Skip to Main Content
OASIS Writing Skills

Webinar Transcripts:
APA 7 at a Glance: Changes and Support for the Switch

Transcripts for the Writing Center's webinars.

APA 7 at a Glance: Changes and Support for the Switch

Presented May 5, 2020

View the recording

Last updated 5/26/2020


Visual: Introduction slide showing with title of webinar: APA 7 at a Glance: Changes and Support for the Switch. Names of Writing Center support showing: Beth Nastachowski, Amber Cook, Amy Bakke, and Martha King.

Audio: Hello everyone and welcome to the webinar today. My name is Beth Nastachowski and I am going to be our presenter today for our APA 7 at a Glance webinar: Changes and Support for the Switch. I am joined by my wonderful colleagues Amber Cook, Amy Bakke and Martha King who will all be monitoring the Q&A box for you today. So, I'm very thankful to them for their expertise and their time and support throughout this session. And I know they’ll be a great resource throughout the session for your questions and comments.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: Contact Hours for Nurses Content:

Accreditation Statement: Walden University is accredited as a provider of nursing continuing professional development through the American Nurses Credentialing Center’s Commission on Accreditation.

Disclosures: The planners and presenters of this nursing continuing professional development activity disclose that there are no financial relationships (those held by the planner or significant other, currently or within the last 12 months) with commercial interests.

Audio: Before I go into the agenda and talk about the session, I have a couple housekeeping notes. The first is that there are contact hours available for nurses attending the session, this is our accreditation and disclosure statement for that. If you are a nurse and will be needing hours for the webinar, we will have information at the end of the webinar.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: Housekeeping Content:

  • Recording: Will be available online within 24 hours.
  • Interact: Polls, files, and links are interactive.
  • Q&A: Now: Use the Q&A box. Later: Send to or visit our Live Chat Hours.
  • Help: Ask in the Q&A box. Choose “Help” in the upper right-hand corner of the webinar room

Audio: A couple of quick housekeeping notes. So, I am recording this webinar and will be posting that recording in our webinar archive within 24 hours. It should be up by tomorrow morning. So, if you have to leave for any reason or you would like to come back and review this session, you are more than welcome to do so. I know that we’ll be covering a lot of information today so it could be useful for you. And you might also recommend this to some of your fellow students. So, feel free to do so in our webinar archive, and a link to that will also be available in the email you will receive after the session.

We also encourage you to interact with us in this session. So, we were using the polls and the chats in the lobby beforehand. We will have a couple of polls throughout the session just to give a pulse check on how you are all feeling about the changes. So, I encourage you to interact with those.

We also have the “Files” pod at the bottom, right-hand corner where you can download the slides we are presenting here today. But if you don’t get a chance to download them tonight, they are also available in the webinar recording. You can always go to the recording to access those slides. We have links throughout the slides to further information, and those are clickable as well. You can click on those and they will open a new tab on your browser. So, either do that during the session as I am displaying these slides or in the files pod by downloading the slides and you can have access to those links.

We also have the Q&A box available for you and we will have it available throughout the session. We encourage you to ask questions and let us know how you are doing with all the changes in the Q&A box. And that is where you can ask questions if you have technical issues as well. We have a couple of tips and tricks we can give you so that is a good place to go. I will say we have a lot of content to cover today. So, I encourage you to ask your question as soon as you have it. Because when we go to the next slide, we will probably be moving on and you might forget your questions. Be sure to ask the questions as soon as you have them, and that will make sure Amber and Martha and Amy can respond as well. If you have questions after the session itself, we encourage you to email us or visit the live chat hours. We know that you might think of a question after the session or at the end of the session it may get busy and we may not get to all the questions, but just know we're always here to help as well.

I already mentioned the technical issues a little bit but there's a help button at the top right-hand corner and that's a great place to go for significant technical issues. Sometimes students notice a lag between the audio and visual, so if what I am talking about is not matching the visual slide in front of you, close out the browser and webinar and just open it up in a new browser with just the webinar open in that browser. Reloading it can often help fix those issues.


Visual: Slide changes to the following, Title: Agenda Content:                                                                                                                 

  • APA 7 key dates and resources
  • APA 7 changes:
    • Spirit guiding the new edition
    • Overview of changes across categories
    • Details of changes to commonly used rules
  • Support, resources, and Q&A

Audio: Our agenda today, I know it looks quite simple on this slide, but we have a lot to cover. I will start out by going over APA 7 key dates and resources. A lot of this is information that has been communicated on the website and through your email, but we want to make sure to have this available as you think about the switch to APA 7.

I will switch over to talking about APA 7 itself and the changes we see and the manual. I see in the poll in the lobby, many of you have been working with APA for over a year and some are only beginning and some of you are newer to APA 7, and that's a great place to be. In the session, I will be focusing on the shifts from 6 to 7, so I will not be talking about APA itself. If there is a rule in APA that has not changed from six to seven, I will not be talking about it. If you are new to APA or think there are some gaps in what I'm talking about, I encourage you to see the other webinars being presented this week and next week. Those will definitely be presented in APA 7 and will fill in the gaps for you. This session really is for those looking for the specific changes from 6 to 7. So, having that foundational knowledge of APA 6 will really help you in this session. As I talk about APA 7, I will be talking about the spirit guiding the new edition and what we are seeing overall. I will provide a brief overview of the changes so you can get a sense of what is coming. And then we will go over the details of those changes.

I will end with support resources and Q&A. So that is our focus for the session today, we will spend the bulk of our time in the middle part and hopefully help make you all feel a little more at ease with some of these changes and answer your questions.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: APA Key Dates & Resources Content:


  • APA 7 will be the new standard for writing assignments starting with summer terms:
    • May 4 (for semester-based programs)
    • June 1 (for quarter-based and Tempo programs)
  • Doctoral capstones: Grace period for APA 6 through 2020
    • Students with URR approval of their final study/project by the end of 2020 may complete that study in APA 6 or APA 7, in consultation with their chair.
    • Beginning January 1, 2021, all doctoral capstone documents must follow APA 7 guidelines.

Audio: I am going to dive right into our information here about the key dates and resources. These are the switchover dates that have been communicated from the University level. APA 7 will be the new standard for writing assignments starting on May 4th for semester-based programs and June 1st for quarter based and temple programs. The writing center has already begun and often throughout our resources started that shift. For us in the writing center we are now working within APA 7 primarily for many resources although I will note whether there are discrepancies.

For doctoral capstones there is a grace period for APA 6 through 2020. Meaning students with a URR approval of final study or project by the end of 2020 may complete their study in APA 6 or 7, and that is up to you as well as your chair to make that determination. If you are not sure the grace period applies to you, let us know in the Q&A box, and we can help provide guidance there if we have enough information. But we also have email addresses where you can email and that might be great place to go just to present and talk to your specific situation. I will note that you should always talk to your faculty and chair and they can help you think through these things as well. The beginning, January 1, 2021, all doctoral capstones at that point will then follow APA 7 guidelines.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: APA 7 Key Dates & Resources Content:


Audio: Some resources to help you. We have this webinar today which I hope will be a helpful resource for you all. But we realize that this is just one way you are dipping your toes into APA 7, so we have curated all the resources and updates for the APA 7 transition on the APA seven transition webpage which is linked here. And we have an email account at We encourage you to use these two resources and let us know what questions you have and how we can support you.

Starting this week, with the May 4th transition date, the writing center’s main webpage and templates have been updated as well as the videos and modules that focus on APA. We have APA webinars for the next two weeks, so all the APA webinars will be updated for APA 7 by May 15th as well. So, we’re making that switch over to APA 7 in our resources to make sure you have the information to use APA 7 once you have the transition date for your program.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: APA 7 Key Dates & Resources Content:


  • Moving forward:
    • New blog posts an podcast episodes
    • Videos, modules, and webinars with APA 7 examples

Audio: Moving forward, I note that any new blog posts we publish, podcast episodes and other resources with APA resources will be updated and start using APA 7. For us in the writing center, we are adopting and embracing APA 7 as we move forward, and I wanted to make sure you knew about that.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: APA 7 Key Dates Content:

            Upcoming Webinars: (Links updated to Recorded Webinars)

APA 7 at a Glance: Change and Support for the Switch for Doctoral Capstone Students

Wednesday, May 6, 1:00 p.m. ET

APA Citations Part 1: Methods to the Madness

Wednesday, May 6, 7:00 p.m. ET

APA Citations Part 2: Nontraditional Sources

Thursday, May 7, 1:00 p.m. ET

APA Formatting & Style: Beyond Citing Sources

Monday, May 11, 8:00 p.m. ET

Top 10 Errors: Reference List Checklist

Tuesday, May 12, 3:00 p.m. ET

How and When to Include APA Citations

Wednesday, May 13, 1:00 p.m. ET

Plagiarism Prevention: The Three Components to Avoiding Plagiarism

Wednesday, May 13, 8:00 p.m. ET

Audio: I mentioned our APA webinars. They are listed on this slide so if you download the slides you will see this, and you received all these webinars in your email, and they are on our website. If you are capstones student and your thinking specifically about the doctoral capstone you are writing, we have a version of this webinar that will be presented tomorrow for you students, so that is an option for you to attend and then all the other sessions listed are the normal APA webinars the writing center offers and they focus on teaching APA 7. If you find that some of what I'm talking about are gaps in your knowledge of APA I recommend signing up for the webinars or watching the recordings.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: Overview of APA 7 Changes

Audio: Those are the resources and key information and dates. And we are now, I feel like there should be a little bit of a drum roll, we are now diving into the actual APA 7 changes.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: Overview of APA 7 Changes Content:

  • Clarifications of many rules
  • Updates for current researching and publishing practices
  • Material specific to student writers, separate from published writers
  • Embracing inclusivity, particularly around accessibility, gender, and identity

Audio: First, what we want to really help start this off with, before we dive into the specific details, is thinking about the Spirit guiding the new edition of APA. From a professional and somewhat personal perspective for myself, I've been working with APA for over 10 years now. I started working in APA with the APA 6 edition. So, when the seventh edition was announced I was a little apprehensive and was not quite sure what it meant. And change is always hard, so I'm right there with you with some of the anxiety that I saw you expressing before the webinar started about having to switch over. And I want to emphasize for you all that we in the writing center are with students and faculty. We are all in this transition together and all making this transition and learning about it.

When we talk about transition, we are not expecting the switch will be something we could just flip a switch and you will know APA 7. It takes a little bit of practice and a little bit of time in looking through APA 7 and getting used to it and changing habits. I want to emphasize that it takes some time, and we hope the webinar will be a good start for you in making that switch. But we do not expect that after you leave the webinar, you'll be an expert in APA 7. Just know this is a start of the transition for you in learning APA 7.

After I got over my anxiety of APA 7 a bit and was able to look at the manual itself, I was really happy with the changes that we saw in APA 7. If you walk away with anything, know that at least many of us in the writing center were pleased with some of the changes we saw. There's a clarification of many rules throughout APA 7, which was helpful. There were some rules that were confusing or needed interpretation that were clarified in APA 7. And it recognizes updates to research and publishing practices. It is actually more applicable for Walden students who've been on the forefront of online researching and publishing for quite some time. Sometimes we've had to adjust things in APA 6 because of that. APA 7 definitely recognizes all the updates in research and publishing practices which was good to see as well.

APA 7 recognizes and has information for dual audiences. It recognizes that it is used by writers who are publishing for a specific journals and other publishing venues. But also, that students use APA 7 throughout their courses. So, there is information specific to student writers which is great to see.

We also saw some great adjustments and additions to APA 7 that embrace inclusivity particularly around accessibility, gender and identity. We will look at those in the next couple of slides.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: Learning APA 7 Content:

Encourage approaching the new rules in a spirit

of learning and openness to working through

change together.

  • Overview of changes used most often by most Walden students
  • See our doctoral capstone-specific webinar on May 6 for capstone details
  • Peruse the APA 6 and 7 comparison chart for all details

Audio: I mentioned this already, but I want to emphasize, we encourage you to approach these new rules with a spirit of learning and openness in working through this change together. We know that especially in our world right now with everything going on and the pandemic, that change is hard and there's a lot of things that are uncertain. And we definitely recognize that, and we are here with you. And we want to encourage you to come with us on this, in this spirit of learning and openness in going through this transition with us.

Today I will do an overview of the changes most often used by Walden students. But just a reminder that we have that doctoral specific webinar tomorrow. If you are not sure if that applies to you, feel free to ask Amber or Amy or Martha in the Q&A box. And then we also have a comparison chart linked in our slides. I was wondering if Martha or Amber or Amy, if you would not mind accessing the comparison chart link and sending it through the Q&A box? That could be helpful for those of you looking for one place to look at the changes between six and seven that I will talk about tonight. If you could throw that in the Q&A box that would be really helpful. Thank you.

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: Overview of Changes Content:

  • Expanded guidance on points of confusion or lack of specificity in APA 6 as well as new areas of content.
  • Organization and tone geared toward dual audience of publishing professionals and students.

Audio: An overview of the changes I’m going to talk about today. As I mentioned, there is expanded guidance on APA 7 on points of confusion or lack of specificity in APA 6. And we have the dual audience for publishing professionals and students.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: Overview of Changes Content:

            Key Changes in Style

  • Heading styles for 3, 4, and 5
  • One space after a period in the narrative
  • Numbers in an abstract no longer an exception
  • Running head not required for student papers

Audio: Some key changes we will talk about in terms of style include changes to heading levels, spaces after a period, numbers in the abstract and the running head. I will talk specifically about this in the next section, but we are providing an overview of what I will be covering right now.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: Overview of Changes Content:

            Key Changes in Reference Entries

  • Publisher location no longer necessary
  • Issue numbers always listed when available
  • Direct guidance to use URL version of DOIs
  • Italicize webpage titles

Audio: In reference entries, key changes include publisher location, which is not necessary when talking about books, issue numbers are always listed when we talk about journal articles, and more direct guidance on using that URL version of DOI's as well as italicizing webpage titles.

I will provide examples and details of all this, and I'm just giving you a preview of the preview, if you will.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: Overview of Changes Content:

            Key Changes in Citations

  • Consistent use of et al. with all sources of 3 or more authors
  • Citation frequency focuses on a balance of citation

Audio: Most of the changes in APA 7 that I think are significant are about references and so citations are pretty easy actually. In terms of changes, there were not many changes to citations except to how we use et al. as well as direct guidance on citation frequency and summary.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: In Detail: Style Changes

Audio: Now that we've done an overview and thinking about APA 7 and all these different things, I will now dive into detailed style changes. Although style changes I previewed, I will talk about in detail and give examples. Before I dive into this, I will talk to these examples and at the end of the session we will do a pulse check and see how you are doing and feeling about the changes.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: Paper Elements and Format Content:

            Changes that have been reflected in our templates:

  • 2.4 Title on title page should be in bold
  • 2.8 Running head omitted in student papers
  • 2.28 Section labels (e.g., References, Abstract) bold and centered

Audio: We start with discussing some changes that relate to paper elements and format that have been reflected in the Writing Center’s templates. You'll see the templates on the Writing Center website now reflect APA 7. The title on title pages should now be in bold and the running head is omitted in student papers. This is something that Walden adapted a few years ago, so it should not be a change for Walden students. But it is good to see it was firmly adopted for APA 7. Additionally, section labels, which include the references list and the abstract, are now bold and centered to reflect level 1 heading formatting and the title on the title page.

We do recommend you use the Walden templates that we have on the writing center website. Amy or Martha or Amber, if you wouldn't mind sending that link out to the Q&A box when you have a moment. That would be fantastic. Those templates are updated. So, they already reflect these changes. So, our recommendation is to download the most updated APA 7 template and use that to help you make the changes, so you don't have to make them on your own or manually.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: Heading Levels Content:

  • 2.27 Heading Levels all now use title case

Level 1 Heading (Centered, Bold, Title Case)

Level 2 Heading Subsection (Flush Left, Bold, Title Case)

Level 3 Heading (Flush Left, Bold Italic, Title Case [NEW])

            Level 4 Heading. (Indented, Bold, Title Case, Ends With Period [NEW]) Text begins…

            Level 5 Heading. (Indented, Bold Italic, Title Case, Ends With Period [NEW]) Text begins…

Audio: Heading levels now all use title case as well. In previous editions, they used title and sentence case, but they have now simplified that. It also made changes to level 3, level 4, and level 5 headings as you will see here. Level 1 and level 2 looks similar to APA 6, but level 3 headings now are still flush left, bolded but are also italicized. Level 4 headings are bolded and indented with the text beginning after that period on the heading. And you can see level 5 is differentiated with italics. Again, our templates are all updated with the heading levels, and so I recommend downloading the templates so you can use those heading levels as indicated in the templates themselves. I will also say that if you have the copy of the APA 7 manual, the inside cover has a helpful chart that includes what is on this slide. It is a great quick sheet or reference for heading levels.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: Singular “They” Content:

Each participant turned in their questionnaire.

Rowan helped themselves to the free coffee.

Audio: APA 7 has adopted the use of singular “they” for individuals that use they as the pronoun or if you do not know if a person uses he or she as their pronouns. This was something the writing center had encouraged for students who were working with populations or individuals who use they as the pronoun, so it reflects some changes we already had on the website. But, it's great to see this firmly adopted in APA 7. It is reinforced in the grammar chapter as well as the bias free language chapter of APA 7. If you're interested in seeing our 2017 inclusive language policy and practices for the writing center, you can see what those look like through the link on this slide. You see a couple examples here where “they” is used as a single pronoun. Each participant turned in their questionnaire and Rowan helped themselves to the free coffee.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: Mechanics Content:

  • 6.1 Use one space after a period.
  • 6.7 Use quotation marks (rather than italics) to refer to a letter, phrase, word, or sentence as itself or as a linguistic example.
    • The letter “m” answered “yes” or “no.”
  • 6.33 Numbers in abstract follow regular APA rules (rather than defaulting to numerals):
    • Participants included five women and five men.

Audio: In terms of mechanics, we have a couple of changes here. APA has formally adopted one space after the period when you aren't writing in a narrative. So, if you are used to and have the habit of including two spaces after a sentence, now APA is looking for the one space. This is a helpful change for me, but I know for many of my colleagues who are very used to two spaces, it will be a little bit of an adjustment. I just want to acknowledge that I know that is something that is very ingrained as we are typing. But I think it will be something we can switch over to.

Additionally, APA has specified that we use quotation marks instead of italics to refer to a letter, phrase, word, or sentence as itself or as a linguistic example. You can see that we have for example if your single letter “M”, M is in quotation marks and not italics.

Numbers in abstracts also are simplified. So, before numbers in abstracts were always presented as numerals. But now they follow regular APA rules. So, in this case, in this sentence, Participants included five women and three men, if that’s in the abstract in APA 6, we would have replaced the numbers five and three with numerals. But now, it follows the regular APA numeral rules. And those numeral rules have not changed. So, this is just how we present them in an abstract that’s changed.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: Spelling Indications Content:

  • 6.11 Spelling conventions affirmed for web terms:
  • email
  • internet
  • Wi-Fi
  • ebook/ereader
  • webpage/website
  • smartphone

Audio: A couple smaller things here are spelling indications. APA had a specified way to spell these particular words that they have now changed. One of my favorite ones is email. APA 6 addition had a hyphenated word e-mail but now has it all put together, and this reflects more common usage of these words. And so that is a little bit of an adjustment that we will also be making in APA 7.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: In Detail: Reference Entry Changes Poll opens that students respond in.

Audio: I will pull up the pulse check and see how we are doing on all of these. I have a little poll in the bottom right-hand corner when you think about the style changes I just went over, how are you all feeling about all this? Are you feeling overwhelmed or kind of okay or just processing, which is perfectly fine?

All right it is good to see many of you’re saying you will be fine once you get used to them. That's a great way to approach these. Just knowing the changes are there and we will have time to get used to them and make the shift in her habits and how we see these things. It's great that we are feeling pretty good. But I want to acknowledge that I entirely understand if you are processing or feeling overwhelmed. It can be a lot. And just remember all the resources that you have, and we are all in this together as well.

I am going to dive into the reference entry changes. These are what I would consider really the most extensive ones that Walden students will use. But also, while there are a fair amount of changes here, it is not overwhelming too much. And, I think the changes are really helpful once we get used to them. At first, I was apprehensive, but I really like some of these changes, and I think they clarify and streamline reference entries in a way that is helpful for us as writers and readers.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: Authors Content:

  • 9.8 Provide surnames and initials for up to 20 authors. If 21 or more, use the ellipsis after the 19th, followed by the last author, with no ampersand.

Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Saha, S., White, G., Woollen, J., Zhu, Y., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J., Mo, K. C., Ropelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetmaa,A., ... Joseph, D. (1996). The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 77(3), 437–471.

Audio: I will provide an overview of some of the main changes and talk about the changes themselves, but then I will dive into actual reference entries and talk about what this looks like in reference entries. So bear with me a little bit here.

One of the first changes APA 7 makes is how many authors to list in a reference list if there are a number of authors. In APA 7 we provide surnames and initials and list the authors for up to 20 authors. If there are 21 or more authors of an article or any source, then we use ellipses after the 19th followed by the last author. I think this will be used less than it was used in APA 6. But know that once we get up to a really large number of authors you will want to double check the number of authors and when you need to start leaving them off and including ellipses instead.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: DOIs and URLs Content:

  • 9.3 Any source (e.g., books, articles) with a DOI should include that DOI number, even if you accessed it in print.
  • 9.34 Simplified guidance on DOIs: If an online work (e.g., a journal article) has no DOI and was found through an academic research database, generally, no URL is needed. The reference will look just like the print version.

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24(2), 225–229.

Anderson, M. (2018). Getting consistent with consequences. Educational Leadership, 76(1), 26–33.

Audio: APA 7 provides clarification around DOI's and URLs. Any source whether a book, article, or anything that has a DOI should include that DOI number. I have not found many books that have DOI numbers yet, but I think it is becoming more common. So, APA 7 is being a little forward thinking with this. If a source does have a DOI number, APA wants you to provide it. It is not just for journal articles anymore.

Additionally, APA has simplified their guidance on DOI's for journal articles. So, if an online work or article has no DOI, and was found through an academic research database, generally for the most case, no URL is needed. So, we have two examples here. The Herbst source and the Anderson source -- the Herbst source has a DOI number but the Andersons source does not, so the entry just ends after the page range. So, it looks like the print version and nothing else is included there. So that is one simplification. We don’t include the homepage of the journal instead. That is something we did in the APA 6 edition and in this case it's either DOI number or nothing. I think the simplification is helpful.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: DOIs and URLs Content:

  • 9.35 DOIs and URLs should be presented as hyperlinks (beginning with "http://" or "https://"). Standardize DOIs to start with Hyperlinks (blue and underlined) should be used in the courses, as these works are read online.
  • 9.36 Shortened DOIs or URLs are acceptable (but not required) for a long or complex DOI/URL (use shorten). Do not add line breaks manually, although automatic breaks from Word are acceptable.

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24(2), 225–229.

Anderson, M. (2018). Getting consistent with consequences. Educational Leadership, 76(1), 26–33.

Audio: Additionally, APA has specified that DOIs and URLs should be presented as hyperlinks. So, that means a doi number is not presented as a doi:number any more. You will see all the doi numbers we list here are listed as URLs and are hyperlinked. I think that's a helpful change recognizing that we are really writing for an online audience now and the hyperlinking is helpful. APA specifies shortened DOIs or URLs are acceptable but not required. And they should only be used for really long or complex DOI or URLs. If you are not familiar with DOI shorteners, you don't have to worry about that, and you can use the full one, but you may use it if you like. We have here the recommendation of to shorten those. And do not add line breaks. Word will automatically break the line, and their line break is perfectly acceptable.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: Published Information Content:         

  • 9.29 Spell and capitalize the publisher name exactly as it appears in the cited work (SAGE Publishing vs. Sage Publications).
  • 9.29 Leave off designations of business structure (e.g., Inc., Ltd., LLC).
  • 9.29 If the publisher is an imprint or division of a larger publishing company, use the imprint/division.
  • 9.29 No longer need publisher location (city, state abbreviation) alongside publisher name.

Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy(2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

Audio: Publisher information. Some specifications here is that APA wants us to spell and capitalize the publisher name exactly as it appears in the cited work. So, for example Sage Publishing vs. SAGE Publications listed here. And we also should leave off designations of a business structure is that is not necessary.

The other thing that is helpful is APA has specified if a publisher is an imprint or division of a larger publishing company, so you may have a large publishing company that has multiple smaller companies within it. You will include the smaller and imprint or division. So, whatever the most specific publisher is, that’s what you will include.

For books we don't need to include the city and state abbreviation. APA has determined it is not helpful or useful for the reader, so we do not need to include it here. You can see in this example I have provided, we have the American psychological association as the publisher. We did not include the publisher location, and this particular book has a DOI number, so I have included it here.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: Nontraditional Sources Content:

  • 10.1/10.2 Simplified or removed bracketed notations for types of sources (e.g., “video” instead of “video file”; no notation for blog posts)
  • Chapter 10 Updated ebook, dissertation/thesis, unpublished manuscript (citing yourself), and audio/visual formats
    • Recommendation: Review format and follow examples on our website and in the Manual when you encounter these types of sources.

Klymkowsky, M. (2018, September 15). Can we talk scientifically about free will? Sci-Ed.

Cutts, S. (2017, November 24). Happiness[Video]. Vimeo.

Audio: There's also more specification about nontraditional sources, and I will go over this quickly. Mostly because I think this is less common for many Walden students, but also because we have examples of these on our website and encourage you to take a look at those as you create the entry. This way you will be aware of some of the changes, so when you see them in the examples we provide or in the APA manual, you will be ready for them.

First, APA 7 has simplified or removed bracketed notations for some types of sources. So, in APA 6 edition we talk about a video file as a bracket after the title of the video to indicate that it was a video file. We simplify and really update those notations to say just video. That is the more modern and updated way to identify that kind of source. We do not need to include notation for blog posts anymore.

APA has made a couple small changes to ebook, dissertation/theses, unpublished manuscripts and audiovisual formats. But again, we recommend you take a look at those if you were using those formats in the manual itself or on the Writing Center website. And I actually, hope this is not asking too much, but Martha, Amy or Amber if you could include a link to the Common Reference List page in the Q&A box. That is the page I recommend everyone bookmark and it's updated for APA 7 with examples.

We have a couple of examples on the slide here. You can see the first one from Klymkowsky is for a blog post. We have included the author like we normally would. We've also included the specific date and the title of the article, the publication it is coming from, and the post itself. So, we do not include the notation that it is a blog post, we can tell that from the entry itself.

The Cutts source here is a video so we have included that more simplified notation in brackets to indicate that.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: Webpages and Retrieval Information Content:

  • 9.23 A webpage is now considered a stand-alone source. As such, webpage titles should be italicized.
  • 9.35 The words "Retrieved from" or "Accessed from" are not necessary before a URL.

Bologna, C. (2018, June 27).What happens to your mind and body when you feel homesick? HuffPost.

Audio: Webpages and retrieval information are also updated in APA 7. A webpage is now considered what we would call a standalone source. In the past, when we talk about italicizing the title of the source, we often talk about whether it is a standalone source or not. So, a book is a standalone source, but a journal article is not because it has multiple journal articles in a journal issue. A webpage is now considered a standalone source, so we italicize the title of the webpage. So, that is one of the bigger changes I would consider for webpage reference entries. We do not include “retrieved from” or “accessed from” before the URL and just include the URL itself.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: Additional Items of Note Content:

  • 9.25 Include issue number for all periodicals that have issue number.
  • 10.10 (specifically #79 and #80) Guidance for mobile apps.
  • 10.11/10.12 More examples and categories of audiovisual media.
  • 10.15 More examples and clarification on references for social media sites.

Audio: A few additional items of note that I will go into more detail when we look at specific entries here. First, include the issue number for all journal articles or periodicals that have issue numbers. APA 6 there were exceptions where we did not include in issue number. Now in APA 7, anytime we have a journal article that has an issue number, we always include the issue number. That is something that is simplified and easier for us to follow.

There’s also some specification or guidance on how to include reference entries inside mobile apps. If you're talking about mobile apps or researching mobile apps, APA has some guidance now which is great to see. There's more examples and categories of audiovisual media, and this is the idea for updated researching and publication practices and recognizing that more and more we’re using audiovisual materials in our research. So, there's more examples in APA 7.

There are more examples and clarification of social media sites. We have not included these specifically since they are not as common for Walden students, but we want you to know these are available, and you can access those in the APA manual. I just realized as I go through here, and this would have been useful to mention before, but all the numbers I have here in teal and bold before the bullet points are the chapter and section number of where this appears in the APA 7 manual. I hope many of you picked up on that, but I would understand if you had not. I want to make sure that if you are downloading the slides and want to refer back later, you can use these chapter and section numbers to find more information.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: In Detail: Common Reference Examples

Audio: I'm going to go into the common reference examples here, because I talked a lot about these in general, but I want to really go into some detail of some of the more specific examples that we use in APA.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: Journal Articles With DOIs Contents:

APA 6:

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J.A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225–229. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

APA 7:

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24(2), 225–229.

Audio: Here we have a journal article with a DOI number. With all these we will provide the APA 6 addition in smaller font, so you focus on it less, and the APA 7 is in the larger font. In APA 7, both six and seven have the authors list very similar with the last names and their initials. We have the publication date here and the title which is the same. The actual publication information is just slightly different. In both versions we have that journal title, Health Psychology, but in APA 7, we include the issue number because we don't have that exception. In the sixth edition we would not have included the issue number, but in APA 7 we always include the issue number. Also have the page range and then we end here with a DOI. The DOI looks different because it is in the URL format and includes the hyperlink as well.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: Journal Articles With No DOI Contents:

APA 6: From Academic Database

Anderson, M. (2018). Getting consistent with consequences. Educational Leadership, 76(1), 26–33. Retrieved from

APA 7: From Academic Database

Anderson, M. (2018). Getting consistent with consequences. Educational Leadership, 76(1), 26–33.

Audio: In a journal article without a DOI number, this will look a little bit different. And apologies, I see the formatting on APA 6 example does not have the right hanging indent. But the main change we are seeing is again, with the end of the entry. In both cases, most of the entry looks the same but at the very end, Anderson 2018, the source did not have a DOI number. In sixth edition we would've included the homepage of the journal, but in seven we simply end the entry. It's simpler because we don’t have to think through the different options. If there's no DOI number, we do not include anything at all, and it just ends right there.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: Webpages Contents:

APA 6:

World Health Organization. (2018, March). Questions and answers on immunizations and vaccine safety. Retrieved from

APA 7:

World Health Organization. (2018, March). Questions and answer on immunizations and vaccine safety.

Audio: Webpages look a little different here. As you can see, for APA 7, we have the same authors listed, in this case there was not an individual author, so we have the organization name. And we have the specific date for the publication. The title is still in sentence case like it is in sixth edition, but it is italicized now because the webpage is considered a standalone source. We include the URL on its own, and it is still hyperlinked there as well. Those are the big changes between six and seven for webpages.

I want to go back here and note that you will see this in some other examples I provide when I talk about webpages, and if you attend any of the APA 7 webinars, like Part One: Methods to the Madness webinar which I recommend is tomorrow night, we go into this in more detail in that session. But I want to note that for the sixth and seventh edition we have World Health Organization as the author, and that is because that's the organizational author for this webpage. If there is an individual listed as the author, we would list the individual in the author place and then the World Health Organization designation would go after the title. So, we would still include it in the entry, but it would be displaced by the individual author’s name. I have examples of other webpage reference entries in previous slides. But I just want to make that distinction here, because we are just showing the one webpage example. But if the webpage does have an individual author, that organizational author is just moved towards the end of the entry.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: Books Contents:

APA 6:

Burgess, R. (2019). Rethinking global health: Frameworks of power. New York, NY: Routledge.

APA 7:

Burgess, R. (2019). Rethinking global health: Frameworks of power. Routledge.

Johnson, P. (2003). Art: A new history. HarperCollins.

Audio: So, then we will take a look at books here. Books look very similar. We have the same authors and years and titles. But we get differences once we get to the publication information. In APA 7, we do not include the city or state abbreviation of the publisher but just the publisher. If the book has a DOI number as a reminder you include that as well and it goes after the publisher, as listed here.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: In Detail: Citation Changes Poll opens that students respond in.

Audio: That was a lot I know. And so, let me pull back our pulse check and see how you are all doing. I hope you are staying with me and feeling like maybe you are feeling ok and hope this is feeling somewhat doable and helpful once you get used to it and are able to absorb all the changes. I will pause for a minute here to see how you are all doing.

It is good to see many of you are feeling like this will be fine once I get used to it, I hear you. I will emphasize for everyone else feeling more unsure, I am with you there too. I definitely felt that way at first when I opened APA 7 manual. I know with time and practice and the resources and support of the whole community at Walden we are here to help you. I see a number of you that think the changes are exciting, and I'm happy to see that many of you can be so excited this early after seeing this and so quickly. Great to see.

Thank you, everyone, it is good to hear that we are feeling okay so far. If you all are feeling pretty good about the reference entry changes, I think you will feel pretty good about the citation changes too. The citation changes were pretty minimal and all very positive I think, very helpful in terms of simplifying things. So, these should be quicker to go through.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: Citations Contents:

  • 8.17 Sources with three or more authors use et al. for all citations.

APA 6:

Frenk, Gomez-Dantes, and Knaul (2019) argued for implementing universal health coverage. Frenket al. explored the benefits of health care coverage in the United States.

APA 7:

Frenket al. (2019) argued for implementing universal health care coverage. Frenket al. explored the benefits of health care coverage in the United States.

Audio: So, the big, major change that will impact most writers is the use of et al. in citations. In APA 6 edition, we would use et al. depending on how many authors were cited, and it changed depending on the number. APA 7 has simplified that so any source with three or more authors uses et al. for every citation throughout the body of your paper. So, if a source has one or two authors, we will list them every time we cite the source. If they have three or more authors, we always shorted that citation with et al.

You can see here that we have Frank et al. 2019, where previously in APA 6 edition we would've listed out those three authors and shorten them with et al. the second time. That's a helpful simplification of using et al., it is either/or, and that's nice to see.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: Citations Contents:

  • 8.3 Guidance on reusing your own work in student papers.
  • 8.6 In secondary source citations, if the year of publication of the primary source is known, also include it in the text citation (if not, omit it).

(Rabbitt, 1982, as cited in Lyon et al., 2014).

Audio: There is also additional guidance in APA 7 on using your own work in student papers and follows the guidance on using your own work given by the writing center. So, it doesn't really change a whole lot but it's helpful to see APA 7 addressing this specifically for the student audience. That is something to take a look at. There's a slight change in secondary source citation, I think this one is used less often for Walden students, but it is useful to note. Previously in APA 6 edition we would not include the original source publication date. But in APA 7 edition, we will include the original source. So, in this case a secondary source is where I as a reader have read Lyon et al. 2014, and in Lyon et al. I have read about Rabbit 1982. In APA 7 edition, we will list the original publication year Rabbit, 1982 even though we will still only list Lyon et al in the reference list. So, that is something to note and is a small change as well in citations.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: Citations Contents:


  • 8.1 When paraphrasing from one source across multiple sentences, cite that source in the first sentence. Subsequent sentences do not need additional citations of that source, so long as the attribution remains clear and the topic is unchanged.
  • Focus on balanced citation, avoiding both undercitation and overcitation.

Researchers have conducted a number of studies on differentiated instruction. In one such study, Smale-Jacobse et al. (2019) reviewed the literature and found that differentiated instruction can be viewed as a starting point for teachers addressing students’ diverse learning needs. However, the authors reported from their review that studies indicate that the field of education is mixed in how it operationalizes differentiated instruction, ranging from generalized training to individual coaching. Additionally, they noted that while these studies show a slight increase in student achievement due to differentiated instruction, they also indicate many gaps in the research around the effectiveness of differentiated instruction.

Audio: APA provides additional clarification and guidance on how to balance citations and particularly talking about summaries. Using the wording of avoiding both undercitation and overcitation, one of the issues and things we work with students about is when you summarize the source and you are talking about one source throughout paragraphs are one paragraph and how to balance citations to make sure you are citing appropriately but not being too repetitive. What APA has done is provided additional guidance on using what we would call signal phrasing to indicate you're talking about the same author.

In this case, we have that in bold. So, Smale-Jacobs et al. (2019) reviewed… and then additional sentences use signal phrasing like the authors reported… and additionally they noted… to indicate that the writer is continuing to summarize from that original source. That is really helpful. I want to note that does not mean when you are using multiple sources you should not cite the multiple sources throughout the paragraph. We still want to make sure the reader understands where information is coming from for each citation or source and can match the information you are talking about with the sources you have. This refers more to the undercitation and overcitation in writing summaries.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: Support, Resources, and Q&A Polling opens for students to respond

Audio: Citations are pretty short and sweet. Let's do another pulse check, because I'm hoping this is feeling pretty good for you all. How are you feeling about the citation changes?

It is good to see a few more of you are feeling like these changes are exciting. I was hoping to see that. No worries if you are feeling like you need time to get used to them or are still processing or feeling overwhelmed, I know it’s a lot. But it is good to hear that overall you are all feeling pretty positively about this. And again, I think we will be able to work through this transition together for sure. Thank you everyone. I appreciate it.

So, that was an overview of the APA 7 changes. I am going to go through the support and resources we have, and then we can spend the rest of the time left on Q&A. Heads up, I will be asking Amber what kind of questions we can talk about for that Q&A, as they have been catching the Q&A box.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: Reminders Contents:

Spirit of Learning and Openness

  • Show curiosity
  • Use available resources
  • Ask questions!

Upcoming Webinars

Questions & Support

Audio: Reminders. I hope I have been expressing and hope I have been talking about this throughout the session, that we encourage you to approach APA 7 with a spirit of learning and openness. We want you to show curiosity. These changes are changes for everyone. And that means exploring the resources, the APA 7 manual, what we provide on our website, and what we are providing here. Use the available resources and definitely ask questions. Know that we have spent time with APA 7, and we’re still asking questions and working through the changes. So, we want to hear from you all the questions that you have.

Reminder that we have the upcoming webinars, and if you are a doctoral student thinking about the capstone or working on it, that session tomorrow is specifically for you. It will include some of the same information here, so it might be a little repetitive, but I do not think that's a bad thing. It does include some specific items that are only relative to capstone students, so I recommend attending that session or watching the recording.

All our webinars are recorded, and we post those in the archive. They are available anytime. So, if you just can't make one, we entirely understand, there's a lot going on in all of our lives. Those recordings are always available.

Reminder that specific to APA 7, we have the transition website which includes all of this information, the comparison chart that we sent out earlier, and all of the updates that you need around APA 7. But we also have the APA 7 role account and the general role account,, and we encourage you to email either. We encourage APA 7 questions at the APA 7 email address, but either way we will get you the answers you need so do not worry too much if you are waffling between the two, we are happy to help in this important transition. We have live chat hours on our homepage. And you are welcome to make paper review appointment with us too.


Visual: Slide changes to the following: Title: Final Questions, APA 7 at a Glance: Changes and Support for the Switch Contents:

Claiming Credit: Walden University designates each webinar in the APA 7 at

a Glance series for 1.0 contact hour. Nurses may claim credit for only one activity

in the APA 7 at a Glance series. To claim credit for APA 7 at a Glance 3: Changes

and Support for the Switch (Student), access the claim credit link, complete the evaluation,

and download the certificate.

Audio: We have rounded out the end of the session here. And at this point I want to spend the last about 13-ish minutes taking your final questions. And I think with that, I will pause and see, Amber, what kind of questions you all have seen in the Q&A box that would be helpful for us to talk about aloud.

>> AMBER: We have a plenty of them. We're hearing how much the presentation is appreciated and how eager everyone is to get started. We had a question about what students should do if the article they are using does not list an issue number for the Journal.

>> BETH: If an issue number is not published with a volume number then you just leave it out, and you do not need to include it. The main change here is in APA 7 if an issue number is listed, include it. That was not always the case in APA 6. So, the main message is if there is an issue number listed with the volume number, include it in your reference entry.

>> AMBER: We have a set of questions about the URL or DOI, can you talk more about when you would omit a URL from a reference entry?

>> BETH: For journal articles or any entry?

>> AMBER: Yes, journal articles, the one slide where you have a DOI for one of them and the other does not have any sort of URL listed.

>> BETH: Yes. APA 7 edition has simplified the electronic retrieval, this is what we call it. If the journal article has a DOI number, you include the DOI number and include it as a URL format. If the journal article does not have a DOI number, you will generally not include anything at all. There are a few exceptions to that in APA 7, but they are not common. If you feel like you might be working with an exception, take a look at your APA manual or let us know and we can work through that with you. But generally, most of the time, the rule of thumb is if the article has a DOI number include it and if it does not, do not include anything, that is the if/then situation there.

Like in APA 6, you do need to check to see if the journal has a DOI number. That is important to do. Not all DOI numbers are listed in the article itself or in the library database where you download the article, so we do recommend going to to do a search for the doi number. But if you look there and cannot find a DOI number, just end the entry after the page range and do not include anything. I hope that clarifies. I know it is a process.

>> AMBER: Thank you. We did get a couple of logistical questions. I will run through a few of those.

>> BETH: Yes. I will try my best.

>> AMBER: One was, if you could just repeat how they receive the PowerPoint slides, we had folks eager about that.

>> BETH: The slides are in the files pod at the bottom, right-hand corner of the screen. You'll see "Files", click the SLIDES_APA7, and then click “Download file(s)” and follow the prompts to download to your computer. There's one caveat. I noticed a couple of you are attending on your mobile device, and I don't think you have the option of doing that on a mobile device through the app. If that is the case, then please feel free to email us, and we can send you the slides. Or you can access the recording and download the slides from the recording as well. That would be the two options there.

>> AMBER: Another couple of questions on the theme of whether outside websites and software programs, things like Grammarly and Site Work, are updated in APA 7?

>> BETH: Great question, and one that I do not have an answer across the board on except that it depends. APA 7 has been out since last October. So, so many, many universities and organizations have been making the switch to APA 7. But we know that Walden students use a variety of resources and programs to support them in their writing, and so I cannot say for sure that whatever program or outside website you use has switched over to APA 7, or that they have done so accurately as well. That is not something I can guarantee, but I will say a lot of them have. What I recommend is double checking. So, maybe you use a particular program to help you with your references or citations or to keep track of your research. Go to their website and see what kind of citation styles they support, and they should list APA 7 there if they have switched over to that.

That would be the best way to double check since I cannot say across the board, but I have seen a lot of those updates. In terms of Grammarly specifically, I will say I did a little bit of investigating on this the other day. The APA support they provide, so Grammarly can point to outside resources if they notice that you need to add to citations or references to your writing. The one they point to is called the Purdue Owl, and it has been updated for APA 7. I cannot vouch for the accuracy on that page, but just know that it looks like they do link to an outside resource that has been from the outside updated for APA 7. I don't know if there's a specific APA recommendation in Grammarly itself. I have not seen any, I cannot guarantee that is in APA 7. So, I would say feel free to reach out to us and say hey, I'm being told to do this, is this up to date with APA 7. That's a good crosscheck to do if you are not sure. Do you have anything to add to that, Amber?

>> AMBER: No that was a great answer. A few people are interested in tomorrow's webinar but cannot fit it into their schedule. Can you talk about how to access that?

>> BETH: Like tonight, we will record that session and all the webinars going on in the next couple of weeks. Those will be available on the Writing Center website in the webinar archive. You may have grabbed the link Amber, but I'm grabbing it now just in case it is useful for people. We post all the APA webinars in the APA citations and style section in the webinar archives, and I will send that out into the Q&A box so you can access that link. We will have all of the recordings available there but note also that if you think you would like to access the recording of a session, you're more than welcome to still register for the session, even though you will not attend. We will not be offended, and you will get a recording automatically via email. Feel free to do that if that is useful to you and does not flood your inbox too much.

>> AMBER: We have a couple of students asking if they should buy an APA Manual and if so, how.

>> BETH: My general recommendation is that buying in APA manual is very helpful. We have pointed out the chapter and section numbers for all the different rules, and we have a lot of robust resources on the Writing Center website. But I particularly find the reference examples in chapter 10 and 11 of the new APA 7 manual, helpful for some of those specific things that you might encounter once in a while. So, having the manual handy can be so useful and help you understand APA. Even reading through the front matter and introduction to the sections helps you understand the approach that APA is taking. I do find that the manual is irreplaceable and very helpful.

Of course, our website and resources are helpful, and I recommend them to everyone. But I also recommend the APA manual. It is also potentially required, I think, for most of your programs as well. I do not want to say 100% across-the-board unless Amber, you know that it is. But most likely it is required for your courses you are taking. All and all, buying one is a great option and then you have it handy also. You can buy the APA manual from the Walden bookstore, but you can also access it from other book vendors. And there is an e-book version as well as a print version. I have the spiral-bound which I enjoy immensely. Amber, anything else?

>> AMBER: I think that is perfect. And as you alluded to, it has been in the past that Walden programs, some have used an abbreviated version of APA or an in-house version of APA and some have used the whole manual. But starting with APA 7 everyone will use the full APA 7 manual as there APA manual.

>> BETH: So, if that question is coming from a concern of potentially needing to buy both the abbreviated and full version, we don't think there will be an abbreviated version, so you should be safe buying the full version if that is where the question is coming from for some people.

>> AMBER: We had several questions about our paper review service. Information about how it works and how it connects with learning APA or reviewing APA.

>> BETH: Just a general question around that works? And looking for -- ?

>> AMBER: I think a lot of students are interested in pursuing a paper review once they have used APA and maybe they have not used it in the past.

>> BETH: Our paper review appointment service is an option where Walden students throughout their programs and up to a certain point for doctoral programs, can submit their writing to get feedback on various areas of their writing. That includes idea development, organization, and transitions, grammar and APA as well. If you are undergraduate or master’s student, anything you are writing at all can be submitted for a paper review. If you are a doctoral student, you can make an appointment up through working on your prospectus, so we have particular schedules depending on what kind of student you are. Once you have completed and have an approved prospectus, you have graduated from the paper review process and you transition to working with dissertation editor team. They are fantastic in working specifically with students past their prospectus for their doctoral capstone program. So, then you will start working with them and the various resources and services they have.

If you are thinking about having a paper review appointment and you are an undergraduate student or master’s student, we encourage you to make a paper review appointment. We are happy to give you support and help. If you have specific APA 7 questions, I encourage you to include that your appointment form, so we know what we can help you with. But if you are a doctoral student you can also make appointments up until you have an approved and completed prospectus. We encourage you to do that. I hope that helps.

>> AMBER: Thank you. Want to say that we've had lots of questions coming in which is been fantastic but obviously with so many students we did not get to all of them. We talk a little bit about how students can ask questions after the webinar?

>> BETH: Yes, I will talk about that and wrap us up. A reminder that we have both email addresses you see here on the slide, for specific APA 7 questions and our general email address at I would recommend you send questions to either of these places. We won't be able to get to all of the questions you submitted here tonight, because it’s been such a large group and there were so many questions. Save the questions and email them or just reply to the automatic email after this webinar, and I will help you with those. Do reach out to us. Send those questions we have not been able to get to, we want to hear the questions but because of our time constraints, we will have to take those over email.

To wrap us up, I will say again, thank you for attending, I hope this was useful in dipping your toes and starting to think about APA 7, hopefully helping you feel little more confident about the kinds of changes and what they look like and maybe you have a good sense of what they are. You can now start practicing and playing around with APA 7. We’re here to support you as well.

The final note is for any nurses here claiming credit hours, we have the information about how to claim the credit on the last page on the last slide. I hope you saw that. The link is also available in the email that we will send as a follow-up to the webinar and of course reach to us if we have questions.

I hope everyone has a wonderful evening. I hope this was useful to you all and we appreciate your time and attention. And just working with us through the transition and being a part of the University community as we all go through this together.

We will close out the session for the day. But also I want to say thank you, Martha, Amy and Amber for being so quick in the Q&A box in doing so much in responding to student questions. I appreciate it. And happy writing, everyone and we look for to continuing to work with you as we make this transition. Thank you everyone.