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Citations: Citation Variations

Citation Variations

Below are some common variations of sources and how to cite them.

For examples of how to format reference entries for these sources, consult our common reference list examples as well as the APA FAQ.

Type of Source Narrative Citations  Parenthetical Citations
Book Smith and Jones (2020) (Smith & Jones, 2020)
Course Study Notes (No Author) "Public Speaker" (2020) ("Public Speaker," 2020)
One Author Greenfeld (2020) (Greenfeld, 2020)
Two Authors Deoliveira and Spates (2019) (Deoliveira & Spates, 2019)
Three or More Authors Ellenberger et al. (2007) (Ellenberger et al., 2007)
Group Authors Veteran Affairs (2012) (Veteran Affairs, 2012)
Multiple Sources With the Same Author and Year

Walden University (2019a)

Walden University (2019b)

(Walden University, 2019a)

(Walden University, 2019b)

Multiple Sources in Same Citation Walden University (2019a, 2019b), Greenfeld (2020), and Scannell (2019) (Greenfeld, 2020; Scannell, 2019; Walden University, 2019a, 2019b)
No Date Mayo Clinic (n.d.) (Mayo Clinic, n.d.)
Organization's Website Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2020) (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2020)
Personal Communication M. Smith (personal communication, February 3, 2019) (M. Smith, personal communication, February 3, 2019)
Secondary Source Baboian (2011, as cited in Leonardi, 2019) (Baboian, 2011, as cited in Leonardi, 2011)
Six or More Authors Kubista et al. (2012) (Kubista et al., 2012)
Republished work Freud (1923/1961) (Freud, 1923/1961)


Adapted from APA 7, Chapter 8.