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Citations: Citation Variations

Citation Variations

Below are some common variations of sources and how to cite them.

For examples of how to format reference entries for these sources, consult our common examples list, as well as the APA FAQ.

Type of Source First Time In-Text Second and Following Time In-Text First Time in Parentheses Second and Following Time in Parentheses
Book Pezalla and Culver (2010) Pezalla and Culver (2010) (Pezalla & Culver, 2010) (Pezalla & Culver,2010)
Course Study Notes (No Author) "Public Speaker" (2010) "Public Speaker" (2010) ("Public Speaker," 2010) ("Public Speaker," 2010)
DVD Laureate Education (2008) Laureate Education (2008) (Laureate Education, 2008) (Laureate Education, 2008)
Three, Four, or Five Authors Rhodes, Grant, Skinner, Graham, and Dreiber (2007) Rhodes et al. (2007) (Rhodes, Grant, Skinner, Graham, & Dreiber, 2007) (Rhodes et al., 2007)
Group Authors Veteran Affairs (2012) Veteran Affairs (2012) (Veteran Affairs, 2012) (Veteran Affairs, 2012)
Multiple Authors with the Same Date

Walden University (2012a)

Walden University (2012b)

Walden University (2012a)

Walden University (2012b)

Walden University (2012a)

Walden University (2012b)

Walden University (2012a)

Walden University (2012b)

Multiple Sources in Same Citation Walden University (2012a, 2012b), Franklin (2010), and Brander (2009) Walden University (2012a, 2012b), Franklin (2010), and Brander (2009) (Brander, 2009; Franklin, 2010; Walden University, 2012a, 2012b) (Brander, 2009; Franklin, 2010; Walden University, 2012a, 2012b)
No Date Mayo Clinic (n.d.) Mayo Clinic (n.d.) (Mayo Clinic, n.d.) (Mayo Clinic, n.d.)
Organization's Website Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2012) CDC (2012) (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2012) (CDC, 2012)
Personal Communication M. Smith (personal communication, February 3, 2012) M. Smith (personal communication, February 3, 2012) (M. Smith, personal communication, February 3, 2012) (M. Smith, personal communication, February 3, 2012)
Secondary Source Oyler (as cited in Skarbakka, 2011) Oyler (as cited in Skarbakka, 2011) (Oyler, as cited in Skarbakka, 2011) (Oyler, as cited in Skarbakka, 2011)
Six or More Authors Kubista et al. (2012) Kubista et al. (2012) (Kubista et al., 2012) (Kubista et al., 2012)

Adapted from p. 177 in The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.)