Commas are punctuation marks with a variety of uses. The following constructions require commas:
Example: This KAM consists of Breadth, Depth, and Application.This punctuation rule is also followed for parallel construction in a series.
Example: Walden University, established in 1970, offers many degree programs.Note that without the middle clause ("established in 1970"), the sentence still makes sense ("Walden University offers many degree programs"). Therefore, the clause is nonessential. For more information, view the page on relative, restrictive, and nonrestrictive clauses.
Example: Smith (2001) conducted the research, and Heller (2008) commented on the results.
Example of introductory clause: If you are using this sentence structure, place a comma after the dependent clause.
Example of introductory phrase: Before completing the interviews, I must obtain Walden University approval.
Example of introductory word: Therefore, I created three research questions.
Example of introductory word: However, further research is needed.
Example: The hospital's pursuit of Magnet status was successful (R. Jones, personal communication, September 18, 2009).
Example: The research was "inconclusive in its implications" (Sanders, 2009, p. 45).
Example: Freud (1900) claimed, "the dreamer...assumes that the dream--even if it does not come from another world--has at all events transported the dreamer into another world" (p. 5).
The following constructions do not require commas:
Example: I conducted the study in June 2003.
Example: Smith (2001) found that the results were consistent although some details in the approaches differed.
Example: Freud (1900) claimed that "the dreamer...assumes that the dream--even if it does not come from another world--has at all events transported the dreamer into another world" (p. 5).
Example: Jessica and I went to the movies, we had a good time.
There are many ways to correct the sentence above. Review the information on run-on sentences for examples of correctly joining independent clauses.
Note that these videos were created while APA 6 was the style guide edition in use. There may be some examples of writing that have not been updated to APA 7 guidelines.