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Webinar Transcripts

How and When to Include APA Citations

Presented January 28, 2021

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Last updated 3/3/2021

 

Visual: The webinar begins with a PowerPoint title slide in the large central panel with the Webinar title and “Writing Center”. A captioning pod, Q&A pod, and files pod are stacked on the right side.  

Audio: Anne: Hello everyone, and welcome to “How and When to Include APA Citations,” a webinar from the Walden University Writing Center. We’re so excited that you could join us today. I’m Anne Shiell, Resource Manager of Student and Faculty Webinars at the Writing Center. I’m here with Michael and Max, whom I’ll introduce in a moment. We’re really excited, as I said, to talk with you about citations, and thanks for joining us, whether you are here with us live or watching the recording. And, if you are multitasking, as I saw some of you chatting about, that’s excellent, too. We’re so glad that you could listen in while you’re getting some work or other things done, and you can always check out the recording later if you want to dig into something a little more, too.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Housekeeping

 

Visual: The slide changes to the following: “Housekeeping”

  • Recording  
  • Will be available online a day or two from now.  
  • Interact  
  • Polls, files, and links are interactive.  
  • Q&A  
  • Help  
  • Choose “Help” in the upper right hand corner of the webinar room.  

Audio: Anne: So a few administrative things before we begin. You’ll see two small pods or boxes at the right corner of the webinar room: One is called Links and one is called Files. We are recording this webinar, as I mentioned, and you’ll be able to access it later through our webinar archive. We actually record all of our webinars at the Writing Center, so you’re welcome to look through that archive for other webinars that may interest you as well. And a transcript will be available in that archive soon.

The slides are available to download from the Files pod. You can download them now if you’re here live or later if you’re watching the recording. There’s also a certificate of attendance there for download.

The polls, the files, and the links are all interactive whether you are watching live or whether you are watching a recording. There are also active links within the PDF file that I mentioned. There is a Q&A box that you can use if you have any technical trouble or need any help or have any questions throughout the webinar. If you have technical trouble another great place to look is the help button at the top right of your webinar room. That will take you to some Adobe tutorials that will be helpful for you.   

 

Visual: Slide changes to: Presenters and Facilitators

  • Presenter, Michael Dusek, Writing Instructor, Walden University Writing Center
  • Facilitator, Max Philbrook, Writing Instructor, Walden University Writing Center
  • Facilitator: Anne Shiell, Resource Manager of Student and Faculty Webinars, Walden University Writing Center

Audio: Anne: As I noted, my name is Anne Shiell and our presenter today is Michael Dusek, who is a writing instructor. Also, with us today is Max Philbrook, helping me facilitate and answer questions. You may have worked with Michael or Max in our Writing Center through our paper review service. If you haven’t, I encourage you to do so as they both give excellent writing feedback. And now I am going to hand things over to Michael.

Audio: Michael: Hello everyone welcome to today's how do we use citations. Thank you, Anne, for the introduction, and thank you Max for facilitating.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Today’s Topics

  • Why do we cite?
  • What do we cite?
  • How do we cite?
  • When do we cite?
  • Citation nuances

Audio: To take a look at our agenda and some topics we will cover, such as why do we use citation, what is this for? What does this get us as academic writers? We’re going to look at what do we cite? What kind of information or source use techniques require a citation? How is this going to look? How do we cite? The mechanics of crafting a correctly formatted citation in APA. And we’re going to look at when do we cite? When is it appropriate? We’re going to take a look at instances where citations are omitted or thinking about why we need to have citations in some instances. We’re also going to look at some examples when citation is overused and when analysis needs to be added. Then we’ll talk about some citation nuances. Again, some mechanical things that would be good to keep in mind when you are crafting citations in academic writing. 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Chat # 1

Why do you think writers use citations?

Audio: First let’s think about the question, “why do you think writer’s use citations”?  Post your ideas in the chat box. Why do you think writers use citations? Why do we do this as academic writers? Right now I am going to pause as you think about and post on this question in the chat box.

[The webinar layout changes to open a chat box for students to type into in response to the chat question.]

[Pause as students type.]

I am seeing some awesome responses good responses here in the chat box. I saw the notion of avoiding plagiarisms is mentioned, giving credit to authors of the sources you are drawing from, for readers to further reference. You are definition on track here and know that basis of why we cite.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the section transition slide following: Why Do We Cite?

Audio: In the Writing Center we think of why we cite in a few different ways, and I’m going to list those.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Why Do We Cite? Six Reasons to Cite

  • Indicate when you’re using source information.
  • Show what information is from which source.
  • Maintain integrity and credibility.
  • Direct readers to the reference list.
  • Give credit to sources used (quoting and paraphrasing).
  • Avoid plagiarism.

Audio: So one a citation indicates when you're using source material. This is a theme you will see running through this presentation, making it clear to the reader when you are using someone else's idea, and when you are using your own thoughts and providing your own analysis.  Number two, citation provides readers with information on exactly who we are citing, which not only ensures authors are appropriately attributed to points, but this is also helpful if a reader wants to lay hands on the source. Number three citations maintain integrity and credibility. I saw this a lot in the chat box earlier. Giving credit to the sources used build your credibility as an author. You are saying I'm using this information in the current context. Using their idea accurately. To the reader they say I can trust this person, they are being transparent about the research process. In terms of integrity, a culture integrity because you're not trying to present other people's ideas as your own. You are being honest about where you are getting information from. Next, to direct readers to the reference list. It directs the reader to the publication information which also helps give credit to the sources used when you are quoting and paraphrasing. Number six avoid plagiarism to avoid integrity issues.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Why Do We Cite? (continued)

  • Citations and the reference list work together.
  • A citation directs your reader to its match in your reference list.
  • The reader might want to:
  • Find more information about its topic and ideas.
  • Check your accuracy.

Audio: To speak to this corresponding aspect I mentioned previously citations and references work together. For every citation you include in a draft there needs to be a corresponding reference which gives the reader the complete publication information from that source. Correspondingly, every reference entry you included at the end needs to have a citation in the body of the paper. These are corresponding elements. Citations in the paper are shorthand for the publication information which you can find in the reference entry.  Citations direct the reader to the matching reference entry. The reader might want to access this information so they can find more information and check your accuracy, making sure that you are representing that source accurately. So, the purpose of this slide is to emphasize that citations and references are corresponding elements, and both are a way to show the reader exactly where your information is coming from.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Why We Cite: Example

A reader’s perspective:

Mentors can help girls succeed academically in math and science. Teenage girls are more likely to do poorly in math and science courses when compared to boys of the same age. Researchers found that one reason for the increased rate of female failure in these subjects is the low self-esteem of female students. Often, female students begin courses in these subject areas with the preconceived belief that they will not do well. However, with the help of college age female mentors, these high school girls can improve their confidence in math and science and successfully complete courses in these subject areas.

Audio: Why do we cite, then? Here’s an example of where some claims in the paragraph would need to be cited to support the claims.

For instance, let’s look at the topic sentence, “Mentors can help girls succeed academically in math and science.” What follows is a series of claims about the difference between girls and boys as they study math and science.

Let me read the second sentence here: “Teenage girls are more likely to do poorly in math and science courses when compared to boys of the same age.” As a reader, this is kind of a jarring claim. When I come across something like this and there is no citation, I have questions, such as how do you know this is true? Is this just your opinion? Are you stating your own opinion about the situation? The claim is problematic to begin with. Without a citation here, it implies that this is the author’s own opinion, and they are biased here. This is the impression the reader gets when they come across a claim that doesn’t have a citation.

Let’s look at the third sentence. “Researchers found that one reason for the increased rate of female failure in these subjects is the low self-esteem of female students.” As a reader, the word researchers makes me wonder, what researchers? We want to show readers that we have studied a topic and can cite other researchers who have studied the topic. This brings up the point why we include citations as they show we researched and are using the ideas of others have studied this topic rather than presenting opinions we have. The reader may ask has the author research? Are the ideas their own? Is this plagiarized?

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following:  Why We Cite: Example Revised 

Mentors can help girls succeed academically in math and science. Teenage girls are more likely to do poorly in math and science courses when compared to boys of the same age (Reece, 2013; Ziger & Marks, 2010). Researchers found that one reason for the increased rate of female failure is frequently due to the low self-esteem of female students (James et al., 2008; Ziger & Marks, 2010). According to James et al. (2008), female students often begin courses in these subject areas with the preconceived belief that they will not do well. However, Kelly (2012) found that with the help of college-aged female mentors, these high school girls can improve their confidence in math and science and successfully complete courses in these subject areas.

Audio: Working at a revised example of this, there are citations added here. It shows the reader these claims are being drawn from scholars who have studied these ideas. The example sentence “teenagers girls are more likely to do poorly in math and science courses than compared to boys of the same age.” We have a parenthetical citation right after it.  This shows the reader that this idea from the sentence that is being paraphrased is attributable to these publications, Reece, 2013 and Ziger and Marks, 2010. Scholars who have worked and studied this idea using peer review methods and can best come to the conclusion based on this research. They are not just stating an opinion or a bias. Research they have done points to this notion.

In our second sentence example here, “Researchers found that one reason for the increased rate of female failure is frequently due to the low self-esteem of female students,” this point is followed by a citation so, again we have a citation that supports this idea. There are researchers who studied this--James et al., 2008 and Ziger and Marks, 2010.

The point of this overall example is for you to think about what not including citations tells the reader. What impression would they get? The reader may question whether the information is valid. This is just your thoughts on the topic?

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: What Do We Cite?

Audio: So, when the reader doesn’t see citation to support points, they may wonder if the information is valid. Is this something you studied or are these your thoughts on the topic. Now let’s look at what we cite.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: What Do We Cite?

Paraphrases: Putting an author’s ideas into your own words and original sentence structure.

Direct quotes: Word-for-word direct repetition of a source’s original text.

Audio: Basically, citations are included whenever you are working with source material. Citations are used when paraphrasing or directly quoting something. When paraphrasing, you are putting the author’s point into your own words and sentence structure. You are taking an idea from a source and putting it in your own words, so the paraphrase needs to be cited. When you are quoting, you are providing a word for word repetition of a source’s original text. You need to give credit to the authors who you are drawing from in both instances. I'm sure everyone is familiar when you are taking someone's language, taking a direct quote from a scholar, you need to give credit to that scholar through citation which includes providing quote marks to indicate when something is a direct quote and providing the page number where the quote was found.  It also applies equally well in instances you are using an author's idea, paraphrasing an author's idea in your own words. Keep that in mind. Basically, whenever you are drawing from an outside source you need to use a citation.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Citing Paraphrases

Include the author(s) and the publication year of the source.

Original text from Tomlinson, 2008, p. 12:

Differentiation as an instructional approach promotes a balance between a student’s style and a student’s ability. Differentiated instruction provides the student with options for processing and internalizing the content and for constructing new learning in order to progress academically.

Paraphrase:

Teachers use differentiated instruction to cater lessons to the way each student learns and each student’s skill (Tomlinson, 2008).

Audio: Let’s take a look at an example of citing a paraphrase. See the original passage on the left which is found on page 12 of Tomlinson, 2008. On the right there is a simple paraphrase of the original point from Tomlinson. Keep in mind the paraphrase example is in our own words. Your paraphrase may look different given you say things different than I do. The idea should still be there, the idea should be represented accurately.

Let’s take a close look at this. The original is “Differentiation as an instructional approach promotes a balance between a student’s style and a student’s ability. Differentiated instruction provides the student with options for processing and internalizing the content and for constructing new learning in order to progress academically.” So this is the original passage—this is Tomlinson’s direct language.

To paraphrase we will put it in our own words and change the structure of the sentence. We need to change the wording and sentence structure for it to be an effective paraphrase. We also need to include a paraphrase to give credit to the author. Here is how this could look: “Teachers use differentiated instruction to cater lessons to the way each student learns and each student’s skill (Tomlinson, 2008).”

Note that we also need to include citation to give credit to Tomlinson. At the end we have our citation. One thing worth noting is that you don't see a page number included. When you are paraphrasing you don't need to include a page number within the citation. You can if you want to point the reader to a specific place of the source but it is not required.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Citing Quotations.

Include the author(s), the year of publication of the source, and the page number.

Original text from Tomlinson, 2008, p. 12.

Differentiation as an instructional approach promotes a balance between a student’s style and a student’s ability. Differentiated instruction provides the student with options for processing and internalizing the content and for constructing new learning in order to progress academically.

Quotation: An advantage of differentiation is that it gives students “options for processing and internalizing the content” (Tomlinson, 2008, p. 12).

Another example quotation: According to Tomlinson (2008), differentiation gives students “options for processing and internalizing the content” (p. 12)

Audio: In APA style. A quotation looks different. Again we have the original passage from Tomlinson on the left. As you see the quotation example we will draw from that original text and integrate it in our own writing. We have the citation at the end.

Here’s an example of how it might look: “‘An advantage of differentiation is that it gives students ‘options for processing and internalizing the content’ (Tomlinson, 2008, p. 12).”

A couple things to note, the quotation marks tell the reader exactly what language is being drawn from the Tomlinson. What comes before the quotation marks is your own language which is integrated into the quote. What is in the quotation marks is the specific language being drawn from the Tomlinson source. The goal of citation is to make clear what is being drawn from Tomlinson and what is not. To take a look at the sample citation at the end, we are telling the reader the author we are drawing from, the year of publication of the piece we are drawing from. And when using a direct quote we need to include the page number.

Another example how this could look something like this: “According to Tomlinson (2008), differentiation gives students ‘options for processing and internalizing the content’ (p. 12)”

Instead of using a parenthetical citation as we did in the first example, you can also work the name of the author in the text of the sentence. In this case we are using a narrative citation. As with our previous example, what is inside the quotation marks is going to be the direct language we are pulling from the source. Given this is a narrative citation using Tomlinson's name in the text of the sentence it will be formatted a little different where the page number is at the end of the quote.  So, year of publication comes after the author's name and our page number comes after the quoted material. This this is the difference between a narrative and parenthetical citations.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: How Do We Cite?

Audio: How do we cite, then? Let’s look at some more of the mechanics of citation.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: How Do We Cite? Two Types.

Narrative: Author (year) The source names are part of the meaning of your sentence.

Example: Shiell (2013) stated that APA, while difficult, is important.

Parenthetical: (Author, year) The source names are not part of the meaning of your sentence.

Example: APA, while difficult, is important (Shiell, 2013).

Audio: In APA's style we have two types of citation, narrative and parenthetical citations. These are simply different but they get the same information across to the reader. Narrative citation looks like this, have the authors name as part of the sentence, as part of the text in the sentence. Then you will include year of publication immediately after the author's name.

An example looks like this: “Shiell (2013) stated that APA, while difficult, is important.”

In this case, the year of publication is included immediately after the author. You can see the author's name is part of the sentence. Without the author's name in there the sentence would not make sense. It wouldn't be a complete thought. The source doesn’t go into a parenthetical citation for that reason. You need the author's name therefore the author for the sentence to make sense. You would still include the year of publication. This is a narrative citation. Giving the reader the authors name and year of publication only it's different because you use the author's name in the sentence.

A parentheticals citation does the same thing only you are not using the authors name in the sentence. So that should be inside of the parenthetical citation. That can look like this: “APA, while difficult, is important (Shiell, 2013).” We have our citation here at the end, Shiell, 2013.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Quoting Sources Without Page Numbers

  • Writers may count the paragraph number or include a relevant heading (full or abbreviated) or both.
  • (Walden University, n.d., Instructions, para. 7).
  • (Walden University, n.d., Instructions).
  • (Walden University, n.d., para. 7).

Audio: As I noted previously, when quoting we need to include page numbers. A growing number of sources in the internet age don't have page numbers. When you are quoting from a source it will look differently. There are some specific rules here.

For instance, “Writers may count the paragraph number or include a relevant heading (full or abbreviated) or both.”

So essentially if you don’t have a page number, use a paragraph number. You can use a relevant heading for the section of the piece where the passage you are quoting is in. Or you can do both.

Using both would look like this: “Walden University, n.d.”—n.d. meaning there’s no date there—citing the passage in the Instructions section in paragraph 7.

If you would like to use just the section heading, it would look like our second example here: “Walden University, n.d., Instructions.”

Again, we are point the reader to this section of this specific source.

Also appropriate is to just have the paragraph number: “Walden University, n.d., para. 7.”

Any of these three are perfectly fine. One thing worth mentioning here is the page number is favored in APA style. If a page number is available, that’s what you would use. Only in situations where there is no page number you go to paragraph number or a relevant heading. If there is a page number use that, if not, use some of these other things.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Citing Paraphrases: Practice

Original source: Jones, 2012.

Narrative citation: According to [CITATION], regular consumption of carrots reduces the need for cataract surgery in adults who are 65 and older.

[The webinar layout changes to open a chat box for students to type into in response to the chat question.]

Audio: Let's try this out. Let's do a little practice. What I have on the screen right now is a sample of a paraphrase we would have done, we are putting in our writing: “According to [CITATION], regular consumption of carrots reduces the need for cataract surgery in adults who are 65 and older.”

What I would like you to do is use the information in blue—the blank citation information— on the slide to craft a narrative citation for this. What you have done that you could put your answer in the chat box and we will come through this in a minute. Using this source I would like you to craft a narrative citation that would put – fit in this same paraphrase that we have on this slide. I will give you a couple minutes to do this.

[The webinar layout changes to open a chat box for students to type into in response to the chat question.]

[Pause as students type.]

Okay, I am seeing some awesome answers in the chat box. A lot of you are on the right track. Everyone in the chat box has the author's last name and year of publication. Maybe take another 30 seconds or so if you haven't already put your answer in the chat box but would like to participate, do so in next 30 seconds. Then we will look at what it should look like.

Thank you guys for participating for those who chose to. If you didn't feel comfortable that is fine also. This is meant to be an exposure to this. As you work more with academic writing this will be second nature to you. Thank you for participating those who chose to.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Citing Paraphrases: Practice

Original source: Jones, 2012.

Narrative citation: According to [CITATION], regular consumption of carrots reduces the need for cataract surgery in adults who are 65 and older.

Answer: Jones (2012)

Audio: This is how it would look. Jones will be outside of the parentheses and we will have the year publication in the parentheses. We still need to give credit to this 2012 source so we conclude the year of publication immediately after the author's name.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Citing Paraphrases: Practice

Original source: Jones, 2012.

Narrative citation: According to [CITATION], regular consumption of carrots reduces the need for cataract surgery in adults who are 65 and older.

Parenthetical citation: Regular consumption of carrots reduces the need for cataract surgery in adults who are 65 and older [CITATION].

Audio: Let's try again, now I would like you to craft a parenthetical citation. Another paraphrase here. That comes from the same source. Instead of a narrative citation, I would like you to craft a parenthetical citation. Let me give you a couple minutes to do this and place your response in the chat and then we will look at how it should look as well.

[The webinar layout changes to open a chat box for students to type into in response to the chat question.]

[Pause as students type.]

Okay, you guys are doing awesome here. I see some great responses in the chat. I will give those of you still working on it another minute. Then we will check and see what this parenthetical citation looks like.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Citing Paraphrase: Practice

Original source: Jones, 2012.

Narrative citation: According to [CITATION], regular consumption of carrots reduces the need for cataract surgery in adults who are 65 and older.

Parenthetical citation: Regular consumption of carrots reduces the need for cataract surgery in adults who are 65 and older [CITATION].

Answer: (Jones, 2012).

Audio: Okay, thank you for those of you who chose to participate. This is what this parenthetical citation should look like. In the parentheses we have the author and year of publication. Note that a comma separates the author and year of publication. As you go on in your program and become more adept with using sources in your academic writing you will become comfortable with how it should look.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Citing Quotations: Practice

Quote this passage from Malone, 2012, p. 297:

Women who exercised regularly during pregnancy have children who score…5 points higher on intelligence tests.

Audio: Now let's move from paraphrasing to using quotations within our writing. In our example we have the original passage from Malone 2012 found on page 297 which goes like this:

“Women who exercised regularly during pregnancy have children who score…5 points higher on intelligence tests.”

Below this we have an example of what this would look like in a narrative citation that includes a direct quote:

“Malone (2012) reported that ‘women who exercised regularly during pregnancy have children who score…5 points higher on intelligence tests’ (p. 297).”

Note that we have the source as part of the sentence—a narrative citation, and a quote with quote marks indicating the wording directly from the source, then a pate number at the end.

Instead of using a narrative citation for quoting this point from the source, let’s use a parenthetical citation. So, take a minute and take this original source and craft a parenthetical citation for this quoted passage. I’ll give you a couple minutes to do this in the chat.

Ok, I’m seeing some awesome answers in the chat box here. Let’s take a few more moments to post your response.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Citing Quotations: Practice

Quote this passage from Malone, 2012, p. 297:

Women who exercised regularly during pregnancy have children who score…5 points higher on intelligence tests.

Narrative citation: Malone (2012) reported that “women who exercised regularly during pregnancy have children who score…5 points higher on intelligence tests” (p. 297).

Parenthetical citation: Regular exercise during pregnancy can result in “children who score…5 points higher on intelligence tests” (Malone, 2012, p. 297).

Audio: Here is what this parenthetical citation could look like. We have our original quoted material, and we are working that in a sentence, which is “regular exercise during pregnancy can result in.” Then we integrate the quoted material here, “‘children who score…5 points higher on intelligence tests’ (Malone, 2012, p. 297).”

Within the parentheses we have the author, date of publication, and page number where the quote was found. We also have quote marks around the material that is directly from the source. Note the spacing within the parenthetical citation to separate the author, date of publication, and page number.

Be cognizant of the format when crafting these citations. I think students get hung up on some small spacing or punctuation things and APA style. Make sure you bring your attention to detail and use commas and spaces when needed. Thank you for going along with the practice.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: When Do We Cite?

Audio: Let's take a look at when we use citations.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: When Do We Cite?

  • Generally, cite each sentence informed by a source.
  • In some cases where you are summarizing or relaying a large amount of source information all from the same source, you may cite less frequently while using key words so that it is clear you are still referencing the same source.
  • It should always be clear to readers when you are using a source, and which source you’re using.

Audio: Here are some general rules, how we think about this in the writing center. Generally cite each sentence informed by a source. When using – when summarizing a larger passage in APA style the rules change. And some cases when summarizing or relating a large amount of information from the same source you may deserve APA less frequently while using keywords so that it is clear you are still referencing the same source. Keywords when summarizing a whole piece all drawing from the same source some citation frequency within APA style come into play. As I mentioned previously, you want to make it clear to readers what information comes from a source and what source it comes from.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: When Do We Cite?

Citation frequency is a balancing act between:

• Ensuring that readers can always identify what ideas are yours and what ideas are from outside sources

• Avoiding the repetition and distraction of the same citation when the source and idea have not changed

Audio: You should cite the first sentence of the summary and use key words to make it clear to the reader what follows is a continuation of that summary. It is about making it clear when you are using source material and when you are using your own ideas and specifically what source are drawing from. It is a balancing act. You don't want to be overly citing when using four or five sentences you don't want to use a citation on every sentence. But, it needs to be clear where the information is coming from and when you are drawing from the information and when you are not. Need to make sure to identify when you are using your ideas. You want to avoid the repetition of the same citation when the source and idea have not changed. It's a balancing act.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: When We Cite: Example

Not enough citing:

Environmental or behavioral factors found to be associated with CVI such as smoking, prolonged standing and sitting posture at work. Over the past 20 years, several gene variants have been identified as risk factors for venous thrombosis. Thrombophilia is an inherited blood clotting disorder caused by one or more genetic risk factors or mutation that make a person susceptible to DVT. This factor includes deficiencies in the anticoagulation factors protein C, protein S, factor V Leiden mutation, and antithrombin. Over 35% of DVT patients have at least one of these five factors. An individual with such a genetic mutation will develop a detectable blood clot each year (Hematol, 2007).

Audio: This is an instance when there is not enough citation. I'm not going to read all of this paragraph, but this large paragraph provides in each sentence statistical information. At the end it has a parenthetical citation. This is something we encounter in the writing center currently. To the reader it is not obvious everything is coming from the source. Encountering this as a reader I see a bunch of information that I think is coming from the writer, where only the last sentence is a paraphrase from the source. This brings up confusion. Are those the writer’s opinions? Does the writer use sources? Which sources? Is this information plagiarized? Don't just include a citation at the end of a paragraph and assume the reader knows what is coming from the source and what does not, you need to make that clear to the reader.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: When We Cite: Example

Not enough analysis:

Environmental or behavioral factors found to be associated with CVI such as smoking, prolonged standing and sitting posture at work (Eberhardt & Raffetto, 2005). Over the past 20 years, several gene variants have been identified as risk factors for venous thrombosis (Hematol, 2007). Thrombophilia is an inherited blood clotting disorder caused by one or more genetic risk factors or mutation that make a person susceptible to DVT (Hematol, 2007). This factor includes deficiencies in the anticoagulation factors protein C, protein S, factor V Leiden mutation, and antithrombin (Huether & McCance, 2012). Over 35% of DVT patients have at least one of these five factors. An individual with such a genetic mutation will develop a detectable blood clot each year (Hematol, 2007).

Audio: The other side of this is overusing source material and not using enough of your own thoughts, such as this paragraph which has a number of sentences with statistical information and every sentence has a citation. They are drawing the whole paragraph from one source or another. This is inappropriate because there is nothing of the writer’s own analysis in there, no interpretation of the source or elaboration of the ideas that the author is drawing from. It is not enough to present ideas from other sources, sources should be used to support the argument you are putting forth.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: When We Cite: Example

Appropriate citing:

There are many factors which influence CVI. These factors include smoking, prolonged standing and sitting posture at work (Eberhardt & Raffetto, 2005). Gene variants may impact CVI as well. Thrombophilia is an inherited blood clotting disorder caused by one or more genetic risk factors or mutation that make a person susceptible to DVT (Hematol, 2007). Over 35% of DVT patients have at least one of these five factors (Huether & McCance, 2012). Additionally, Hematol (2007) found that an individual with such a genetic mutation will develop a detectable blood clot each year. Healthcare professionals need to consider environmental and behavioral factors as well as gene variants when working with this patient population.

Audio: A better way of doing that is to add some analysis in between the sources to bring them together to make a point and support an argument you are making.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Basic Citations Checklist

Double check:

  • I have cited my sources.
  • Readers will be able to distinguish my source information from my analysis.
  • I have not cited the same source twice in one sentence.

Audio: A basic citation checklist, things to double check before you move on. Have I cited my sources? Make sure the reader is able to distinguish what information is coming from your source and what is your own analysis or synthesis.  That should be clear to the reader.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Citation Nuances

Audio: Ask yourself, had I cited the same source price in one sentence? That is inappropriate you only one what one citation from one source. These are not applicable in every situation. These nuances will only come up in certain situations.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Where We Cite: Placement

  • Citations often go at the beginning or end of the sentence, but not always.
    • They can appear within the middle of a sentence if you are combining analysis and source information in a sentence, or if you are combining information from multiple sources in a sentence.
  • Where the citation appears in the sentence tells your readers what ideas/information comes from that source.
  • Readers will use your citations to understand which source(s) the information is from, and what information is your own analysis.

Audio: First, dictation placement. As with the examples we had, citation is often going to come at the beginning or end of the sentence. Although this is common, this isn't always the case. Citations can appear in the middle of a sentence if you are combining analysis and source information in a sentence. Or if you are combining information from multiple sources in a sentence. You want to make it clear what information is coming from what source. You want to make it clear what information is coming from the outside source and what information is their own analysis. The idea here is that it should be clear to the reader when you are using outside information and when you are not.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Where We Cite: Placement Example:

For students who are spread across different geographies and time zones and who may have responsibilities outside of school, asynchronous modes of instruction might ensure they are able to get their schoolwork done (Thompson, 2019; Wells, 2017). Students are increasingly deciding to enroll in online courses (Wallis, 2020), so it’s more important than ever for schools to evaluate their online instruction.

Audio: Here is an example. We have a longer sentence at the beginning that summarizes the ideas in both sources and at the end we have the citations there. In the second sentence we have “Students are increasingly deciding to enroll in online courses (Wallis, 2020)” in the middle of the sentence. This is an instance when part of the sentence is drawn from one source and second part of the sentence is the author's own analysis. In this case it is proper to include the citation immediately after the source material you are using which puts it in the middle of the sentence. This is not something you need to use often but it's something I want you to be aware of.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Including the Year

  • The year is always included in parenthetical citations.
  • The year is included in the first narrative citation for a source in a paragraph. Subsequent narrative citations for that same source in that same paragraph do not include the year.
  • This rule starts over with each new paragraph.

Audio: Including the year of publication. There are rules about when you need to include the year of publication. When using a parenthetical citation, you always use the year of publication. That is straightforward.  The other kind of citation, narrative citation, has different rules about when to include the year of publication. When using a narrative citation for a specific source you include the year of publication in the first narrative citation within that paragraph. Subsequent narrative citations for the same source within that paragraph do not include the year of publication.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Example of Including the Year

There are many factors which influence CVI. These include smoking, prolonged standing and sitting posture at work (Eberhardt & Raffetto, 2005). Gene variants may impact CVI as well. According to Hematol (2007), thrombophilia is an inherited blood clotting disorder caused by one or more genetic risk factors or mutation that make a person susceptible to DVT. Over 35% of DVT patients have at least one of these five factors (Huether & McCance, 2012). Hematol also found that an individual with such a genetic mutation will develop a detectable blood clot each year. Healthcare professionals need to consider environmental and behavioral factors as well as gene variants when working with this patient population.

Additionally, Hematol (2007) noted…

Audio: The rule for using the date of publication starts over in a new paragraph. Here is an example of what this looks like. Here we have a source. We are using a narrative citation. The first time use this narrative citation for this specific source we include the year of publication. Later on when we use the same source again in the same paragraph we don’t include the year of publication.  In the next paragraph, everything starts over for this source and we need to include the year of publication the first time we cite the source in the new paragraph. This is something you will get used to. This isn't something you will encounter a great deal but it is good to be aware of.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: “And” vs. “&.” 

Use the ampersand (&) symbol with parenthetical citations, and write out “and” with narrative citations.

Parenthetical: (Shiell & Prince, 2020) 

Narrative: According to Shiell and Prince (2020), …

Audio: Using the word “and” versus the ampersand. In a parenthetical citation, the ampersand is used, whereas the word “and” is spelled out in a narrative citation. Here is an example: “Shiell ampersand (&) Prince, 2020” is in parenthesis—it is a parenthetical citation. When the authors are cited narratively—when they are part of the grammatical structure of the sentence—the word “and” is spelled out as shown in this example, “According to Shiell and Prince, 2020.” Since “and” is part of the sentence you would write out the word.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: “Et al.”

“et al.” = Latin; means “and others” •

  • Used when there are three or more authors.
  • First author’s name + et al. in every citation.

Example: Helakoski, Barnes, and Townsend (2017) would be Helakoski et al. throughout the entire work for both parenthetical and narrative citations:

  • (Helakoski et al., 2017)
  • Helakoski et al. (2017) found…

Audio: Lastly, using et al. Et al is a Latin phrase meaning and others. When you have three or more others you need to use et al to refer to them. It is a shorthand to say that this is the primary author but there are other authors.

Here is an example of how this could look: “Helakoski, Barnes, and Townsend.” Instead of using these three names you would use Helakoski et al. You can see that there is both a parenthetical and narrative citation here as examples.

This is something you will encounter multiple times. Articles and publications sometimes have many authors. When there are three authors or more you need to use et al. for each citation.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Page or Paragraph Numbers

  • Required with direct quotations.
  • Not required with paraphrases.
  • Appears after the quotation:
  • According to Shiell (2020), “learning APA takes a lot of practice” (p. 25).
  • APA is not easy, and “learning APA takes a lot of practice” (Shiell, 2020, p.

 25).

  • Use “para.” (paragraph) when a source does not have page numbers (like a webpage)

Audio: Page or paragraph numbers is something I mentioned earlier. They are required with direct quotations. They are not required with paraphrase that is something we look at before.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Citing More Than One Source at Once

  • List authors in alphabetical order by the first author’s name

Example: (Lennon & McCartney, 1964; Rodgers & Hart, 1946)

Audio: In some cases you might cite more than one source at a time, a situation where sources agree with each other as the two sources looked at the same idea and came to the same conclusion. In this case, the sources would be alphabetized based on the author's last name – first author's last name listed for each of the sources. For instance, here we have Lennon and McCartney cited first since “L” comes before the “R” of Rodgers and Hart. A semi-colon is used to separate the sources.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Practice: What is the Citation Error?

Differentiated instruction is an important component of how I will approach my students. Application of differentiated instruction approaches, particularly culturally-responsive differentiated instruction, improves student outcomes. Using these methods will help me better teach my students in the future. However, my professional journey to best teach my students is not over; I will continue to use research-based practices to continually evaluate and improve my teaching.

Audio: Let's do a couple of quick practices. Take a look at this passage and I would like you to point out the citation error here by typing your response in the chat box.  What do you see that is wrong in the passage in terms of citation?

[The webinar layout changes to open a chat box for students to type into in response to the chat question.]

[Pause as students type.]

You guys are on top of this. There is no citations here. It's unclear to the reader what information is being drawn from outside source and what is not. What is implied here is this entire passage is the writer’s ideas which is not the case.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Practice: Answer

Citation needed for the source information.

Differentiated instruction is an important component of how I will approach my students. Application of differentiated instruction approaches, particularly culturally responsive differentiated instruction, improves student outcomes (Thompson, 2009). Using these methods will help me better teach my students in the future. However, my professional journey to best teach my students is not over; I will continue to use research-based practices to continually evaluate and improve my teaching.

Audio: Here’s what this would look like: “Differentiated instruction is an important component of how I will approach my students. Application of differentiated instruction approaches, particularly culturally-responsive differentiated instruction, improves student outcomes.”

This is a claim that needs to be cited as it comes from a source. Making it clear to the reader you are drawing from this Thompson source.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Practice: What Are the Citation Errors?

In my classroom I have incorporated differentiated instruction, as suggested by Thompson. However, my approach has been more closely aligned with Santamaria’s approach of culturally-responsive differentiated instruction. Santamaria’s (2009) approach emphasized a student’s cultural background and how that background influences a student’s learning (2009). Because many of my students come from immigrant families, this culturally-responsive approach will be particularly useful for me.

Audio: Taking a look at this one, I'd again like to know what citation errors you see within this passage. Take a few minutes to post in the chat.

[The webinar layout changes to open a chat box for students to type into in response to the chat question.]

[Pause as students type.]

Audio: Okay I am seeing great responses. Let's take a look at the answer.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Practice: Answer

Citation needed for the source information; multiple citations for same source in one sentence.

In my classroom I have incorporated differentiated instruction, as suggested by Thompson (2009). However, my approach has been more closely aligned with Santamaria’s approach of culturally-responsive differentiated instruction. Santamaria’s (2009) approach emphasized a student’s cultural background and how that background influences a student’s learning (2009). Because many of my students come from immigrant families, this culturally-responsive approach will be particularly useful for me.

Audio: As many of you quickly noted there are years of publication that are missing here and some that are extra. In our first example sentence here we need to include a year of publication. In the third sentence we have a narrative citation so we don’t need to extra date at the end of the sentence.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Recommended Resources.

Citations Overview (webpage).

Basic Citation Formatting (interactive module).

Basic Citation Frequency (interactive module).

APA How-To: Citing a Single Source Throughout a Paragraph (blog post).

Should I Use a Narrative or Parenthetical Citation? (blog post).

Audio: To wrap up, here are some recommended resources to follow up with the information I just showed you. For those of you who want to dive in more here are some places to start. We have a citations overview webpage which walks through a lot of the information in this webinar. This is available for you anytime. Bookmarking this would be a good idea if you find you are struggling with citations. We also have a couple of modules. I would recommend giving those a try. We have some blog posts—"APA How-To: Citing a Single Source Throughout a Paragraph” and another blog post, “Should I Use a Narrative or Parenthetical Citation?”

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Questions

Ask now in the chat box or email us at writingsupport@waldenu.edu.

Audio: I think we are at time here, a couple of minutes left. Are there any questions you want me to cover here?

Audio:  Anne: Let's wrap up. We had so many good questions in the chat box and Q & A box and I believe we got them all answered. If any of you have questions that come up later feel free to email us at writingsupport@waldenu.edu. I just dropped a link to the email address in the chat box. I thank everyone for participating with us. When I close out the room you will get a pop up to a survey to share feedback anonymously. We would really appreciate that. We want to incorporate your suggestions and feedback. Thank you for taking a few minutes to take that. If you are watching the recording the survey is also available for you in the links pod in the room. There will also be a transcript as well. Thank you to Michael and Max and Beth, our captioner. Thank you everyone, see you at our next webinar.