Skip to Main Content

Citations: Using et al.

Using et al.

In APA 7, when citing a work with three or more authors, include the first author’s surname followed by “et al.” "Et al." is Latin for "and others." Do this every time you cite the source, including the first instance. For example, a parenthetical citation for a work by three authors (Rasmussen, Hopkins, and Fitzpatrick) with a publication date of 2004 would look like this:

In research-based development planning, decision-making is based on careful, systematic examination of goals, data, and results (Rasmussen et al., 2004).

A narrative citation would look like this:

Rasmussen et al. (2004) emphasized the vital role research plays in development planning, saying that thoughtful examination of data and evidence should be present.

Remember that there will not be a comma between the surname and “et al.,” and the period goes only after the “al.” The English translation of “et al.” is simply “and others.”

When citing a work by two authors, always include both authors’ names. Do not use “et al.”