. In course work, it's probably a lot less common and unnecessary.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Practice Paragraphs

  • Chat Box: Find the citation formatting and frequency errors.

Audio: [Claire] We're going to do some practice paragraphs where you find the citation formatting and frequency errors.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Practice Paragraph 1: Where Are the Errors?

  • Small business managers must be aware of how local regulations affect their business. Looky & Wallace (2014) argued that more intrusive local regulations can cause a small business to fail. However, local regulations can also help a small business if they provide favorable tax incentives or an environment that encourages the business (Welch and Zagorski, 2013). Either way, a clear understanding of local regulations will help small business managers know how those regulations affect business practices and adjust accordingly.

Audio: [Claire] So, here's practice paragraph 1. What errors do you see? I will give you a moment to read through it on your own and then let me know what errors you're seeing here.

Seeing some great responses here. I did want to clarify about et al. There's no need for et al because we only have two authors. We have two authors, Looky and Wallace, so there's no need for et al. If there were three, we would take out the third author and include just the first author with et al.  

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Practice Paragraph 1: Answer

  • Small business managers must be aware of how local regulations affect their business. Looky & Wallace (2014) argued that more intrusive local regulations can cause a small business to fail. However, local regulations can also help a small business if they provide favorable tax incentives or an environment that encourages the business (Welch and Zagorski, 2013). Either way, a clear understanding of local regulations will help small business managers know how those regulations affect business practices and adjust accordingly.

Audio: [Claire] It seems like everyone has come to a great conclusion that Looky and Wallace as an ampersand but should be spelled out a‑n‑d because it's a narrative citation, which is part of the meaning of the sentence. Welch and Zagorski should have an ampersand because it’s within parentheses. So, great job everybody. If I missed you or you're still filling it out, don't worry. We still have two more of these practices to go.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Practice Paragraph 2: Where Are the Errors?

  • In my classroom I have incorporated differentiated instruction, as suggested by Thompson. However, my approach has been more closely aligned with Santamaria’s approach of culturally-responsive differentiated instruction. Santamaria’s (2009) approach emphasizes a student’s cultural background and how that background influences a student’s learning (2009). Because many of my students come from immigrant families, this culturally-responsive approach will be particularly useful for me.

Audio: [Claire] So, we'll move to paragraph No. 2. So where are the errors here? Go ahead and give it a read. What errors do you see?

I'm going to give everybody another 20 seconds or so to fill in your response and then we'll go over it together.

You can keep typing if you're still typing but I'm going to highlight the errors.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Practice Paragraph 2: Answer

  • In my classroom I have incorporated differentiated instruction, as suggested by Thompson (2009). However, my approach has been more closely aligned with Santamaria’s approach of culturally-responsive differentiated instruction. Santamaria’s (2009) approach emphasizes a student’s cultural background and how that background influences a student’s learning (2009). Because many of my students come from immigrant families, this culturally-responsive approach will be particularly useful for me.

Audio: [Claire] A lot of you noticed that Thompson was missing a citation here in the first sentence. So great job there. Another issue is that we have a double citation in this Santamaria sentence here. We already had Santamaria narratively followed by the year, so the year shunt be at the end of the sentence all alone. I'm also noticing as I read through that we should probably cite Santamaria the first time we mentioned them and I missed that. I missed that while proofreading this slide deck, so apologies. We should talk ‑‑ cite them here as well. And I think somebody mentioned that if we cite with the year, then we don't need a year at all in this sentence, which is correct. That's how you use the short cut rule. Great job, everybody.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Practice Paragraph 3: Where Are the Errors?

  • Differentiated instruction is an important component of how a teacher approaches her students. My application of differentiated instruction approaches, particularly culturally-responsive differentiated instruction, will help me better teach my students in the future. However, I realized that my professional journey to best teach my students is not over; I will continue to use research-based practices to continually evaluate and improve my teaching.

Audio: [Claire] So we have a third example for you guys to go through. Take a look at this paragraph. Where are the errors?

I'm seeing a lot of great responses here. A lot of your comments are that there are no citations. And I just want to clarify that not having any citations isn't an error in and of itself. Right? We need to evaluate what this person is saying and see if it seems like they're using source informed information. For example, I realize that my professional journey to best teach my students is not over; that obviously doesn't need to be cited. That's the student’s personal experience and therefore definitely is not using a source or outside information. So especially for, you know, you might have personal reflection assignments, especially if you just started your term or you're taking your first classes. A lot of those are introductory discussion posts and you may not have any or very many citations, depending on that assignment. So just to clarify, no citation is not an error in and of itself.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Practice Paragraph 3: Answer

  • Differentiated instruction is an important component of how a teacher approaches her students. My application of differentiated instruction approaches, particularly culturally-responsive differentiated instruction (Thompson, 2009), will help me better teach my students in the future. However, I realized that my professional journey to best teach my students is not over; I will continue to use research-based practices to continually evaluate and improve my teaching.

Audio: [Claire] However, as many of you have noticed, the second sentence does need a citation because we're defining a term. So, my application of differentiated instruction approaches, particularly culturally-responsive differentiated instruction, that's something that Thompson founded and is informed by Thompson's research, will help me better teach my students in the future. So, we integrated that source information here, and we're showing that we're giving credit to Thompson. This is their idea, their theory. But the writer is going to use it in this way.

So, you can have a citation in a kind of I statement or personally reflective essay if you’re defining terms are clarifying approaches that are used by somebody else. It just needs to be clear to the reader what the difference is between what you're going to do is what a source said.

Great. I'm just checking all the responses here. I did see a question about not using citations in the middle of the sentence and a faculty preferring citations formatted differently. That sounds like a personal preference of theirs. APA ‑‑ according to APA, at least, there's nothing wrong with that as long as it's, again, clear what's from a source and what is, your own analysis or contextualization of that information.

[Beth] Hey, Claire?

That citation would not go at the end of the sentence because it's an I statement. Thompson didn't write about how they would help this writer. Sorry, Beth.

[Beth] Nope, actually you just addressed the question that we're seeing in the Q&A box that we were seeing about why the citation wouldn't work in this case at the end of the sentence.

[Claire] Right, and I see that a lot in these sort of personal reflective where a student will put it at the end because that's where we often put citations. However, that would imply that Thompson said that ‑‑ Thompson wrote culturally-responsive differentiated instruction will help Claire be a better teacher in the future. And Thompson didn't say that. The student says I'm going to use Thompson's work to better teach my students. And if they wanted to even be clearer, they can use a narrative citation like that instead. I'm going to apply Thompson's method of culturally-responsive and differentiated instruction to better teach my students. So that would be another potential clarification as well. Good question.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Questions: Ask Now or Later

Audio: [Claire] So, I think that's it for our practices. And it's actually the end of the presentation. So, I want to see if there are any additional questions from the Q&A box that would be good to cover.

[Beth] Thanks so much, Claire. Everyone, please continue to submit the questions in the Q&A box; Michael and I will continue to watch those as Claire answers questions out loud. We had a couple students asking about over citation, which I know you addressed a little bit. But could you go over again if it's possible to overcite and talk about when that might happen, what that might look like and how to avoid over citation?

[Claire] So I personally don't love the term over citation because to me, it implies that there's a way to, like, give too much credit to sources, and I don't know what a better term would be. But over citation generally means that you have too many sources in your paragraph and not enough analysis and balance or that you are doing double citations in a sentence.

So that's how you generally see faculty and that's how the APA manual refers to over citation when you just ‑‑ not having enough balance, and it's just citation after citation after citation in an assignment that isn't summarizing a single source; obviously in an annotative bibliography or something, you're going to have lots of summarizing sentences. But that's why in an annotative bibliography, you don't have to cite throughout because you have the reference at the top.

So, if you feel like you're over citing or you're getting you're over citing as a comment, then rather than think, oh, I need to cite less or give less credit, think, I need to add more analysis. I need to do more for my readers in terms of balancing out my paragraphs and showing why this is important, how it matters in the context of my individual paper. Right? Because readers aren't there just to get a summary of a source you read, in most cases. They can go and read it themselves. They're there for you to put that information together for them to make a new meaning and application.

[Beth] Thank you so much, Claire. That's really helpful. A student was also ‑‑ we heard a couple times asking about what level of using the original source phrasing is considered a quotation. And specifically, I think students were kind of worried, like, if I'm using statistics from an original source, does that equal a quotation? Can you talk a little about statistics specifically and how to integrate those into your writing that still allows you to paraphrase? Did that question make sense?

[Beth] Yeah. If you have a lot of statistics, that's a good time to potentially use a quotation. Right? Because there's really no creative way to rephrase a lot of statistics. There might be some. If this is a 50 percent of online students graduate with straight A's, then you can say half of students instead, so there are some opportunities to rephrase statistics. But if they're complicated statistics, then that might be a good opportunity to use a direct quotation instead. So, it really depends on how you're using that information. So, you really want to think about that. How do you want the reader to interpret that information?

I also think that maybe there's a tendency to want to sort of replicate the exact statistics from the source exactly as they appear and to include all of them. And you probably don't need to. Right? You're kind of filtering that information down for the reader, so you want to focus on why am I bringing in statistics at all? What do I want to prove? What point does this support? And that will help you pick out the most relevant bits to either quote if needed or to paraphrase in the context.

[Beth] Wonderful. Thank you, Claire. Let's see. Another question we had was about some of the paragraphs where students were analyzing the citation. And we saw some questions about why the first sentence, the topic sentence of those paragraphs, didn't have citations. And could you talk about what topic sentences are and why they usually don't have citations.

[Claire] That's a great question. Some of them seem like they might be informed by a source. So, I get that. But something that's unique about topic sentences are they're letting your reader know the focus of that paragraph. They're a promise to your reader that I'm going to support this with evidence. So, as long as you’re not defining a term or being incredibly specific, you don’t need to cite to tell the reader “I’m going to talk about differentiated instruction and why it’s beneficial,” because that's what you're going to talk about and you're going to have sources to back it up. Generally, topic sentences don’t have citations or direct source material because you're letting the reader know the focus of your paragraph. Starting with outside source says this source says it better than I can tells your reader, well, I should just read that source because you're not offering me anything new in your paper. And you are. So, it's really about thinking about why am I presenting this evidence? How can I contextualize it for the reader who has not read it yet? Why is it important? What does it prove? How does it support my thesis?

[Beth] Awesome. Thank you, Claire. Let's see. We also had a question that might run us off ‑‑ it's pretty broad. We will see how much you want to dive into it. But the student was asking, do you have any advice in general on how to write more critically? And I think it might relate to your point about balancing that analysis and evidence. So, if there's anything more you want to add to that or go deeper in, I think students would love to hear more from you on that.

[Claire] That's a really good question. So, we do have a critical thinking webinar, because I'm going to plug every webinar we have. So, we do have a critical thinking webinar that goes over some of that. But I also really recommend taking notes as you're reading, and we have a blog post on it somewhere that I wrote. It's called ‑‑ something about notetaking ‑‑

[Beth] I can try to find it if you’d like me to.

[Claire] And avoiding plagiarism. Sorry. Maybe you can find it, Beth. The title is a little bit weird for the topic. But it's basically about how taking notes really helps make sure that you have those critical thoughts. And it makes sure that you cite correctly throughout because if you're taking notes as you're reading, you can note this is what this person said and you can also expand on here's what I think about that. You know, I think that this sounds a lot like what Barnes said in that thing I read last week, or I really don't think that their study was conclusive enough or just your own thoughts, your responses to what you're reading will help you build that critical thinking. And a lot of it is also asking yourself, you know, as you're writing, asking yourself, well, why did I put these two sources together? Why did I pull this source you know, for this paragraph and asking yourself those questions. Because you already know; you wouldn't have pulled that source to that paragraph if you didn't feel it made an important point or related to your thesis. So, you've done the mental work. It's a matter of pulling it out of your head and putting on the page for the reader.

[Beth] Thank you, Claire. That's so helpful. I really appreciate it. And I know the students do too. We're headed to the top of the hour here. Do you have any last thoughts to wrap us up before I go over some of our recommendations for students here?

[Claire] You know, just make sure that you're really working to give credit to those sources. It takes practice and awareness and you've done a great job by being at this webinar today. Also, if you're super worried about APA 7, we're here for you and we're learning it, too. So, you know, make an appointment, send us a question.

[Beth] Wonderful. Thank you so much, Claire. I'm seeing lots of thank you's in the Q&A box. I know students have really appreciated the presentation. Just a reminder as Claire said, we do welcome you to reach out. We're all in this transition together and here to help you navigate all of these different rules and citations and paraphrasing and using sources. Be sure to email us or visit our live chat hours if you have questions after the session. As well as make a paper review appointment. As Claire said, those paper review appointments are an opportunity to get writing feedback from our writer instructors, of which Claire and Michael are two wonderful examples of. So, paraphrasing, and using evidence, all the different things we talked about today plus more. We encourage you if you haven't thought about to use the paper appointment and make one with us soon. I'm going to close us out for the evening. Thank you again, everyone. We loved having you here. And happy writing, all.