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Webinar Transcripts

How and When to Include APA Citations

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Presented November 6, 2018

Last updated 12/19/2018

 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Housekeeping 

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Audio: Hi everyone and welcome my name is Melissa Sharpe and I am a writing instructor here in the Walden writing center. Before we begin and I hand the session over to Michael I want to go over just a few housekeeping items. First, we are recording this webinar so you’re welcome to access it at a later date through the webinar archive. Note that we record all of our webinars so you’rewelcome to look through that archive for other recordings that might interest you. Also, if you are attending this webinar live or watching the recording you will find we have interactive elements like chat and activities and files including the PowerPoint slides from today which are located in the files pod. You can interact with all of those things throughout the webinar. 

We also welcome questions and comments throughout the session. You can use the Q&A box for these. I will be watching the Q&A box and I’m happy and excited to answer your questions throughout the session as Michael is presenting. You are also welcome to send any technical issues you have to us here as well although note there is a help option in the upper right corner of your screen. That is Adobe’s Technical Support and that’s the best place to go if you need technical help. Alright, with that I will hand it over to Michael.

 

Visual: The webinar begins with a PowerPoint title slide in the large central panel. The title of the webinar, “How and When to Include APA Citations” and the speakers name and information: Michael Dusek, Writing Instructor, Walden University Writing Center.

Audio: Michael: Hello everyone welcome. Thank you, Melissa, for that sterling introduction. My name is MichaelD usek,I am also a writing center instructor here in the Walden writing Center. You can see my picture there on this slide looking very pensive. I am sure I am thinking about something very APA related. But yeah, this session is about how and when to use APA citation. We are going to walk through some of the elements of APA citation, absolutely. 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Answer these questions:

  • Why do we cite?
  • What do we cite?
  • How do we cite?
  • When do we cite?

Audio: Specifically, in this session we're going to look at why we cite, why do we include a citation in our writing. What does that do for us as writers and as scholars. We are going to look at what do we cite, what kind of information, what kind of source usage is appropriate to cite. We are going to look at how we cite, some of the mechanics of citation some of the X’s and O’s for those of you who are football fans, and lastly, we will look at when we cite, how often do we need to cite within your writing? When is it appropriate?How often do you need to include a citation for it to be appropriate in APA.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following:Why do we use citations?

Chat Box:

Why do you think writers use citations?

Audio: To kind of kick off this webinar we have a chat here. Go ahead and put your answer in this chat box in the middle of this screen. But the question I’m looking for you to answer here, is why do you think writers use citation? What’sthe point? What do we get out of this? Why use citation? Why cite? I'm going to give you guys a couple minutes here, I’m going to go on silent for you to type in your answer and we will reconvene as a group and I will talk through some of what I see there. Again,what you think, why do you think writers use citations? Why do we cite?

[Silence as students respond]

Alright, I’mseeing some great answers here in the chat box. I'm going to wait a little bit longer since I see that a number of people are still typing. Go ahead, throw your two cents in and we we’lltalk through it and maybe 30-45 seconds here.

[Silence as students respond]

Again,thanks for participating and putting your response in the chat box. We have a very participatory group this evening which is nice. Probably the most popular answer that I’m seeing in the chat box is to give credit where credit is due, to give credit for work, to give credit to the original author. I think this is a pretty good inroad to think about why we use citation, definitely. On the next slide among to talk to a number of reasons including this but to elaborate on this giving credit in the academic community the idea is that you have, the work that you publish is really like currency. These publications are going to be what gives you a professorship, a promotion perhaps within your department. It’s going to give you higher standing within your field. It’s going to make you perhaps more likely to get grant money to further your studies. It’s pretty important that we give credit to the person who came up with these things. I know you guys are working on perhaps a lot of different things perhaps even a bigger project like a capstone thesis or dissertation. And it is a ton of work. You are doing a lot of research and bring it all together in one area. You want to get credit for that work, right? It would be a real bummer if you didn’t get credit for that. So correspondingly we want to give credit to the authors whose work that we’re drawing from in our research. So yeah,I think that is a pretty good first step into talking about why do we cite.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Why do we cite?

Indicate when you’re using sources

Direct the reader to the reference list

Maintain integrity and credibility

Avoid plagiarism

Give credit to sources you’re quoting and paraphrasing

Audio: Another reason is to indicate when you are using sources. When we think about source usage within academic writing sources are really used to support. This is evidence for a point that you’re making. You show the reader that you’re using source material to show that, hey, this is something that other people have studied and this is their findings. That way you are supporting the points you are making.

We also cite to direct the reader to the reference list and I want to drive this home right away. Citation and referencing or your reference list, these are really corresponding elements of source usage in academic writing. The citations can be thought of as a shorthand to direct the reader to the full publication information of a source within the reference list. So, for every citation that you include in your writing there should be a reference entry again containing the complete publication information for that source. Correspondingly as I said these are corresponding elements, for every reference entry that you included there should be at least one citation where you’re working with that sourcing your writing. So again, these are corresponding elements. For every citation there should be a reference entry at the end of your document.

Maintain integrity and credibility. This is a big one. I would add the word authority to this. This is really about audience. Right? When the reader is reading through your piece and they see you are using a variety of different sources from academic, peer-reviewed scholarly sources to support your points, they see that you have authority in this field. They are more apt to believe what you are talking about. They see you’ve supported your points and that you’re backing up what you’re saying. It’s not just your opinion so really you are preserving your credibility as an author and you’re preserving your integrity as a scholar.

This is another big one. The last one on this slide that I saw this many times in the chat, to avoid plagiarism.Plagiarism is kind of a dirty word in research and an academic scholarship. On a mechanical level, where the rubber meets the road type level, yes,a citation helps you avoid plagiarism. Sure. 

And as you all mentioned bringing this all together give credit to sources you are quoting and paraphrasing. This is why we cite. We are giving credit to these people whose ideas we are using to support our own ideas. This is really, really important that you do this. Again,you want to be given credit for the work you do, so you want to give credit to the work you are drawn from. Absolutely.

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Why do we cite?

  • A citation’s purpose is to direct your reader to its match in your reference list
  • Reference lists include publication information for a source.
  • The reader might want to: 
    • Check your accuracy
    • Find more information about its topic and ideas

Audio:To elaborate a little bit more on this, a citation’s purpose is to direct your reader to its match in your reference list. Yeah, I mentioned this before, these corresponding elements. This has to do also with authority. If a reader encounters a citation and they go to your reference list and there you include the complete publication information for that source, what you are essentially doing, you are having a transparent research process. You are signaling to the reader that this is where this source came from. This is where I got it. If you would like to read this source to make sure that I am representing this author's ideas fairly and in their proper context, that I am being accurate with how I am using the source, by all means go ahead and do that. You are inviting your reader to do that in a subtle way when you use citations and references effectively. And this builds your authority. You are essentially saying I have nothing to hide and that is what academic writing is all about. We want to be objective, we want to be transparent. We are not trying to use any smoke and mirrors, in academic writing. We want to be direct, we want to show exactly where our research has gone. This is how these elements really contribute to something like credibility or authority a different way as well.

Reference lists include publication information for a source. Yes, I mentioned that. The reader might want to as I mentioned before check your accuracy. Are you are representing this author's ideas fairly, in their proper context? And also,they might want to find more information about the topic or the ideas that you are working with and this provides them with a jumping off point to do so. Again, you are in a subtle way inviting the reader to verify that what you are saying is credible and has authority there. In doing so you preserve your own credibility and authority as a writer.

 

Visual: Side changes to the following: Why do we cite?

Teenage girls are more likely to do poorly in math and science courses when compared to boys of the same age. Researchers found that one reason for the increased rate of female failure in these subjects is the low self-esteem of female students. Often, female students begin courses in these subject areas with the preconceived belief that they will not to do well. However, with the help of college-aged female mentors, these high school girls can improve their confidence in math and science and successfully complete courses in these subject areas.

Audio: Why do we cite. Let's take a look at this paragraph here. I'm just going to read through it but let's notice how this works and why this paragraph might need citation. It begins teenage girls are more likely to do poorly in math and science courses when compared to boys of the same age. Researchers found that one reason for the increased rate of female failure in these subjects is the low self-esteem of female students. Often female students begin courses in these subject areas with the preconceived belief that they will not do well. However, with the help of college aged female mentors these high school girls can improve their confidence in math and science and successfully complete courses in these subject areas. 

As I am reading through this without any evidence,without any citations included here to show me that this is evidence from a source I am led to believe that this is just the author's opinion. Which does not portray women and girls in a very favorable light. So,if you're going to use something like this, if you are going to include ideas like this you need to show that this is something that has been studied. Something that people are actually looking at that they can back up with evidence.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Why do we cite?

  • Who are the “researchers” the writer refers to in her paragraph?
  • Is it simply the writer’s opinion that self-esteem contributes to this failure, or have actual studies proven this?
  • Who says girls fail more often than boys? How does the writer know this is true?
  • Has this writer done any research? If so, is she plagiarizing

Teenage girls are more likely to do poorly in math and science courses when compared to boys of the same age. Researchers found that one reason for the increased rate of female failure in these subjects is the low self-esteem of female students. Often, female students begin courses in these subject areas with the preconceived belief that they will not to do well. However, with the help of college-aged female mentors, these high school girls can improve their confidence in math and science and successfully complete courses in these subject areas.

Audio: These are some of these questions that the reader is confronted with when they see a paragraph like this. Who are the researchers that the writer refers to in this paragraph? As you can see in the second sentence researchers found. The reader medially says who? What researchers? Is this someone that you bowl with on a Thursday night who said this? Is this someone who is writing in time magazine?Is this someone who was writing for a scholarly publication?Obviously, it makes a great deal of difference with who these researchers are because why should we believe them if they have no authority in this field. 

Right there that is one thing that citation can accomplish. The reader also asks is it simply the writer's opinion that self-esteem contributes to this failure or have actual studies proven this? Is this just the author's opinion and if so, why should I believe you? These are really important things within academic writing. We need to demonstrate that the evidence or that your opinion is derived from a credible authoritative place. Another question who says girls fail more often than boys? How does the writer know this to be true? So,without any evidence here this comes off as somewhat offensive. How do you know this? If you have not studied this and you're just saying this you have no support. So again, the reader asks how do you know this to be true? 

Lastly has this writer done any research? If so, is this person plagiarizing? Is she plagiarizing here? Again,you can see how this affects a writer’s credibility and authority in a very negative way. If you are writing about a subject like this have you done any research about this? I would sure hope so if you are making these claims like this. Also,if you have done research are you just stealing other people's ideas? Are you representing the ideas of others as your own? So,you can see how a citation can be important here and this is what this paragraph would look like with citation. 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Why do we cite?

Teenage girls are more likely to do poorly in math and science courses when compared to boys of the same age (Reece, 2013; Ziger & Marks, 2010). Researchers found that one reason for the increased rate of female failure is frequently due to the low self-esteem of female students (James, Lord, & Smith, 2008; Ziger & Marks, 2010). According to James et al. (2008), female students often begin courses in these subject areas with the preconceived belief that they will not do well. However, Kelly (2012) found that with the help of college-aged female mentors, these high school girls can improve their confidence in math and science and successfully complete courses in these subject areas. 

Audio: Again, it is the same thing but it is essentially presenting the same ideas I should say but we can see here with the inclusion of citations that this appears different to the reader. After this first sentence about how girls are more likely to do poorly in the subject areas,we see that this reader,this writer has actually researched this and there are two studies that can point to that specifically backup finding. A question about which researchers. We can see that this author has a couple of other sources that support this point here also.

James et al., Kelly 2012, again my point here is when you add citations to this the reader sees one this author has researched this idea. They are not plagiarizing this idea. They are representing the ideas of others here and giving them credit for that and that their views are somewhat supportive. If we are talking about differences in achievement based on sex, it’simportant to have this supported so that you don't come off, as someone who is biased or someone who is just spouting some ignorant opinion about the differences in men and women. Supporting your ideas is elementally important. Okay, I think I've made that point.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: What do we cite?

  • Paraphrase: Putting an author’s ideas into your own words and original sentence structure.
  • Direct quote: A word-for-word direct repetition of a source’s original text

Audio: What do we cite? Whenwe’reusing citation essentially,we are working with source material, right? And so, this is going to be a paraphrase or a direct quote. In a paraphrase you are taking a passage from a source and so you are using the ideas of another person but you are putting it into your own words and your own sentence structure. The sentence structure also needs to be original for it to be an effective paraphrase. The important thing here to remember is that we cite this because we are using the ideas of someone else. Although we are putting it into our own words, we are explaining it in a way that we as an author would be comfortable explaining it, these actually are not your ideas. In the academic community you also get credit for the ideas that you came up with. Not just the way that you express those ideas. So,we need to give credit there. 

I think a little simpler way to think about when we need to cite or what we need to cite is by looking at a direct quotation which is a word for word representation of a source's original text. You are essentially picking a passage of a source and you are inserting that word for word into your writing. So,I think students get why you would cite that. Someone else said this. They need to get credit for that. 

However, to return to the idea of a paraphrase for a second, even though you are not using what this author specifically said, you are putting it in your own words, this is still their idea. They still came up with this thing whatever that might be. So, you need to give them credit for that as well. As a punctuation to summarize here you need to give credit both to the ideas that come out of a source and to the words that an author publishes if you choose to copy them directly into your work.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: What do we cite?

Paraphrasing

Original from Tomlinson

“Differentiation as an instructional approach promotes a balance between a student’s style and a student’s ability. Differentiated instruction provides the student with options for processing and internalizing the content and for constructing new learning in order to progress academically.” (Tomlinson, 2008, p. 12)

Paraphrase

Teachers use differentiated instruction to cater lessons to the way each student learns and each student’s skill (Tomlinson, 2008).

Audio: Here’san example of a paraphrase. Here we have our original from Tomlinson, it that goes something like this, I’ll read this quickly. The differentiation as an instructional approach promotes a balance between a student’sstyle and a student's ability. Differentiated instruction provides the student with options for processing and internalizing the content and for constructing new learning in order to progress academically. Okay, so yeah. We have a passage here that is lifted from this Tomlinson source 2008 on page 12. 

Here's what a paraphrase could sound like. Again,we need to represent Tomlinson's original idea keep in its original context that pertains more to how we use it in our writing. But we need to be fair here, we need to represent Tomlinson's idea accurately. Here's an example paraphrase. Teachers use differentiated instruction to cater lessons to the way each student learns and each student's skill. Sure. Again,we are changing both the wording used here and the sentence structure. This is a significantly different sentence and I would add an effective paraphrase.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: What do we cite?

Learn more in our Quotation Webinar!

Quotations

Original from Tomlinson

“Differentiation as an instructional approach promotes a balance between a student’s style and a student’s ability. Differentiated instruction provides the student with options for processing and internalizing the content and for constructing new learning in order to progress academically.” (Tomlinson, 2008, p. 12)

First Draft Quotation

More importantly, “differentiation as an instructional approach promotes a balance between a student’s style and a student’s ability” (Tomlinson, 2008, p. 12).

Better Quotation

An advantage of differentiation is that it gives students “options for processing and internalizing the content” (Tomlinson, 2008, p. 12).

Audio: Quotations--these are a little bit different. We are taking the same phrase from Tomlinson in this 2008 source on page 12 and we're going to choose a passage from it to use in our writing. You don't just want to plop this in. You don't just want to grab a source and just put it in there, in your writing. Essentially want to do what we call integrating the quote into the sentence which is done here. You use a bit of your own writing to smooth out the reader's entrance into that quote. Here's how this could sound. 

More importantly "differentiation as an instructional approach promotes a balance between astudent’sstyle it is student’sability." And here we have an end quote. We have quotation marks around the words that would lift directly from that Tomlinson source and always important we have that citation at the end referring the reader to exactly where that can be found.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: 

Paraphrasing

Original from Tomlinson

“Differentiation as an instructional approach promotes a balance between a student’s style and a student’s ability. Differentiated instruction provides the student with options for processing and internalizing the content and for constructing new learning in order to progress academically.” (Tomlinson, 2008, p. 12)

Paraphrase

Teachers use differentiated instruction to cater lessons to the way each student learns and each student’s skill (Tomlinson, 2008).

Audio: To back up for a second as we look at our paraphrase,you’llnotice they do not include a page number here whereas, moving back to our quotation slide they do. 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: What do we cite?

Learn more in our Quotation Webinar!

Quotations

Original from Tomlinson

“Differentiation as an instructional approach promotes a balance between a student’s style and a student’s ability. Differentiated instruction provides the student with options for processing and internalizing the content and for constructing new learning in order to progress academically.” (Tomlinson, 2008, p. 12)

First Draft Quotation

More importantly, “differentiation as an instructional approach promotes a balance between a student’s style and a student’s ability” (Tomlinson, 2008, p. 12).

Better Quotation

An advantage of differentiation is that it gives students “options for processing and internalizing the content” (Tomlinson, 2008, p. 12).

Audio: Whenever you are quoting if a page or paragraph number is available you need to include that because you are referring the reader directly to a place within the text. 

When paraphrasing, however, this is something that is optional to you. In APA the stipulation in the APA publication manual is that it is your choice. You can choose when paraphrasing to use a page number in a citation or not. So that’s something that you can choose to do there. One more note on that, but if you do choose to use a page number or not you should be consistent about that. So,for every paraphrase if you decide,I’ll refer the reader directly to a passage and a specific page or paragraph then you should always use that. And if you decide not to you should always omit that. But when using a quotation when representing an author’s direct language,you always need to include a page or paragraph number. Okay, I’m sorry. That was a little bit of an aside. But we are back to this quotation slide here. Again,I just read through what could be our first draft of a quotation. 

A better quotation will look something like this and as you can see just even before I read it this is using less source language and it is integrating it into the sentence more here. Essentially what this author is doing in this better quotation is using the most important language from that passage.  Here’s how this could sound;an advantage of differentiation is that it gives students "options for processing and internalizing the content." That is a very strong quotation and you are only using the most vital bit of that passage. The bit of that passage that is most important and you are leaving that Tomlinson's words there. For a little bit more about this about the idea of quotation in the upper right-hand corner of this slide you can see we have a link there to a webinar that’s specifically about quotation so if this is something that you struggling with or would like to know more about go ahead and check that out in your own time.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following:How do we cite?

Citation Basics Page

In-text: Author (year)

The source names are part of the meaning of your sentence.
Ex: Shiell (2013) stated that APA, while difficult, is important.

Parenthetical: (Author, year)

The source names are not part of the meaning of your sentence.

Ex: APA, while difficult, is important (Shiell, 2013).

Audio: Moving on then how do we cite? What does a citation look like? There’sessentially two different kinds of citation.  Here it says in text, actually we like to refer to in text as a narrative citation. That is the language I will be using from here on out. This is something of a typo from how we used to refer to citations. I’m going to refer to these as narrative citations because this is included in the narrative bit of the sentence. In the case of a narrative citation the source name, the name of the author is part of the wording is part of the pro’s of that sentence. Here's an example of how this would look. 

Shiell 2013 stated that APA, while difficult, is important. When using a narrative citation,you can see that we use the author's last name as part of the sentence but the year of publication then in the case of a narrative citation comes immediately after the last name of the author. You can think of these two elements as being married together. When using a narrative citation,the year of publication will always follow that last name of the author. 

The other kind of in-text citation, the other kind of citation in APA is known as a parenthetical citation and in this case the information that makes up the citation is included in a parenthes is that comes immediately after the source material used. So, here's an example of that. APA, while difficult, is important. Then we have the authors last name and year of publication inside the parentheses, these are separated using a comma. As you can see here between a narrative and a parenthetical citation, these example sare essentially presenting the same information. These are presenting the same paraphrase. However,they cite differently. This is a stylistic choice. If you wish to include the last name of the author in the text of a sentence, which is a good idea, you are using a third person construction that APA prefers you would use a narrative citation. If you are using source material without using the last name of the author in the text of the sentence you will use a parenthetical at the end.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: How do we cite?

Paraphrases: Include the author(s) and the year of publication of source paraphrased

Narratively: 

According to Jones (2012), regular consumption of carrots reduces the need for cataract surgery in adults who are 65 and older. 

Parenthetical:  

Regular consumption of carrots reduces the need for cataract surgery in adults who are 65 and older (Jones, 2012).

Audio: Yeah again,here we go, we are getting that language correct. Narratively and parenthetical but when paraphrasing you need to include the authors names however many there are and the year of publication of the source that was paraphrased. Here's an example how this could be done in a narrative citation. 

According to Jones 2012 regular consumption of carrots reduces the need for cataract surgery in adults who are 65 and older. The important part here even though I stumbled over reading that, forgive me, is this citation,this Jones 2012. Since we are using the name Jones in the text of the sentence,we would use a narrative citation, we are using a narrative citation so that year of publication comes immediately after. 

To use this same passage to paraphrase the same passage only to use a parenthetical citation it would look like this. Rated the consumption of carrots reduces the need for cataract surgery in adults who are 65 and older and at the end we have the last name of the author and the year of publication separated by a comma. These are both in a parenthetical which is why we call them parenthetical citations. One little nuance here, one-point worth mentioning is when using a parenthetical citation,you can see that the punctuation comes after the sentence. It comes after the citation there at the end. You have a citation, Jones 2012,and the period comes after this. This is how APA requires this to be formatted but the reason, the way I think about this is the citation is in a way meant to give some of the information of the sentence. The citation is part of the information that the sentence is getting across. So, it should be apart of the sentence before the full stop. That’s how I think about it. However, you want to think about it just make sure when using parentheticals citation that the period comes after the citation rather than before it.

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: How do we cite?

Direct quotations: Include the author(s), year, and page or paragraph of the quote

Narratively: 

Malone (2012) reported that “women who exercised regularly during pregnancy have children who score…5 points higher on intelligence tests” (p. 297). 

Parenthetical:  

Exercising during pregnancy is important, as “pregnant women who exercised regularly during their second and third trimesters were 45% less likely to have gestational diabetes than those who did not exercise”(Harper, 2013, para. 4). 

Audio: Here's another example using direct quotes and this is going to be very similar. You’re going to have the authors names, the year of publication only with a quotation as I mentioned before you were going to be using a page or paragraph number that is associated with that specific passage. Here's how this can look in a narrative citation:

Malone 2012 reported that "women who exercise regularly during pregnancy have children who score 5 points higher on intelligence tests" and then we have this page number at the end here page 297. A bit of formatting here, a formatting nuance worth mentioning. We do label the page number with APA formatting. So,you see there is a little page, a little p. 297. APA is very specific about how they want you to represent this and this is how it should look. It shouldn’t bean upper-caseP.It shouldn’t be Pg. It should Just be a lowercase p followed by the page number. That’s how that should look. And again, we have a period coming outside of that page number there. That is part of the citation. The citation is presenting some information that the sentence is meant to get across so the full stop would go after that information. 

To look at this again in a parenthetical citation it could look something like this. Exercising during pregnancy is important, as "pregnant women who exercise regularly during their second and third trimesters were 45% less likely to have gestational diabetes than those who did not exercise" and again we have our citation at the end. Harper is the name of the author, 2013 the year of publication, paragraph 4. This is how APA wants you to represent that this is a paragraph rather than a pagenumber.With this lowercase para 4.

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Chat

Review the excerpt. Find the quotes and identify which quote is cited parenthetically and which is cited narratively.

How do we cite?

      Is this type of writing plagiarism? #1. Hull and Rose (1989) claimed that this form of writing is not cheating but a legitimate attempt to interact with the text, relate it to your own experiences, derive your own meaning from it” (p. 150). This is something most writers do in unfamiliar contexts or with difficult-to-understand texts. It is, indeed, how humans learn: by mimicking or copying others whom we consider exemplary in an academic discipline or in terms of their linguistic competence. 

      One could also say that in a “cut-and-paste” style of writing a beautiful patch-work” #2. (Dryden, 1999, p. 80) may indeed be valued. It seems correct to assume such patch writing implies a serious attempt to make sense of and engage with the material, as was claimed by several Greek and UK students.

Audio:Taking a look at these then, taking a look at these examples go ahead and throw in the chat box which of these, review this excerpt and find the quotes and identify which quote is cited parenthetically and which is cited narratively. Go ahead and drop that in the chat box. Which of these is quote number one using a narrative or parenthetical citation." Quote number two using a narrative or parenthetical citation? Which is which. Go ahead and drop your answer into the chat box.

[silence as student respond]

Alight, a lot of people have chimed in with their answers and I think everyone is correct. I don't think I have seen one person incorrect as of yet. The first instance of citation here, the Hull and Rose,as you can see the Hull and Rose, are used within the sentence so that is a narrative citation. In our second example Dryden, this 1999 source you guys got that. I don’t think one person got it wrong. Way to go. Killed it.

 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: When do we cite?

            When?

  • Cite after each and every sentence that includes information from a source

Why?

  • Citing sources this often helps your reader.

Audio:Before we move on. I’ll ask Melissa are there any questions that may be the group could benefit me talking through?

Melissa: Sure, when you were talking about the different citation styles I had a couple questions come in and one was about the acceptable or preferred length for a quotation. Does APA have any guidelines about the length of quotations?

Michael: Yes,they do.Sure, they do.I guess there are two answers here. The letter of the law the APA answer and the writing best practices answer. I will start with the APA one. If you are citing, if you're citation, excuse me, I’m sorry,if your quotation is very long APA wants you to represent that in a block quotation. But I don't remember offhand exactly how many words it is. I think it might be 40. If it is longer than 40 words then you should use a block quotation rather than putting that into a normal paragraph like you would any other quote. So,go ahead and check that out. Verify that I got the number right. It’s somewhere around there. 

Thinking about this more holistically in terms of writing long quotations can be kind of ineffective for a few reasons. One you are giving away a lot of real estate of your writing. You are giving away your voice to someone else to make a point. So,you are essentially saying this person says this better than I can so I am just going to let them say that. You want to be careful of that because as always with writing you want to preserve your own voice as a writer you want your writing to be representative of who you are as a scholar. So,giving up the authorial voice for too long or too often to a source can be ineffective. Beyond that, ata Masters and doctoral level you really want to use quotations sparingly. I would say like only instances when a source says something so well that to change the way that they said it anyway would be to take away from its meaning. So maybe like two or three words is really all you want to be quoting from a specific passage becausethat’sthe key language. Think about this example we had with the quotation about a first draft quotation kind of like a better quotation that has been revised. You really only want to use specific very important language when you quote. To elaborate a little bit more on this, sorry to elaborate more paraphrase is preferred. Paraphrase shows the reader that I understand the so well that I can put it in my own words so if you find yourself quoting too much or quoting a lot consider paraphrasing. Sorry Melissa.

Melissa: Thank you. That feedback is very helpful and the way that you put it I think really stresses the value of paraphrasing over choosing to include quotations in our writing. Thank you so much for that. I had one other question,I had a few questions came in about citation variations and I provided a link to a page in our website that I think is helpful along with some feedback about one common citation variation which is having multiple authors for a piece I don't know if there are any other citation types that you see that are pretty common that are worth mentioning before we move on or if you wanted to elaborate on sources that have multiple authors.

Michael: Sources that have multiple authors you need to treat those in a specific way within APA and there is a slide upcoming that discusses that. How to use et al within your writing but essentially the first time you use a citation you show all the authors unless there are six or more. And actually I’m just going to leave that there, this is helpful to have an example when talking through the use of et al when dealing  with multiple authors so I will wait until that slide comes up but rest assured it is coming.

Melissa: That is all the questions I have right now. So thank you.

Michael: Thank you, Melissa, and thank you students for those great questions.Again,I am happy to talk through something it benefits the group so go ahead and ask questions. If you have that question is likely a colleague of yours does as well so don't be too shy. 

Okay Back to our presentation. Back to this lovely slide deck. We are moving on then to when do we cite? When? The easy answer here is site after each and every sentence that includes information from a source. This might seem like overkill but this is what APA requires. You want to show whenever you are using source material you need to give credit to that author. In terms of APA that’s on a sentence by sentence level. If a sentence contains source material or source information it needs to have a citation. The why here,citing sources this often helps your reader. It absolutely does. It helps them know what your ideas are versus what ideas you're using to support some of your points. And in some other citation styles they don't require this. And I think it becomes a little ambiguous about what exactly is your thoughts, what are your thoughts versus what are the thoughts of the scholars? So,I think this helps clarify whose saying what. But again,to give you a steadfast rule that can help direct you in the future, every sentence that includes source information needs to have a citation.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: When do we cite?

Is this information plagiarized? 

Are these the author’s opinions? If she is using sources, which sources? 

Not Enough Citing

Teachers use differentiated instruction to help students learn, allowing the teacher to cater lessons to the way each student learns and each student’s skill. Differentiation in teaching helps students by allowing learning in different ways. No Child Left Behind (NCLB) sets rigid standards for teachers that do not allow for this multidisciplinary approach that differentiation asks for. In this way, NCLB is not compatible with differentiation in the classroom (Thompson, 2009).

Audio: Here's an example of not enough citing and in the writing center I see this a lot. Here we have a paragraph.I’ll burn through it quickly.Teachers use differentiated instruction to help students learn allowing the teacher to cater lessons to the way each student learns and each student's skill. Differentiation in teaching helps students by allowing learning in different ways. No child left behind sets rigid standards for teachers that do not allow for this multidisciplinary approach that differentiation asks for.In this way, No child left behind is not compatible with differentiation in the classroom and we have our citation here at the end.

As a reader as I’m reading through this,I am getting a lot of cues that some of this is source material and that the claims being made here are in need of a citation. For example,the second sentence differentiation in teaching helps students by allowing learning in different ways. How do I know that? This really sounds to me like something that someone would study. That this would something that is published. This is a claim that is being made here. This author in an attempt to use citation and to give credit to this Thompson source they include a citation at the end and I think often when I encounter a situation, what they mean is that everything above is from the Thompson source. But again, this is ineffective. As a reader as someone who is familiar with APA you can assume your audience is the only paragraph that I believe is from Thompson is the last sentence. 

So,it is unclear, even though the author means to say that this is all from Thompson, as a reader I am not sure what is and isn’t really. I’m getting some quest to suggest this is source material here. But I don't see citations. Again,you need to cite every sentence or source information. I am also asking as a reader is this plagiarized? If you are not citing effectively you are presenting it as your own ideas. Are these the author's opinions? If she is using sources which sources? I kind of elaborated on these questions already. But you don't want to leave the readers with these kinds of questions. Right? You want to be direct and you want to tell them exactly where you're getting this information from or supporting these claims from. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: When do we cite

Where are the author’s original ideas, analysis, and critical thinking?

Why is a source cited twice in a sentence?

Not Enough Analysis

Teachers use differentiated instruction to help students learn, allowing the teacher to cater lessons to the way each student learns and each student’s skill (Thompson, 2009). According to Thompson (2009), differentiation in teaching helps students by giving for learning in different ways (Thompson, 2009). No Child Left Behind (NCLB) sets rigid standards for teachers, which does not allow for this multidisciplinary approach that differentiation asks for (Thompson, 2009). In this way, Thompson explained, NCLB is not compatible with differentiation in the classroom.

Audio:So,here’s how this is how this could look. We are adding citations. At the end of the first sentence we have this parenthetical citation. We include a narrative citation for the second sentence and then we have other information cited throughout here. So again,you want to cite every source or site every sentence that includes source material. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following:When do we cite?

I can see the author is using and citing sources, but I can also see the author’s critical thinking and analysis.

Appropriate Citing

Teachers use differentiated instruction to help students learn, allowing the teacher to cater lessons to the individual way each student learns and each student’s skill (Thompson, 2009). Despite the advantages of the multidisciplinary approach, Thompson (2009) suggested that No Child Left Behind (NCLB) sets incompatibly rigid standards in the classroom. Thus, teachers must weigh children’s needs against educational realities. 

Audio: When do we cite? Again, appropriate citing, you can see where the authors own analysis is coming in. Teachers use differentiated instruction to help students learn. Allowing the the teacher to cater lessons to the individual way each student learns and each student's skill. Part of this is the person's analysis, part of this is this Thompson source and this also is apparent in their second sentence. Despite the advantages of a multidisciplinary approach, Thompson 2009 suggested that no child left behind sets and incompatibility rigid standards in the classroom. So here again, we can see that the first part is the authors own work and what follows this narrative citation is from Thompson, this is what they are using to support their ideas. This last sentence as it does not have a citation we can assume is from the author. Using this correctly, using citations effectively and consistently makes it clear to the reader what information comes from you and what information comes from may be a source that you are drawn from.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: When do we cite?

Summary Citation Page

  • Double check that:
    • Each sentence using outside information from a source gives credit to that source.
    • Sources are not cited twice in one sentence.
    • There is a balance of citing and analysis

Audio: Double check that.One, each sentence using outside information from a source gives credit to that source. Two, sources are not cited twice in one sentence. One citation is standard. It’s enough. So,you only need to use one citation in one sentence. Three there is a balance of citing and analysis. This is an important feature also. You don't want every single sentence to be something of source material. When you write you use evidence to support your points.You don't want other authors to make your points for you. They are there again,as support for you so you need to strike a balance between your thoughts and the thoughts of authors that you are using to support them. And this is something we see a lot in the writing center as well. Again,strike a balance here. What point are you making and how are you using these sources to support that point? Don't give your point away. Don't assume the reader sees a citation or paraphrase and understands how that point is being made. 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following:Citation Formatting Quick Tips

  • Parenthetical citation: Use “&”
    • Writing centers are great (Gaga, Adele, & Bieber, 2010).
  • Narrative citation: Write out “and”
    • Gaga, Adele, and Bieber (2010) stated writing centers are great.
  • List authors in alphabetical order
    • (Lennon &McCartney, 1964; Rodgers &Hart, 1946)

Audio: Citation formatting quick tips. Here's a few of them. When using a parenthetical citation instead of using the word "and" when multiple authors are on a publication use an ampersand Here’s an example of that, writing centers are great by using Gaga, Adele,& Bieber, 2010. Another thing that’s important to note here, is thatwe still include that serial comma after Adele, in this example. This is a convention of APA in academic writing as well, so you would use a serial comma in parenthetical citation as well. 

Conversely in a narrative citation you write out the word "and"so here, Gaga, Adele and Bieber, 2010 stated writing centers are great.So, we’re using the same kind of paraphrase, so we are using a narrative citation instead of a parenthetical citation. And in narrative you write out the word and rather than using an ampersand. Lastly when there are multiple sources that you are using to cite one idea here, here we have two you use, you order these in alphabetical order. So, Lennon and McCartney, the L for Lennon would come before Rodgers and Hart. 

This is not to be confused than with when there are multiple authors on a source. When there are multiple authors on a source you represent the names of that author the names of those authors in the order that they appear on the document. The first author that’s listed on a document is the primary author. They’vedone the most work in publishing this piece So they need to be listed first however when you are citing multiple sources in referring to one idea you would order these alphabetically.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following:Citation Formatting Quick Tips

2 Authors

  •  Always list all

3-5 authors 

  • First mention: List all
    • (Barnes, Helakoski, & Townsend, 2017)
  • Subsequent mentions: Use et al.
    • (Barnes et al., 2017)

6 or more authors

  •  Always use et al.

Audio: And here's our et al slide. When you have one or two authors you always list all of the authors names or both of the authors names. When you have 3-5 authors the first time you cite that source,you’re going to list all of the authors names but then in subsequent citations you’re going to only list the primary author's name, in this case Barnes, and then you're going to use this little et al to represent there are more authors but are not listed. So that’s  how that would look.Barnes et al., 2012.When you have six or more authors you use et al every time even the first time that you refer to that source citation.

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: When do we cite?

Thompson (2009) discussed differentiated instruction. Differentiated instruction is when teachers approach teaching differently for different students and their learning styles (Thompson, 2009). However, Thompson noted that differentiated instruction can be quite difficult to implement. To be successful, teachers must go through professional development to use differentiated instruction well (Thompson, 2009).

Audio: When do we cite? Here’s another nuance about APA citation. We can see this starts with a narrative citation from Thompson 2009 and then we have a parenthetical citation for the next sentence. In this third sentence we just have the name Thompson. This is a narrative citation as per APA style. Here's the rule. When you use a narrative citation for a source and you're going to use another narrative citation for that same source within the same paragraph you do not need to include a year of publication. I know that sounds wild and completely counterintuitive and I would agree but this is just one of those APA rules that this is what they require.Right? So, again,this only applies to narrative citations as you can see the parenthetical citations both include the year of publication each time. But again,the rule is when you are using a narrative citation for a source that you have already cited with a narrative citation in the same paragraph you then do not include a year of publication.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Practice Paragraphs

Chat Box:

Find the citation formatting and frequency errors.

Audio: We are going to go on and do some practices here.Essentially what Iam going to do is show you a passage and I want you to look for the citation formatting or citation frequency errors. So here is that example. 

 

Visual: Slide change to the following: Practice Paragraph: Are there any errors?

Small business managers must be aware of how local regulations affect their business. Looky & Wallace (2014) argued that more intrusive local regulations can cause a small business to fail. However, local regulations can also help a small business if they provide favorable tax incentives or an environment that encourages the business (Welch and Zagorski, 2013). Either way, a clear understanding of local regulations will help small business managers know how those regulations affect business practices and adjust accordingly.

Audio:What is wrong with these citations? Go ahead and put your answer in the chat box. 

[Silence as students respond]

Alright, I’m seeing some answers roll in here. Great work. I’m going to give you another minute. I see a number of people are still typing so throw in your two cents. We will reconvene in a minute. 

[Silence as students respond]

Okay again thanks for putting these responses in the chat box. Essentially what is wrong with these citations is this use of and versus ampersand.In the first citation is narrative citation, we used an ampersand and it should've written out the word and. In the second citation they write out the word "and" and they should've used an ampersand instead. So,here’s how those should look. 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Practice Paragraph: Answer

Small business managers must be aware of how local regulations affect their business. Looky &Wallace (2014) argued that more intrusive local regulations can cause a small business to fail. However, local regulations can also help a small business if they provide favorable tax incentives or an environment that encourages the business (Welch and Zagorski, 2013). Either way, a clear understanding of local regulations will help small business managers know how those regulations affect business practices and adjust accordingly.

Audio:That is the error.Excuse me.That is not how they should look. That is where the error exists.Sorry about that. Again in between Looky and Wallace, you should write out the "and" and inb etween Welch & Zagorski, as it’s a parenthetical citation you should use an &.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Practice Paragraph: Are there any errors?

In my classroom I have incorporated differentiated instruction, as suggested by Thompson. However, my approach has been more closely aligned with Santamaria’s approach of culturally-responsive differentiated instruction. Santamaria’s (2009) approach emphasizes a student’s cultural background and how that background influences a student’s learning (2009). Because many of my students come from immigrant families, this culturally-responsive approach will be particularly useful for me. 

Audio: Let’s take a look at another one. What errors you see here in citation formatting or citation frequency. Again, I’ll go on mute, you can go ahead and put your answers. 

[Silence as students respond]

Alright I’m going to give you guys just another quick bit here. I see multiple people are still typing. Go ahead and drop your answer in the chat box. What errors do you see in citation in this paragraph? 

[Silence as students type]

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Practice Paragraph: Answer

In my classroom I have incorporated differentiated instruction, as suggested by Thompson (2009). However, my approach has been more closely aligned with Santamaria’s approach of culturally-responsive differentiated instruction. Santamaria’s (2009) approach emphasizes a student’s cultural background and how that background influences a student’s learning (2009).Because many of my students come from immigrant families, this culturally-responsive approach will be particularly useful for me. 

Audio:Okay, let's take a look here ou ranswer slide. A lot of you got this. The Thompson citation you needed the year publication the first one. The words as suggested by Thompson is a dead giveaway this is coming from this Thompson source. A lot of you also noticed that the Santamaria in the third sentence was cited twice. They included the year publication twice and you only need to include that once. Don't double cite that is redundant and takes up unnecessary space. 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Practice Paragraph: Are there any errors?

Differentiated instruction is an important component of how a teacher approaches her students. My application of differentiated instruction approaches, particularly culturally-responsive differentiated instruction, will help me better teach my students in the future. However, I realized that my professional journey to best teach my students is not over; I will continue to use research-based practices to continually evaluate and improve my teaching. 

Audio: One more practice here. Take a look at this paragraph. What errors or errors in citation frequency do you see here?I’m going to on mute.

[Silence as students type]

Alright, in the interest of time I will move on here. There are no citations here. Right? 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Practice Paragraph:Answer

Differentiated instruction is an important component of how a teacher approaches her students. My application of differentiated instruction approaches, particularly culturally-responsive differentiated instruction (Thompson, 2009), will help me better teach my students in the future. However, I realized that my professional journey to best teach my students is not over; I will continue to use research-based practices to continually evaluate and improve my teaching. 

Audio:The second sentence should include a citation in this example. Again the point being that you need to use scholarship to back up your point. This preserves your integrity and credibility as an author.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Questions: Ask Now or Later

writingsupport@waldenu.edu•  Live Chat Hours

Learn More:

Visit our APA modules to learn more about citation formatting and frequency, as well as reference entry formatting.

Audio: With that I'm going to askyou again Melissa are there any questions the group could benefit from me talking through?

Melissa: In this second half of the webinar we did not have too many questions come in. We had some specific APA rule questions slide in, so I was wondering if maybe you wanted to share some of your favorite writing center APA resources with everyone.

Michael: Sure, I’dbe happy to. I guess I'll just talk through them. The writing center has a number of webpages that are really useful to doublec heck yourself in terms of APA. One that really comes to mind is the common reference list examples page that has the formatting of a number of different source types that you’ll need to reference throughout your research. Things like journal articles and books and webpages. Even things like laws or course material, that type of thing. That’s one I use a lot from the writing center. Also,for those of you who maybe want a little more clarification there is a writing center page that discusses specifically the difference between narrative and parenthetical citations and how these can both effectively be used so it will reinforce some things I said here today or this evening, depending on where you are in the world. But I would encourage all of you to go to the writing center webpage and poke around on your own and find resources that are useful to your specific situation. Really, if you go and search there you should be able to find something about almost any APA concern you would have and there are great resources just in terms of webpages. 

We also offer these webinars and the webinar archive is available to you. We have modules where you can test yourself. We have blog posts where you can read through people's more narrative discussion of these things. And really our big service is one on one paper reviews. There is a system for how we do this that you can find instructions in the Walden writing Center website but this is a really great service where you actually submit your paper to myself or to Melissa or others, or other colleagues of ours and we will take time and look at that draft and give you specific feedback about what you need or what could be improved there. I would encourage all of you to take advantage of this and use these resources from the writing center. They are there to help you so with that I will turn it over to you Melissa.

Melissa: Yes, thank you Michael, and thank yo uso much for reminding all of us about how many APA resources we have to help our students. I want to thank Michael again for presenting and sharing all of this wonderful information about citations. It is such an important part of academic writing and I want to thank everybody for attending today. The recording of this webinar will be available within the next few days and so you can watch it again if you want to by going to the webinar archive. Thanks again everybody.

 

[End of webinar]