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OASIS Writing Skills

Webinar Transcripts:
APA Citations Part 2: Nontraditional Sources

Transcripts for the Writing Center's webinars.

APA Citations Part 2: Nontraditional Sources

Presented May 7, 2020

View the recording

Last updated June 2, 2020


Visual: The Walden University Writing Center Welcomes you to APA Citations Part 2: Nontraditional Sources

  • Join in the conversation in the chat box as we wait for the session to begin:
  • From where are you calling in?
  • How does scholarly writing (including APA style) help you achieve your goal of creating positive social change?

Audio: [Kacy] Hello everyone. Thank you so much for joining us today for APA Citations Part 2. My name is Kacy Walz.

[Claire] Thanks, Kacy. Hi, I’m Claire Helakoski.

[Kacy] Claire and I are going to be facilitating in the background while Max presents today. Before I hand things over to Max, I just wanted to go over a few housekeeping items.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Webinar Logistics

  • Recording
    • Will be available online within 24 hours.
  • Interact
    • Polls, files, and links are interactive.
  • Q&A
  • Help
    • Ask in the Q&A box.
    • Choose “Help” in the upper right-hand corner of the webinar room.

Audio: [Kacy] First off, this webinar is being recorded. So, if you have to leave or if you want to go over portions of this webinar again later, you will be able to check out that recording. Along with that you will find many other recorded webinars on various writing related topics. There will be several chances to interact with your colleagues and with our presenter Max so please be sure to participate during the chat sections in the large chat box which will be very similar to the one you used just before the webinar started today. All of the links in the slideshow are active so you can click directly on them for access to more information now or later if you're watching the recording. We also have a few helpful files in our files pod and you can download them by clicking on the download files button at the bottom of the pod. There's going to be a lot of information in this webinar. If you have any questions, you can use the Q&A box. Claire and I will be watching the Q&A box throughout and we will answer your questions as quickly as we can. If we run out of time however if you have any questions later on, please send them to and you will receive a response through email. Finally, if you encounter any technical difficulties, you can reach out to Claire and me in the Q&A box but there's also a help button in the upper right-hand corner of your webinar screen. That is the Adobe connect help button so it's often the best place to find those technical answers. Thank you again for joining us. And now I'm going to turn things over to our presenter Max Philbrook.

[Max] Thank you Claire and thank you very much all of the participants that we have joining us from all over the world today. I saw people giving shutouts from the Caribbean, from Mexico, from Afghanistan. It's so cool to be here with you today. For a really exciting presentation: APA Citations Part 2. I'm an instructor here in the Writing Center along with both Kacy and Claire and we are part of the team that reviews papers and that helps you, Walden students who are in their coursework working on the coursework papers and the students who are in the early stages of their capstone prospectus process as well. So before we begin, if you get a lot out of today's webinar and you think that you could learn and work well with Kacy, Claire, or myself, definitely consider making a paper review appointment on our paper review schedule which I will certainly talk more about as we get into the presentation today.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Learning Objectives: After this session, you will be able to:

  • Identify the extra information nontraditional sources require
  • Identify errors in reference list entries
  • Create nontraditional citations based on reference list entries
  • Know where to go for APA help
  • Understand key differences between APA 6th edition and 7th

Audio: [Max] So let's just jump right in. Today's learning objectives are pretty straightforward. We are going to be looking to identify the extra information in nontraditional sources. We are going to be looking at ways to identify errors in references entries and citations. We will look at creating nontraditional citations based on reference list entries. And maybe most importantly, we are going to be looking closely at ways that you can find answers to your APA questions and if you do need help with your APA questions or writing, you will have plenty of resources to choose from after today's webinar.

Kacy already mentioned that in today's slide deck for the presentation, all of the links that you see are going to be live. You can literally click on your screen right now. Well, not on this screen; there aren’t any live links, but you will be soon that you can click on those links and get taken right to the information you need. Another important outcome objective of today's session is that we are going to be comparing the transition -- comparing APA 6th edition to the current APA 7th edition. I know that this is on many of your mind's. And so, we are going to be taking time today to discuss how Walden has transitioned and why -- and what types of changes have been made so you can stay on top of those changes.

So, just before we dive in, I wanted to say thank you to those who were participating in the chat box earlier. APA style and scholarly writing in general really can help us with our social change mission. And those of you who were talking -- mentioned how using quality sources and helping our reader find our resources so that they can do their own scholarly social change work. Spot on. Remember APA style and scholarly writing is a language and it helps scholars speak to one another in that specific language. So, if you are doing great social change research, and you're using that language, now scholars after you can also use your work to support their social change mission as well. So, thanks very much. Remember APA style is not just a hoop that evil writing teachers make you jump through. I promise. It is -- there are reasons and justifications behind all of the choices that APA style makes. So, if you are ever bogged down and ever feeling very frustrated with APA and getting scholarly writing just right, don't fear. There are reasons for all the choices and all of the small decisions that are made in APA style.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Transition to APA 7

  • New (7th) edition of APA manual released
  • APA 7 implementation dates: May 4 (semester-based programs) & June 1 (quarter-based and Tempo programs)
  • Some doctoral capstone students may continue using APA 6 for an additional grace period—details TBA

Audio: [Max] Let's quickly touch on the transition to APA 7th edition. So, the 7th edition of the APA manual was released last year in October 2019. Actually, Walden U has just officially started the transition into APA 7. Those of you who are joining who just started a new term Monday of this week, May 4, congratulations. You are already using APA 7. If you're finishing your term now or starting a term on June 1, or if you're in a tempo program, then your official transition date will be June 1. That's the beginning of the next term.

If you're a capstone student joining us, there are some circumstances where you might be able to finish your capstone in APA 6, depending on what stage you're at, and I highly recommend that you get in touch with your faculty and that you get in touch with your program director to determine and decide whether you should complete your capstone in APA 6 or APA 7.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Transition to APA 7

Audio: [Max] This is happening now. And what is nice about our work in the Writing Center and having a Writing Center that is dedicated to supporting Walden students is that we have been working hard to get you ready for this transition. We have been updating our resources. We been creating webinars. In fact, just yesterday and the day before, we presented webinars that highlighted all of the differences between APA 6 and APA 7. And you can find that, links to those recordings, on our webinars webpage, the one that Kacy introduced on the first slide.

So just in case you're feeling very anxious and maybe you're feeling your stress level rise right now, don't. The first link here on this slide has a very helpful link to our APA 6 to 7 transition charts. And these charts are, they preview all of the changes that have been made between APA 6 and APA 7. You can use those and it's a very helpful side-by-side presentation that will give you the details about the transition. And I will just give you -- let you take a look at these resources. All of the bullets are resources that will be helpful to you as you go about making this transition into APA 7.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Today’s Webinar

  • Today’s webinar uses APA 7 rules
  • We will indicate large shifts from APA 6 to APA 7 with our APA 7 transition logo and a brief explanation

Audio: [Max] So the purpose of today's webinar, all of the instruction that I'm going to give you today, will be in APA 7. And I know that many of you out there have been learning and working hard to master APA 6. And I don't want you to think that you have to throw all of that work away. APA 7 is an extension of APA 6. There have been some key changes made. But if you have a strong, firm foundation of APA style for APA 6, you're going to be just fine. You will have a few things to keep in mind. You will have a few new rules to remember and use, but in my opinion, APA did a really nice job of only making changes that actually help the writer, and so you can rest assured that if you have a strong foundation in APA 6, you don't have to start from scratch. Those of you starting from scratch, if you're back to school for the first time in two decades, or maybe you're just starting your collegiate career for the first time. Remember, you're in APA 7 and we are here to help you and support you as you go.

So, in today's webinar though, I'm going to use this symbol APA 7 transition symbol to highlight where big changes have been made. If you're familiar with APA 6, some of this might look a little funny. I'm going to put that symbol on every slide that has a significant shift from 6 to 7 so I can highlight that for you so you will know precisely how the rule has changed.

Let's get right into it. Once again, I'm very happy that you're all here. And just keep in mind, Kacy, Claire, myself, we are here to support your journey so you can use APA 7 and scholarly writing to do the big goal, to get that social change research done. Let's dive right in.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Approach to Learning APA Reference Entries

  • Don’t memorize the content
  • Understand the mechanics of how references/citations work
  • Use a variety of resources and understand how to use them
  • Ask questions!

Audio: [Max] How would I recommend as a writing teacher, you go about learning APA references and citations? The first bullet here might surprise you. My main suggestion is don't memorize. Don't try to memorize the whole manual. First of all is 350 pages, so that will take a while, but second of all, scholarly writing is a tool. For nurses, you should be filling your brain with nurse information. Social workers, fill your brain with social work information. Business people, fill your brain with business information. I am the writing teacher. I will fill my brain with the writing information. What I want you to do is to understand the mechanics of how references and citations work. I want you to know what your resources are and understand how to use those resources. And from there, I want you to know how to ask questions and how to use your support systems here at Walden and beyond in order to get those questions answered. That is my goal for you. If you have been memorizing the APA manual, then you can stop. And from there let's just learn the system and that way you can start to apply that system in different instances. When I say the system, here's what I mean.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Overview: Creating References Basics

Audio: [Max] All APA references have a common structure. Here's this common structure. I have added a link here to our APA Methods to the Madness: APA Citations Part 1. We actually just presented the session yesterday. Sometime today the recording that link, the link to that recording will be active. I actually recognize some of the names of those joining us today from yesterday's session. So, shout out to those of you who are going back to back days for APA webinars to political.

Here's how all references entries are created: Author, date, title, publication information at the end. And the note that I put there at the end is the publication information is really where you will have to learn the nuances of each type of source. Publication information for a book is different than publication information for a journal article. So, you will just have to learn some of those nuances and use your -- understand how to use your APA manual to do that. So that is how all references entries are made. The next part I want to show you is -- the reason I'm talking about references entries in detail in a citations presentation is because references and citations are a system. Your references work together with your citations; your citations work together with your references.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Overview: Citation Basics

Audio: [Max] So, let's take a look at how that works. Step 1: create a references entry and then from the information in that references entry will be able to create a citation that goes in the actual text of the paper. If you're unfamiliar with any of these terms, stick with us today but I do recommend reviewing the APA Citations Part 1 webinar or going to our website and checking out our APA citations website information. Kacy and Claire, would you mind dropping the link to our webpage for APA citations into the chat box? It would be really helpful, I think. Thanks very much.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Overview: References and Citations

  • Author. (Date). Title information. Publication information.
  • Garrett, B. (2015). Brain & behavior: An introduction to biological psychology (4th ed.). SAGE Publications.
    • *emphasis beyond italics for the book title is just for demonstration purposes.
  • Image: APA 7 transition logo.

Audio: [Max] Let's take a look at how this works in action. So, here is our basic structure of a reference entry: author, date, title, publication information. I used a real source; any of the psychology Walden students out there might be familiar with this Garrett source so here's what it looks like. Author, date, title and publication information. And just note that I used a little bit of non-APA formatting here to draw your attention to some of those pieces of information. And so that is how it works. And there is our handy-dandy APA 7 transition logo. Let me briefly share with you one thing that has changed from references entry for printed books.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Reference Entry of a Printed Book

  • APA 6:
    • Included publisher location for a reference entry of a published book
  • APA 7:
    • Omits publisher location for this type of entry
  • Image: APA 7 transition logo.

Audio: [Max] A references entry for printed book in APA 6 did include the location of the publisher’s location in that references entry. APA 7 omits the publisher location for books. So, when you have the Garrett source now, we don't include where Sage publications is. I just wanted to point that out to here.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Overview: References and Citations

  • Author. (Date). Title information. Publication information.
  • Garrett, B. (2015). Brain & behavior: An introduction to biological psychology (4th ed.). SAGE Publications.
    • *emphasis beyond italics for the book title is just for demonstration purposes.
  • Chat #1: How would you create a parenthetical or narrative citation for a paraphrase of this source?

Audio: [Max] Once again, here is the shell of our references entry and then the references entry with the information included there, how do we create the citation for this source? Let's pause here and Kacy if you could change the layout, I would like you to participate in the chat. Would you please create a parenthetical or a narrative citation for a paraphrase of this source? Go ahead, the chat box is there. Type right in. And it's pretty straightforward but let's see how you do. I will go on pause here and see what types of answers you come up with.

These are looking fabulous. Very nice. Shout out for fabricating a paraphrase from Garrett; nice job exactly, perfect. We are using the author and the date to create our citation. Excellent I can see that many of you have been studying up on your APA form. Perfect. And so, you’ll see that the parenthetical has the author comma date inside the parentheses. Narrative has the author’s name as part of the sentence and then in parenthesis is the date. Excellent, nice job there. Thank you. Kacy, if you don’t mind switching it back. Excellent.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Chat #1: Answers

  • Garrett, B. (2015). Brain & behavior: An introduction to biological psychology (4th ed.). SAGE Publications.
  • … psychological testing (Garrett, 2015).
  • According to Garrett (2015)…

Audio: [Max] There we go. Psychological testing, Garrett comma 2015 and according to Garrett 2015. So that is how it functions and that's why I'm going to talk a lot about references in this presentation even though it's titled citations. So, keep that in mind. Create your references entry and then you know author and date. The reason that APA style puts both the author and date in the first two positions is because that way your reader knows exactly when they see that citation which source to look for. Excellent job. Thank you all very very much.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Nontraditional Sources:

Audio: [Max] All right so here is what we are going to -- here are some of the nontraditional sources that I'm going to cover now in this middle part of the presentation. And what you will see is that the first three are all -- each of these are sources that are going to be specific to the Walden classroom in Blackboard. So, our other APA presentations cover more traditional commonly held sources that have official publications, that have been published in the outside world. However, a lot of the materials that you might be using for your coursework or on your discussion board or maybe putting some of your projects together, you won't be able to -- they won't have specific outside publications. And so, we are going to need to just kind of tweak our approach a little bit, but luckily, the approach won't be tweaked too much and it will still be very straightforward for you.

Just a quick note, I will go back, each of the links is live. So, if you click these links you will be taken to the Writing Center’s website and you'll get examples and a whole host of other information about each of these types of sources.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Creating Traditional References

  • Author
  • Date
  • Title information
  • Publication information (will change the most)

Audio: [Max] Hopefully this looks familiar to you; this is our structure of a references entry. Author, date, title, and publication information.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Creating Nontraditional References

  • Author
  • Date
  • Title information
  • [Format description] *added to non-traditional sources*
  • Publication information

Audio: [Max] So with a nontraditional source, of the kind that I was just referring to, we are going to add one bit of information here. That information is the format description. And in the references entry, you will actually include the format description in those brackets. So, before the publication information, format description shows up.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Course Materials (Handouts, Lecture Notes, Etc.)

  • Walden University, LLC. (n.d.). Five basic criteria for evaluating sources [Course handout].
    • Note: Walden BB homepage URL, not exact URL
  • (Walden University, LLC, n.d.) or
  • (Walden University, LLC, n.d., p. 4)
  • Image: Screenshot of resources section of a Blackboard classroom
  • Image: APA 7 Transition Logo

Audio: [Max] Here's what we've got; let's take a look: Course materials that you might find in the resources portion of your Blackboard classroom. Here's what this looks like. Let's say you have a course handout that your faculty member posted. You think that there is really great information there and you want to include that in your discussion post for this week. Here's how you would create the references entry for that. The author is going to be Walden University, LLC. Because, anything that is published inside the Blackboard classroom belongs to Walden University, LLC. So, we just feel them in as the author. And then you will see in the parentheses for date we have n.d., and that's a shorthand for no date. So, keep in mind whenever you're deciding what date to put in that parentheses, it should always be the publication date, not the access date, not the date posted in the Blackboard site, but the publication date. And the reason that we want you to default to this is because the course handouts don't have an official publication date. There's n.d., no date, so if you're referencing this type of material, Walden University, LLC, n.d., that's what it will look like.

Then here we have the title. Five basic criteria for evaluating sources. Note that this is written in sentence -- sentence case as our titles most documents and here in brackets we have the format description: Course handout. You can see in the title of this slide I put a few other types of format descriptions for you. It might be a handout, it might be lecture notes etc. So, you use your best judgment and see if you do -- do your best to describe this as well as you can. APA style, in the manual doesn't have an official guideline for this. So, you want to use her best judgment here. And also, note that the Walden for the URL, the publication information we use the general Walden URL for the Blackboard site. There's a couple of reasons for this. If you've ever copied a URL from a Blackboard site, you will know that it's about 150 letters long and it's random gibberish and it doesn't look pretty in a references site. Or references entry. I have my mind on the aesthetics and artfulness of references entries. So that's one reason and the other reason is, your reader likely will not have the same access as you. One of the reasons that you -- the reasons why we use this type of URL is because our Blackboard classrooms are really secure. There are password-protected and the only way you have access to those is because you pay your tuition because you are enrolled in that particular class, but not many others will be able to make it into there. We give our best estimation and we give our reader a bit of information about where that information comes from.

Now that we have our references entry locked down, now we can work and switch and move into creating a citation for that information. And here is what our citation might look like. The first one is a citation for a paraphrase. If you're paraphrasing information, we have our parenthetical information at the end and the second one is if you are quoting, doing direct quotation, from the material, you always need to include a page number if there is one. So, that second one is an example of what a quotation citation looks like.

There it is, as you can see, we got the system in play: author date here at, in the references entry and then our author date shows up again in the citation.

And what is that? The APA 7 transition logo? Must mean there is a shift here between APA 6 and APA 7. Let's take a quick look at that.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: “Retrieved from…” language in Refs. Entries

  • APA 6:
    • “Retrieved on, by, from, etc.” used before most URLs in reference entries
  • APA 7:
    • The words “Retrieved from” or “Accessed from” are no longer necessary before a URL (except in cases where a retrieval date is necessary [see APA Manual sec. 9.16, p. 290]).
  • Image: APA 7 transition logo.

Audio: [Max] In APA 6, some of you probably noticed that for the reference that I just shared, there wasn't any verbiage or words before the URL. In APA 6, we always, for the most part, always used retrieved on, retrieved by, retrieved from, before the URL. However, now in APA 7, APA has allowed us to omit that language and simply put the URL there. And the URL -- we don't need any information before the URL.

There are a few minor rare circumstances where retrieved from language is still needed. But those are very rare. If you have questions about that, I would recommend checking out APA manual chapter 9.16, on page 290. And if you're using data that changes, like if you're pulling information from CDC website on real-time health information, infectious disease rates and things like that, it might be necessary for you to tell your reader when you access that data. But not by and large.

Now you can see I went backwards, here before the URL there's no retrieved from or retrieved by data.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Discussion Board Post: Chat

  • Westings, A. Y. (2013, February 12). Module 2 discussion [Online discussion post].
  • Chat #2: Create a parenthetical citation for a paraphrase from this discussion board posting.

Audio: [Max] Let's move forward our second example of a nontraditional reference and citation is a discussion board post. Let's say you are responding to discussion board posts and you want to include a citation to the specific student’s discussion board post that you find. Here is a perfect -- the method for doing so. Author, date, and here we have added the specific day in which it was published and that can be helpful if there are -- Westings probably has a post on February 12, February 19, February 26 etc. So, you might want to add the specific date there. Module 2 discussion is the title. And here in brackets again we have our format description, online discussion post. And then here again we have used the general Walden URL for the Blackboard classroom.

Now I'm going to throw it back over to you participants. I would like you to please in the chat box as Kacy switches us over, I'm going to ask you to create a parenthetical citation for a paraphrase from this discussion board post. Pay attention to the details of the question because I'm using some of the specific terminology that I want you to be familiar with, so see if you can nail it. I will go on pause and wait and take a look to see what the responses look like. Thanks everyone.

Yes. Excellent. This is looking good. I have used the terminology parenthetical citation and most of you are picking up on that language. When I say parenthetical, it means that all the citation information is within the parentheses. And when I say narrative citation, that is when you start to pull apart the author, and then the author becomes part of the sentence and just the date of publication goes in the parentheses. Excellent work. If you got tripped up on the specific terminology, no problem. Both are acceptable in APA style. But work on hammering out those fine details. And so, excellent, very good. The other thing you will notice too, is that we've omitted the authors first initials. And we've also omitted the specific date of publication. And so that is just a way that we are going to streamline our citation. When it comes to citations in your paragraphs, authors last name comma year of publication. That is the full information that you need. Excellent. I see a lot of really great information here.

I'm going to go ahead to the next slide.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Discussion Board Post: Answer

  • Westings, A. Y. (2013, February 12). Module 2 discussion [Online discussion post].
  • (Westings, 2013) or
  • (Westings, 2013, para. 2)
    • Page = p.
    • Paragraph = para.

Audio: [Max] Here we go. Here is our answer here. The other thing I added here is a comma and Para period 2. And this is indicating that -- sometimes if I'm using a quotation or even sometimes I just want to call my reader’s attention to a specific spot in the text, I can use this para period to show a paragraph which there wouldn't be on a discussion post I would use capital P period 2. O, just a few nuances to pay attention to with APA citations.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Course Video/Webcast

  • Walden University, LLC (Producer). (2013). Psychology in the workplace [Video webcast].
  • (Walden University, LLC, 2013)
  • According to Walden University, LLC (2013),

Audio: [Max] The final piece of course information that I'm going to touch on here is if there is a video embedded in your course that was published by your professor, you would -- here is how it works. Once again, we have Walden University, LLC as the author. And we've also added in parentheses here Producer. When it comes to video, there's a lot of cooks in the kitchen so to speak. It takes a lot of hands to create and produce a video. There's the narrator, the director, the cinematographer. And finally, the reason we use Walden University, LLC and included them as the producer is because usually there's one person or group responsible for overseeing the whole thing, producing the entire video. That's why we used Walden University, LLC producer. We still have our date in parentheses. Our title and then here we have used the term video webcast along with the URL for the course.

And just as a reminder here's what our in-text citations look like.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: What if we want to cite a speaker in the video?

  • The key is to give context within your sentence
  • In the course video, Zuckerman (Walden University, LLC, 2013) advised students to read critically.

Audio: [Max] A question that often comes up for this type of source is what if I actually want to give information from one of the speakers of the video. This gives a little more complicated but really the rule of thumb -- let's say Doctor Zuckerman was giving a lecture in the video that was produced by Walden University, LLC. You would want to use the context and describe that situation for the reader while still using our formal author date citation. Here's what it would look like. In the course video, Zuckerman and then I switched my citation with the author and date, advised students to read critically. So, you can use your language, you can use your cues to help your reader understand specifically what is happening and who is speaking here.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: eReader Books (with no DOI information)

Audio: [Max] Finally the final nontraditional source I want to touch on here is what do we do with the reader books. E-books are becoming more and more popular and in fact I'm guessing that some of you are probably purchasing your APA 7 manual as an e-book. I think that is really great. And so, a couple of notes here. E-books along with many other electronic sources, some are published with DOI numbers. I won't get into what a DOI number is; if you want more information on that, check out the website. Maybe Kacy or Claire could drop a link in the box about DOIs and how to access those. But if your e-book has a DOI, sorry, if your e-book has no DOI, then it will look just like a book reference entry and only then you will add the URL at the end of it. We have our author, our date, the title of the book, the publisher and we also have the link to where you accessed that e-book.

If you want more information about e-books, then you can always click this link and it will take you out to the APA style blog.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: eReader Books (with DOI)

  • Inman, J. A. (2000). Taking flight with OWLs: Explaining electronic Writing Center work. Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Citations:
    • Do NOT use location numbers
    • CAN use any of the following:
    • Page numbers
    • Paragraph numbers
    • Paragraph number + abbreviated heading
    • Abbreviated heading
  • See the APA Style Blog for more examples!

Audio: [Max] Here's the other type of book, e-book you might find with a DOI. Instead of the URL, now we just copy and paste the DOI number there and that way your reader can specifically find that particular book.

That's an eReader book with DOI and without DOI. Just a few notes on citations here with e-books. The e-book, many of them and I know this is a fact for Kindle versions, they have what is called the location number. The location number is not APA approved. Here's why. The location number will change based on how big your text is, how big your e-reader is, lots of different reasons. So, the location number is specific to your view. Now what you can use are any of these: page numbers, paragraph numbers, paragraph numbers and the heading and an -- abbreviated heading to draw your attention -- the reader’s attention to that information.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: eReader Books: Chat

  • Inman, J. A. (2000). Taking flight with OWLs: Explaining electronic Writing Center work. Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Chat #3: Create a citation for a quote on para. 5 of this source.

Audio: [Max] So, let's -- I've got a chat here. Kacy let's hold off and skip the chat. And let's just move right ahead. Let's go ahead and I wanted to give you the answer.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: eReader Books: Answer

  • Inman, J. A. (2000). Taking flight with OWLs: Explaining electronic Writing Center work. Taylor & Francis Group.
  • …. (Inman, 2000, para. 5)
    • OR
  • Inman (2000) noted that … (para. 5).

Audio: [Max] Many of you probably already have it in mind, but here is what, on paragraph five of the Inman book here's what we've got. Author date comma paragraph five just to show the reader where that particular information came from.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Questions?

  • Image: Question mark.


Audio: [Max] That is what we are looking at for e-books. And now I'm going to ask Kacy, have there been any patterns of questions that have come in, anything that is helpful for me to address out loud here?

[Kacy] Thank you Max, we've had great questions in the Q&A box so please keep those coming. One question we had, you gave an example with n.d. in the parentheses for the date. Are sources without dates consider reliable to use in something like a capstone document?

[Max] That's a really great question. I can see why the question came in. Because you might be thinking to yourself, if there's no date, how do I know that this information is actually credible and if there's no publication date, maybe it wasn't officially published and maybe it's something that some geek off the street is putting out there on the Internet, so it's definitely a really great question. So, my answer and this is my favorite answer to give as a writing teacher, it depends on the is situation. So, I will pose a different question to answer that question. For many websites, there is no publication date. For example, a site like the CDC, Centers for Disease Control, it’s a US government website. They publish a lot of data and a lot of information to the website and since it constantly gets updated, they don't always include a date. So, if you are -- my question is, is the CDC, a government agency, a credible source information? The answer is yes, even though there's no official publication date, it really depends on the source. So, whenever I'm describing or answering questions about is the source reliable, can we trust the source? I always give that it depends answer, so that's where you have to use your critical thinking skills as a student. You have to dig in deeper and follow the money and check for bias and find out for your own uses is this a good source. So, I think to answer that question specifically, it doesn't -- there's no easy way to tell. But I think if you see n.d., it might worth taking a second look at that source and digging a little bit deeper.

[Kacy] Thanks, Max. And one more question before we move on. Would you recommend buying the APA 7 manual, particularly if you already have the APA 6?

[Max] Sorry, I love this question. Yes. I would recommend it. For one, the color scheme on the APA 7 Manual is very pretty now. It has some orange and blue, it's an autumn feel. For one it looks nice on the shelf and for 2, even if you get the e-book version, I think the E-book version is really effective too. It is really nice and reassuring to have that with you wherever you go. Our Writing Center resources are really, really exhaustive and comprehensive. So, you always have access to those. But the APA manual is kind of the final word. If there's ever a discrepancy, if you ever need to find a specific rule and you want to say maybe point it out to peer or talk about it with your faculty member it's helpful to have the page number and section. So yes, I would recommend having the full APA manual with you and then if you're traveling or working on your capstone project or something like that, you have it on the desk next to you and it changes the mindset and makes you feel a little bit more like a scholarly writer. I would and what do you think Kacy? Do you have a copy of the APA 7 manual?

[Kacy] I do have a copy and I agree with basically everything you're saying Max, including about the aesthetics of the book. We've also had a number of participants of the webinar comment in the Q&A box that they also have found that the new manual very helpful and they are very glad that they bought it. So, a lot of feedback and positive feedback.

[Max] Excellent, wonderful. Thank you all for participating and keep those questions coming. And Kacy and Claire, thank you so much for being there behind the scenes and answering all these great questions that are coming in. So, keep it up and just thank you for your attention and being here with us today. Let's keep moving forward.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Other Nontraditional Sources:

Audio: [Max] I would like to shift a little bit into talking a bit more specifically about citations with other nontraditional sources here. There are a lot of quirks and nuances in the APA manual and remember, these are not just to make your life harder. These are quirks, nuances that are necessary because of how complex scholarly research is and source-based writing. So, these will hopefully answer a lot of your questions so you don't have to go digging through that manual when it arrives now that you have placed an online order that.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Personal Communication: Chat

  • Chat #4: You conduct an interview with your boss, Anthony Fauci, on March 15, 2020.  What should your citation (narrative or parenthetical) look like?

Audio: [Max] Let's switch right into a chat question. This advanced material here so let's see how we can do. You have conducted an interview with your boss Anthony Fauci on March 15, 2020. And you are going to use the information from that interview in a paper that you are writing for Walden. And a lot of social workers out there, if you're in your social work program this will be really important for you because there are assignments in your program that look just like this. What will your citation look like for this particular -- this information, this personal communication that doesn't have a particular publication? And I will mute here for a second and see how we can do.

Excellent. I am seeing a lot of -- I am seeing the author date come through clear. You will get that piece very well. So, what I will point your attention to is those of you adding that little bit of extra information that indicates to the reader that this is personal communication.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Personal Communication: Answer

  • ..… (A. Fauci, personal communication, March 15, 2020).
  • A. Fauci (personal communication, March 15, 2020) stated…
  • à Do not include a reference entry for personal communication sources.

Audio: [Max] Those of you who have added that bit about personal communications, you are spot on. You put -- this differs from what I was describing before. Author -- sources first initial period last name comma and the words personal communication comma and then the specific date that that personal communication came up.

The reason we add the extra information to the citation is because you will see this here and blue, in this box here, you do not include a reference entry for personal communication sources. Why not? Because the references entry and references list is for sources that have been published. They are in documented form and captured in a permanent way somehow, but the nature of personal communication is more -- of the essence. It comes and disappears. And so that is why you don't include a references entry and why you want to include this little bit of extra information about personal communication here in the box, in your citation. Excellent job. Those of you who knew that already, well done and way to be on top of the ball and those of you who used author date, excellent you are on the right track and you understand citations and the system with references. Now with this particular nuance, you will want to add personal communication.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Secondary Source

  • You read about what Ryan and Zimmerelli (2006) said in the following book: 
  • Garrett, B. (2015). Brain & behavior: An introduction to biological psychology (4th ed.). SAGE Publications.
  • …. (Ryan & Zimmerelli, 2006, as cited in Garrett, 2015).
  • According to Ryan and Zimmerelli (2006, as cited in Garrett, 2015), …

Audio: [Max] Another nuance that you want to think about is secondary sources. Secondary sources is when -- let's say you're reading the Garrett source and you are -- and Garrett is using information from the Ryan and Zimmerelli source and you want to use that information from the Ryan and Zimmerelli source in your paper. How do you do that? You use what is considered a secondary citation. So, in your citation first comes the original source of the information. Ryan and Zimmerelli comma and that publication date and then you use those words as cited in -- then you use the citation of the source that you're actually holding. So, remember you’re holding the Garrett source and reading through the textbook and Garrett is talking about Ryan and Zimmerelli. Here's the format that you will use for that. We call this secondary source citation. And in APA lingo, so keep that in mind. If you want to pull information from a source, that was published in a different source, here's what it looks like.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Sources with the Same Author/Year

  • Using multiple webpages from the same web site
  • Using multiple journal articles from an author who published multiple articles in one year
  • Citing different data sets from the same source 
  • Image: Screen capture of the Institute of Education Sciences website, showing multiple different pages of resources for researchers on the IES website.

Audio: [Max] So the next nuance that I like to cover is what do you do with sources when you have multiple sources that have the same author and the same year? This could be really tricky because if you think about our author date format for citations, you will see that this can be complicated and be unclear for readers. If I have two different sources from this website, so this is the Institute of Education Sciences website. And I'm writing about mythological resources. But I also am using information from their peer review process website. This is going to be complicated because it is the same year and has the same author. So, what do we do there? Right correct.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Sources with the Same Author/Year: Chat

  • Institute of Education Sciences. (2013a). Methodological resources.
  • Institute of Education Sciences. (2013b). Peer review process.
    • Use lower-case letters next to date of pub.
  • Chat #5: Create a narrative citation for one or both of these sources.

Audio: [Max] In the references entry we use the subscript A and B to differentiate between those two sources. Remember if I'm pulling information from different webpages on the same website, I need to create difference reference entries for each of those and the way I differentiate is with the A and B and subscript. You use the lowercase letters and then you use the specific URL for that.

Let's go ahead into the chat here. And I would like to see if you all can create a narrative citation for one or both of these sources. And feel free to use multiple sentences or maybe even put them in the same citation which would be an advanced lesson too. So, I will mute and take a look at the responses. I see the first question that came in: how do you know which is A or B? You will actually keep the alphabetical order going here. So, the sources are identical until you get to the title of the source. So, M for methodological comes first and P for peer review comes after that so you methodological comes first and then peer-reviewed comes second so 2013a and 2013b. So, to answer that question, you put them in order based on the first letter of the title.

I will mute and let you think for a few seconds and then we will move forward.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Sources with the Same Author/Year: Chat

  • Institute of Education Sciences. (2013a). Methodological resources.
  • Institute of Education Sciences. (2013b). Peer review process.
    • Use lower-case letters next to date of pub.
  • According to the Institute of Education Sciences (2013a )…
  • The Institute of Education Sciences (2013b) showed…

Audio: [Max] Excellent. I feel like maybe you all saw my slides ahead of time. Getting answers early. Just kidding. Excellent job. If you want to refer to the first source here, 2013a, the second source 2013b. The same mechanics work no matter what is in the author date position in the references entry. The author comma date goes into the citation.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Citation Quick Tips

Audio: [Max] Let's move on. So, there we go, those are more tips and I would like to close out the session today with a couple of additional citation Quick Tips that are going to be very helpful to you as you're going about especially as you're getting into your long research papers with lots of sources and lots of citations and lots of evidence being presented to support your ideas. And one of these is very, there's a big change for one of these for APA 6 to 7 and so keep your eyes open for the logo here. If you want more information about either of those rules or other citation variation rules for APA style, click the link and you'll go to the website for our APA citation variation.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Citation Quick Tips: Citing Multiple Sources in One Citation

  • The history of professional baseball often mirrors the broader history of the United States. For example, Jackie Robinson fought to desegregate Major League Baseball as the civil rights movement was escalating in all sectors of American society (Boras, 2012; Burns, 2009; Molitor & Yount, 2012).
    • Semicolon to separate sources

Audio: [Max] Let's say you wanted to use both of those multiple citations, multiple sources to cite a single point. Let's say you have noticed over the course of your research that three, two different sources or three different sources are making a similar argument. You can include all three of those sources in the same citation. So, “The history of professional baseball often mirrors the broader history of United States. For example, Jackie Robinson fought to desegregate Major League Baseball as the civil rights movement was escalating in all sectors of American society.” Now we have three different sources that of all made that point and we put them in the same parentheses. And we separate those with semicolons. Other than that, the formatting of the citations stays the same. And similarly to our previous example, the authors go in alphabetical order here in the parentheses as well.

That is how we show -- these three sources are all making a similar argument, all of the sources are supporting this paraphrase that I put into my paper.

Now I would like to finish with a believe it or not, a shortcut that APA style has offered us. If ever you are feeling really discouraged and just thinking, darn you APA style, why don't you do anything to help me? Here's an example of when you can -- how APA style can help you.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Citation Quick Tips: Using et al.

  • Using “et al.” in citations (meaning “and others”)
  • 1-2 authors: Never use
  • 3 or more authors: Always use every time
  • Sports, baseball among them, are a source of shared values and community (Puckett et al., 2020). Puckett et al. (2010) also noted that when professional sports are unavailable, local populations come together around playing and spectating their community sports teams.
  • Image: APA 7 transition logo.

Audio: [Max] This is the citation nuance called et al. Et space al period and this is the Latin term that means and others or and all. And I know that; it happens to be the only Latin phrase that I know. And so that's why I like to point out that it's a Latin phrase. So, it means and others which means you can use that term to stand in your citations for the list of authors that you don't mention.

So, if you're using et al., it's an education to your reader that there other authors involved. But you will use the authors first, the first author’s name and then you use et al. period comma and then the date. That way, your reader can still find the source based on your citation in the references page. So, I have Puckett 2010 which tells me et al. -- if I want to find my source on the references list, I can find that name and the rest of the authors will be listed so that function between references and citation still holds together here. Remember that is the main goal is to make sure your citations match your references and references match your citations.

So, in APA style for one or two authors, never use et al. If there are one or two authors listed, you will spell them out every time. If you have three or more authors, you will always use that phrase every time.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Using “et al.” in citations with three or more authors

  • APA 6:
    • “Et al.” was only used in subsequent citation after the first time a source was cited with all authors listed
  • APA 7:
    • For simplification, “et al.” is used in all citations for sources with three or more authors listed

Audio: [Max] I will fly in our little transition graphic here and compare APA 6 to APA 7. Those of you who have been using et al. in APA 6, you should be breathing a sigh of relief because; this is one of the shortcuts that has been streamlined and APA style has made it a lot easier for us to use that phrase in citations. Before there were tricks and nuances and if it had six sources you do it one way and five sources you do it a different way or two sources you do it a different way. Here, that was APA 6. APA 7 for simplification et al. is used in all citations with three or more authors listed.

I will go back to the paragraph here to show you the citation in parentheses and the citation in narrative form. Authors space et space al space period.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Final Quick Tips: Using APA Resources

Audio: [Max] I’m going to close out now. One of our objectives for today’s session was to give you all the information that you might want -- links all the information so you can go back and access this information when it is relevant to you. I totally understand that APA style is not something you can learn in a one-hour session. So that is why I wanted to document all the sources of information that you can use.

We have a whole host of APA webinars. We have APA modules. And then I put a plug-in for this earlier. Our paper review services, this is the premium service for all Walden students are working on their prospectus or below. If you're working on coursework, all the way up through your prospectus, you can and should take advantage of this. Myself, Kacy, Claire, and 16 other writing teachers work every day with student papers. So, the way this works is you come in and make an appointment and you submit your paper. Whatever form your paper is in, whether a draft or an outline or a polished piece of work or masters capstone document, you submit that and then the day or the day after your appointment you will receive your paper back with feedback provided to you by our writing instructors.

All of our writing instructors have advanced degrees in teaching writing in one way shape or form. We are here to help you learn. In fact, if you click that link and check out our paper review schedule, you will see that myself and likely Kacy and Claire have paper review openings as we speak. So, you can get an appointment for today, tomorrow, up to two weeks in the future. And I highly recommend you utilize that. One of the major differences between Walden University and almost all other online universities out there is that we have a huge staff of writing instructors waiting to help you, ready to support you and help you become an independent scholar when it comes to writing.

And if you need help or support or if you just have a quick question about APA 7, maybe your manual hasn't shipped yet you're still waiting for that to arrive in the mail, you can always email us: And that's going to be for general writing questions. This email box is staffed Monday through Friday, 24 hours a day, and you can expect a response within 24 hours and oftentimes immediately. And then the times depend during the weekend but any question you have whether it be about formatting or about citation rule or about paraphrasing, email into our email. Our trained professionals are answering those emails.

For those starting your capstone process, if you have specific questions about capstone information. What is the lit review chapter look like? How do I format these figures and tables? I recommend using and they are trained editors that will help us, help you answer all those questions.

On our homepage too you can click these links and access live chat. We have live chat hours throughout the week and we have quick answers that we have anticipated a lot of common questions you might have and respond to those. And we also have our common references list examples page which you can see in action a lot of these rules and tricks and nuances that I've been describing today.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Questions: Ask Now or Later

Audio: [Max] With that, I wanted to have another slide that has a lot of our resources on it. Make a paper review appointment. I love working with students. I love learning about your research interests. I love supporting you along your Walden journey. I believe in my heart that the social change work that you all are doing is important. And just because you don't have the writing skills right now to express yourself and to share your ideas and research with someone, doesn't mean that your social change mission is any different. So I am here and it is my goal and my duty to help you express those ideas, because as we know right now, it's so important that we are pointing ourselves in a good direction and that we are working to help each other and support each other. So please come see me and make an appointment with Kacy, with Claire, with any of our awesome writing instructors and just be willing to ask for help and be willing to embrace this process even if you don't feel like you're an expert. We are here to help you.

With that, I'm going to stop my soliloquy and let you know that it's an honor to be able to support you in any way that I can. Thank you so much; I'm going to mute myself now. I will let Kacy set it down if there any other questions I can answer those but thank you so much for taking the time to be here today and it's really been a pleasure to be able to present this information to you.

[Kacy] Thank you so much Max and thank you for joining us and we hope to see you at another webinar sometimes soon.