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The text-based instruction on our webpages has been updated to APA 7 guidelines as of May 4, 2020. For more information, please visit our APA 7 Transition page
A hyphen is a punctuation mark that connects words.
Use a hyphen when a compound phrase is used as an adjective to modify the following word:
Example: The peer-reviewed research suggested...
Example: As a fourth-grade teacher, I...
Example: Anderson (1998) tried to avoid face-to-face conflicts.
Do Not Use Hyphens...
- When a compound word comes after the noun it modifies.
Incorrect: The research was peer-reviewed.
Correct: The peer-reviewed research...
- Using most prefixes and suffixes. Words such as "extra" and "phobia" can be combined with other words without using a hyphen.
Example: The unbiased study displayed multifaceted information about agoraphobia.
Here is a list of these prefixes and suffixes: