Article (With DOI)
Alvarez. E., & Tippins, S. (2019). Socialization agents that Puerto Rican college students use to make financial decisions. Journal of Social Change, 11(1), 75–85. https://doi.org/10.5590/JOSC.2019.11.1.07
Laplante, J. P., & Nolin, C. (2014). Consultas and socially responsible investing in Guatemala: A case study examining Maya perspectives on the Indigenous right to free, prior, and informed consent. Society & Natural Resources, 27, 231–248. https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920.2013.861554
Provide a DOI number if there is one. DOI stands for "digital object identifier," a number specific to the article that can help others locate the source. Use CrossRef.org to locate DOI information. This rule applies regardless of how the source was accessed (e.g., online, paper, etc.; see APA 7, Section 9.34).
In APA 7, format the DOI as a web address. Active hyperlinks for DOIs and URLs should be used for documents meant for screen reading. Present these hyperlinks in blue and underlined text (the default formatting in Microsoft Word), although plain black text is also acceptable. Be consistent in the formatting choice for DOIs and URLs throughout the reference list. (Note that this guidance has changed from APA 6 where all hyperlink formatting was removed and no active links were included. In APA 6, the URLs appeared in plain, black type and did not link out from the document.)
Also see our Quick Answer FAQ, "Can I use the DOI format provided by library databases?"
Jerrentrup, A., Mueller, T., Glowalla, U., Herder, M., Henrichs, N., Neubauer, A., & Schaefer, J. R. (2018). Teaching medicine with the help of “Dr. House.” PLoS ONE, 13(3), Article e0193972. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0193972
For journal articles that are assigned article numbers rather than page ranges, include the article number in place of the page range.
For more on citing electronic resources, see Electronic Sources References.
Article (Without DOI)
Found in a Common Academic Research Database or in Print
Casler, T. (2020). Improving the graduate nursing experience through support on a social media platform. MEDSURG Nursing, 29(2), 83–87.
If an article does not have a DOI and you retrieved it from a common academic research database through the university library, there is no need to include any additional electronic retrieval information. The reference list entry looks like the entry for a print copy of the article. (This format differs from APA 6 guidelines that recommended including the URL of a journal's homepage when the DOI was not available.)
Note that APA 7 has additional guidance on reference list entries for articles found only in specific databases or archives such as Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global, and university archives. See APA 7, Section 9.30 for more information.
Found on an Open Access Website
Eaton, T. V., & Akers, M. D. (2007). Whistleblowing and good governance. CPA Journal, 77(6), 66–71. http://archives.cpajournal.com/2007/607/essentials/p58.htm
Provide the direct web address/URL to a journal article found on the open web, often on an open access journal's website.
In APA 7, active hyperlinks for DOIs and URLs should be used for documents meant for screen reading. Present these hyperlinks in blue and underlined text (the default formatting in Microsoft Word), although plain black text is also acceptable. Be consistent in your formatting choice for DOIs and URLs throughout your reference list. (Note that this guidance has changed from APA 6 where all hyperlink formatting was removed and no active links were included. In APA 6, the URLs appeared in plain, black type and did not link out from the document.)
Weinstein, J. A. (2010). Social change (3rd ed.). Rowman & Littlefield.
If the book has an edition number, include it in parentheses after the title of the book. If the book does not list any edition information, do not include an edition number. The edition number is not italicized.
(Note: In APA 6, the location of the publisher was included. This is no longer the case in APA 7; only the publisher name is provided.)
Regarding publisher name, when a publisher is named after a person (as is the case with Lawrence Erlbaum or John Wiley), list only the surname (Erlbaum or Wiley). In addition, exclude “Publishers,” “Inc.,” and “Co.” from publisher names in reference entries.
American Nurses Association. (2010). Nursing: Scope and standards of practice (2nd ed.).
In APA 7, if the author and publisher are the same, only include the author in its regular place and omit the publisher. (Note that this is a change from APA 6, where the term “Author” was used for the publisher instead of repeating the name.)
Lencioni, P. (2012). The advantage: Why organizational health trumps everything else in business. Jossey-Bass. https://amzn.to/343XPSJ
As a change from APA 6 to APA 7, it is no longer necessary to include the ebook format in the title. However, if you listened to an audiobook and the content differs from the text version (e.g., abridged content) or your discussion highlights elements of the audiobook (e.g., narrator's performance), then note that it is an audiobook in the title element in brackets.
For ebooks and online audiobooks, also include the DOI number (if available) or nondatabase URL but leave out the electronic retrieval element if the ebook was found in a common academic research database, as with journal articles. APA 7 allows for the shortening of long DOIs and URLs, as shown in this example. See APA 7, Section 9.36 for more information.
Chapter in an Edited Book
Poe, M. (2017). Reframing race in teaching writing across the curriculum. In F. Condon & V. A. Young (Eds.), Performing antiracist pedagogy in rhetoric, writing, and communication (pp. 87–105). University Press of Colorado.
Include the page numbers of the chapter in parentheses after the book title. The page range should not be italicized.
Christensen, L. (2001). For my people: Celebrating community through poetry. In B. Bigelow, B. Harvey, S. Karp, & L. Miller (Eds.), Rethinking our classrooms: Teaching for equity and justice (Vol. 2, pp. 16–17). Rethinking Schools.
Also include volume number and edition numbers in the parenthetical information after the book title where relevant.
Freud, S. (1961). The ego and the id. In J. Strachey (Ed.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19, pp. 3-66). Hogarth Press. (Original work published 1923)
When a text has been republished as part of an anthology collection, after the author’s name include the date of the version that was read. At the end of the entry, place the date of the original publication inside parenthesis along with the note “original work published.” For in-text citations of republished work, use both dates in the parenthetical citation, original date first with a slash separating the years, as in this example: Freud (1923/1961).
For more information on reprinted or republished works, see APA 7, Sections 9.40-9.41.
Dissertations or Theses
Retrieved from a database
Nalumango, K. (2019). Perceptions about the asylum-seeking process in the United States after 9/11 (Publication No. 13879844) [Doctoral dissertation, Walden University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.
Retrieved From an Institutional or Personal Website
Evener. J. (2018). Organizational learning in libraries at for-profit colleges and universities [Doctoral dissertation, Walden University]. ScholarWorks. https://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=6606&context=dissertations
Unpublished Dissertation or Thesis
Kirwan, J. G. (2005). An experimental study of the effects of small-group, face-to-face facilitated dialogues on the development of self-actualization levels: A movement towards fully functional persons [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center.
For further examples and information, see APA 7, Section 10.6.
For legal references, APA follows the recommendations of The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, so if you have any questions beyond the examples provided in APA, seek out that resource as well.
Name v. Name, Volume Reporter Page (Court Date). URL
Sample reference entry:
Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954). https://www.oyez.org/cases/1940-1955/347us483
In Brown v. Board of Education (1954), the Supreme Court ruled racial segregation in schools unconstitutional.
Note: Italicize the case name when it appears in the text of your paper rather than citing it—for example, “Cases such as Brown v. Board of Education and Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle illustrate ...”
Name of Act, Title Source § Section Number (Year). URL
Sample reference entry for a federal statute:
Individuals With Disabilities Education Act, 20 U.S.C. § 1400 et seq. (2004). https://www.congress.gov/108/plaws/publ446/PLAW-108publ446.pdf
Sample reference entry for a state statute:
Minnesota Nurse Practice Act, Minn. Stat. §§ 148.171 et seq. (2019). https://www.revisor.mn.gov/statutes/cite/148.171
Sample citation: Minnesota nurses must maintain current registration in order to practice (Minnesota Nurse Practice Act, 2010).
Note: The § symbol stands for "section." Use §§ for sections (plural). To find this symbol in Microsoft Word, go to "Insert" and click on Symbol." Look in the Latin 1-Supplement subset.
Note: U.S.C. stands for "United States Code."
Note: The Latin abbreviation "et seq." means "and what follows" and is used when the act includes the cited section and ones that follow.
Note: List the chapter first followed by the section or range of sections.
Unenacted Bills and Resolutions
(Those that did not pass and become law)
Title [if there is one], bill or resolution number, xxx Cong. (year). URL
Sample reference entry for Senate bill:
Anti-Phishing Act, S. 472, 109th Cong. (2005). https://www.congress.gov/bill/109th-congress/senate-bill/472
Sample reference entry for House of Representatives resolution:
Anti-Phishing Act, H.R. 1099, 109th Cong. (2005). https://www.congress.gov/bill/109th-congress/house-bill/1099
The Anti-Phishing Act (2005) proposed up to 5 years prison time for people running Internet scams.
These are the three legal areas you may be most apt to cite in your scholarly work. For more examples and explanation, see APA 7, Chapter 11.
Clay, R. (2008, June). Science vs. ideology: Psychologists fight back about the misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology, 39(6). https://www.apa.org/monitor/2008/06/ideology
Note that for citations, include only the year: Clay (2008). For magazine articles retrieved from a common academic research database, leave out the URL.
For magazine articles from an online news website that is not an online version of a print magazine, follow the format for a webpage reference list entry.
Baker, A. (2014, May 7). Connecticut students show gains in national tests. New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/08/nyregion/national-assessment-of-educational-progress-results-in-Connecticut-and-New-Jersey.html
Include the full date in the format Year, Month Day. Do not include a retrieval date for periodical sources found on websites. Note that for citations, include only the year: Baker (2014). For newspaper articles retrieved from a common academic research database, leave out the URL.
For newspaper articles from an online news website that is not an online version of a print newspaper, follow the format for a webpage reference list entry.
Technical and Research Reports
The general structure for a technical or research report is as follows:
Author, A. A. (Publication Year). Title of work. Publisher Name. DOI or URL
Edwards, C. (2015). Lighting levels for isolated intersections: Leading to safety improvements (Report No. MnDOT 2015-05). Center for Transportation Studies. http://www.cts.umn.edu/Publications/ResearchReports/reportdetail.html?id=2402
Technical and research reports by governmental agencies and other research institutions usually follow a different publication process than scholarly, peer-reviewed journals. However, they present original research and are often useful for research papers. Sometimes, researchers refer to these types of reports as gray literature, and white papers are a type of this literature. See APA 7, Section 10.4 for more information.
American Federation of Teachers. (n.d.). Community schools. http://www.aft.org/issues/schoolreform/commschools/index.cfm
If there is no specified author, then use the organization’s name as the author. In such a case, there is no need to repeat the organization's name after the title.
Vartan, S. (2018, January 30). Why vacations matter for your health. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/travel/article/why-vacations-matter/index.html
For webpages from news websites, include the site name after the title and before the URL. If the source is an online newspaper or magazine, follow the models in the previous sections of this page.
In APA 7, active hyperlinks for DOIs and URLs should be used for documents meant for screen reading. Present these hyperlinks in blue and underlined text (the default formatting in Microsoft Word), although plain black text is also acceptable. Be consistent in your formatting choice for DOIs and URLs throughout your reference list. (Note that this guidance has changed from APA 6 where all hyperlink formatting was removed, and no active links were included. In APA 6, the URLs appeared in plain, black type and did not link out from the document.)