Basics of Numbers
Per APA 7, Section 6.32, use numerals to express numbers 10 or above (e.g., 11, 23, 256). Per Section 6.33, write out numbers as words to express numbers up to nine (e.g., three, seven, eight).
Take the APA Style Diagnostic Quiz to test your knowledge.
Numbers Expressed as Words
Use words to express numbers in these situations:
- numbers at the beginning of a sentence, title, or heading
Seventeen computer programmers went out to dinner last night
- numbers expressing a common fraction
The principal presented awards to three fourths of the student body.
- the numbers zero through nine used in the abstract
(This is a new rule in APA 7. APA 6 recommended using numerals in the abstract.)
Numbers Expressed as Numerals
Use numerals to express numbers in these situations:
- numbers that represent time
She had been a nurse for 3 years.
- numbers that suggest a specific place in a series
Chapter 4 was considered required reading.
- numbers that represent scores or points on a scale
The student scored a perfect 7.
- numbers that precede units of measurement
Each post was roughly 2.45 ft apart.
- numbers that represent a part of a mathematical expression
Teachers gave students ice cream if they scored in the top 5%.
- numbers that represent exact sums of money
You owe me $5.