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APA Formatting & Style: Beyond Citations

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Questions?

            Next Up: Verb Tense & Point of View

Audio: All right, before we move on, Michael, were there any questions that it would be helpful to go over?

Michael:  Yeah, we had one just come in that perhaps the group can benefit from. A student asked about, I will just repeat the question:  when do you include a colon after introductory text before a bulleted list? So, when you present a bulleted list, when is it appropriate to use a colon before that? Does that make sense?

Kacy:  Good question. Basically, you want to use that colon to set apart the specific phrase that's going to go along with each of those different items. Let me see if I can go back to my list.  

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Seriation

Seriated lists: 

Lower-case letters Parentheses

A survey should include (a) clear wording, (b) convenient access, and (c) concise directions. 

Numbers: Particular order.

Only vertical lists

When collecting data, I will 

1.  develop the survey questions, 

2.  send out the survey link to the participants, and 

3.  gather the data after 1 month.

 

Bullets: No particular order.

A survey should include

  • clear wording to avoid confusion,
  • convenient access so participants can easily respond, and
  • concise directions that do not overwhelm participants.

See pages 63-65 in the APA 6th Edition

Audio:So here I have these seriated lists, right? And my colon. It’s because it's part of my title. But when I'm using this bulleted seriation, a survey should include, I don't need to use that colon, because each of these bullets is letting my reader know that they are clear wording to avoid confusion, convenient access so participants can easily respond and concise directions that do not overwhelm participants are all connected to that first portion. So, I can just word it, a survey should include clear wording to avoid confusion. A survey should include convenient access. You don't need to use that colon there in the instance. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Questions

But I think that might be, also, a particular rule that you might want to ask faculty member about if they have any specific pet peeves or requests for that. Michael, do you have a better answer for that question? It's a really good one.

Michael:  I think that answers pretty much right on the money. I would add that whenever you're using a colon or a semicolon, this isn't something that brings emphasis to your writing. This can be an authorial choice if you want that list to stand out to the reader then maybe consider using a colon. That's the only thing I would add.

Kacy:  Thanks. So now, were there any other questions, or should we move on?

Michael:  I think we're good to move on.

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Verb Tense

Use past tense to discuss what an author said or did

  • Brown (2012) distributed the surveys by e-mail.
  • The CDC (2010) reported that 25% of Americans do not have access to health care.

See pages 77-78 in the APA 6th Edition

Audio:Kacy: Now we're going to move on to verb tense and there are a couple of different issues with verb tense. The first is that you want to use past tense to discuss anything that an author said or did. This one was particularly confusing to me, I think I saw in the chat box that some of you, like me, are coming from an MLA background. And in MLA style, we always used the present tense when talking about anything that gets published. But in APA, we are using the past tense. So, it’s "Brown distributed the surveys by email." That one might be a little more obvious because it's something that happened, action. But here we have "The CDC reported that 25% of Americans do not have access to healthcare." As the author, I have taken that 25% information from a report from the CDC that and I’m saying that they reported it, past tense -- where I know in MLA, because it's a published piece of information, we would use the present tense. That can be kind of tricky, particularly if you have familiarity in other styles. But just remember for APA, you want to use past tense to discuss those published things or those actions by an author.

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Verb Tense

Use the active voice instead of passive voice whenever possible

Passive voice

  • The surveys were distributedby e-mail.
  • The surveys were distributedby Brown (2012) by e-mail.

Active voice

  • Brown (2012) distributed the surveys by e-mail.

Active voice

  • Brown (2012) distributed the surveys by e-mail.

See pages 77-78 in the APA 6th Edition

Audio:And also, along with that verb tense issue, you want to use active voice instead of passive voice whenever possible. For example, passive voice is something like "The surveys were distributive by email." Or "the surveys were distributed by Brown by email." So that second one, especially, I think you can hear that funkiness of using the passive voice. Whereas if we change into the active voice we just have, "Brown distributed the surveys by email." So, with this first example, it's not clear who actually is distributing the email. It could be anyone. It could be the person writing the paper. It could be a different author that they are going to cite later. So here we have a clear subject who is doing the action because it's in active voice.

And then, again we have "Surveys were distributed by Brown by email." So we have a little more information, we know it was distributed the survey but now it's getting a little bit confusing because we have all these extra "bys," and is getting tricky to pick up the specific subject and the specific [inaudible].

An easy check to make sure you are using the active voice instead of passive voice is to make the subject of the sentence the doer of the action. Have the subject be acting on the direct object, rather than having the subject be acted upon.  So, in this first example, the surveys are actually the subject of this sentence. So, the subject is being distributed, is having some action taken upon it. Whereas with active voice, Brown is our subject and Brown is the one doing the action, Brown is the one distributing the survey, it's a little bit more concise and direct. You want to make sure you can use active voice rather than passive whenever you can in your academic writing.

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Abbreviations

Chat Practice Question:

Choose one of these sentences and revise it to 

eliminate the passive voice:

The community program was evaluated and revised.

The falls were recorded and reported to the

 hospital’s administrators.

Use your imagination!

Audio:So now you want to practice and you can choose one of these sentences and revise it to eliminate the passive voice. And if you get through one and you want to move on to the second one, I think. I am going to go on silent for a minute and then we will come back and chat about it.

[silence as students type]

In this chat box example this use your imagination suggests there might be something you have to make up in order to eliminate the past tense.

[silence as students type]

I want to go over just a few of these answers that I saw coming through in the chat box, we thank you guys so much for participating. So, we have, "Mr. Smith evaluated and revised the community program. Dr. Young evaluated and revised the program. "So here we have two subjects, Mr. Smith and Dr. Young, who are doing the action. They are the ones who are evaluating and revising something. The program here is being after the pawn but it's not the subject. These are great examples of active voice.

This next one is a little bit confusing, I think, it's tricky, because there's definitely some revision going on and we have a subject now, or we have a person who is doing the action. So, we've made it a little more clear. But this is actually another version of passive voice. So here the community program is still the subject, but it's being evaluated and revised by someone else. So, the community program is being acted upon, rather than doing the action.

This next example, "Correction Officer Kelly recorded and reported the falls to the hospital administrator." Another example of active voice, we have our subject, who is correction Officer Kelly, who is clearly doing the action of recording and reporting falls. We even have specifically who that officer is recording and reporting that information to.

These next two, again, are a little bit tricky. I think that these are great examples because I think active voice and passive voice can be really confusing. These just give us a chance to go over some of the more tricky aspects of that rule. This first one we have, "The program was advised and evaluated by the community directors." Again, we have a little bit of condensing of the sentence. We have a specific group that is doing the action. But we still have passive voice, because the program is the subject that is being revised. The program isn't revising and evaluating community directors. But the community directors are the ones doing the action.

This next one is another really tricky one. "It was reported that the community program was evaluated and revised." So here it kind of seems like "it" which is a pronoun, right, could be the subject and maybe could be acting. But we actually have two examples of passive voice, so "was reported," if we replaced it with something else, that might make it a little bit more clear. So, if we have, "The incident was reported," that might help to clarify why that is passive voice. But again, is the subject is being acted upon rather than doing the action. 

Here we have, "The community program was evaluated and revised." So, the community program is what is being acted upon.

One thing that you might think about, too, a really famous example of passive voice is the phrase, "Mistakes were made." And what makes it really classic is that kind of pushing off of responsibility of some kind of major issues. We won't go into the specific history of that phrase. But, I like to use that as my own remembrance of what passive voice is. There we have, "Mistakes were made." We don't know who they were made by. We don't know specifically what happened. But that passive voice helps achieve those goals which are intentional in that sense. Right? So, if you can think of that, then that can maybe help you remember passive voice.

Another trick I read somewhere was if you can add "by zombies" at the end of a sentence, that's also passive voice. We can try it here. "It was reported that the community program was evaluated and revised by zombies." There we have an example of how that little test would work. It won't work with everything. I don't think we could say the program was revised and evaluated by directors. Maybe it's just if you put it after the verb. So, the program was evaluated and revised by zombies. Still works, still makes sense. So, there we have our example of passive voice.

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Point of View

Avoid referring to yourself in the third person

The researcher will analyze the lesson plan.

The author reviewed the case study.

See page 69 in the APA 6th Edition

Audio:Next we are going to move on to point of view. This is another piece I think can be really confusing. You want to avoid referring to yourself in the third person in APA style. This will help you not only avoid confusion, so, it's going to be clear you can take ownership of your ideas and your work to but also makes writing actually a lot easier. So here I have, "The researcher will analyze the lesson plan." Or, "The author reviewed the case study." In this case, we are assuming that the researcher is the person that is writing the paper because we don't have a citation. That citation is what's going to point to us that this is coming from some other source. That's another reason that citations are so important. But here, I'm not sure who the researcher is. I don't know if maybe you have forgotten to write a citation, or if it's a reference to something and I think I missed something earlier on in the paper. So, we can just revise these to use you as the first person so it's clear that I am the one is going to be analyzing the lesson plan, I am the one who has reviewed the case study. I want to get credit for that. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Point of View

Avoid referring to yourself in the third person

I will analyze the lesson plan.

I reviewed the case study.

Audio:So, we can change those to I will analyze and I reviewed. Again, I see this a lot, it kind of becomes a trick, where you're almost performing some acrobatics that read really awkwardly because you're trying to avoid using the first person. But if you just use the first person and understand that, that is perfectly acceptable in APA style, I think it will save you a headache when it comes time to write those papers we are presenting your own argument or presenting your own reading of something.

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Point of View

Avoid “I think” or “I believe” statements

I think that education is a right everyone should have.

I believe that businesses that treat employees fairly will succeed.

See page 69 in the APA 6th Edition

Audio:One reason that first person gets a bad rap, however, is that you want to avoid statements like "I think" or "I believe." So here we have "I think that education is a right every which have." And "I believe that businesses that treat employees fairly will succeed." So basically what "I think" and "I believe" do here is they take up space and they make it sound like you are a little unsure of your argument, like you're giving a caveat. I think this, maybe you don't, and I only think it, that kind of situation. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Point of view

Avoid “I think” or “I believe” statements

Education is a right everyone should have.

Businesses that treat employees fairly will succeed.

See page 69 in the APA 6th Edition

Whereas if you just write out, "Education is a right everyone should have," or "Businesses that treat employees fairly will succeed," it's a much more direct statement. It sounds like you strongly believe these and you have some evidence to support that which you should always have evidence in your academic writing. So, you don't need to add that "I think" or "I believe" because it's going to be inferred based on the fact that this your paper that your reader is reading. So, when you say "education is a right everyone should have," that’s an argument that you’re putting forward, you haven’t cited anybody else, you’re not anybody else is arguing this, so we as readers can understand that you are the one saying this idea or putting forth this argument.

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Point of view

Avoid referring to the reader with “we” or “you”

Weneed to ensure students have strong reading skills.

More Tips: Using Pronouns for Clarity and Concision blog post

See page 69 in the APA 6th Edition

Audio:Another thing to avoid is directly referencing the reader. So, you want to avoid using second person or words like "we" or "you", "our." Basically, I think it's, first of all, a little bit jarring to be reading a paper and then all of a sudden, to have "me" or "your" in a paper, it kind of pulls me out whatever I reading a little bit, because it seems like it's addressed to me. Saying "you" need to do something or "our group." 

It is also confusing because, in English, words like "we" and "our" can mean two different things. They can be that as a writer, I'm including my reader in this group so I say, "We need to ensure students," meaning you, reader, and I need to ensure students have strong reading skills. Or I could be referring to a group that I belong to but I want to make sure that it’s known I belong to that group and that it's more than just me. I am not saying I need to ensure, it's not my responsibility entirely. But maybe it's me and the other Writing Instructor’s or it’s me and other elementary instructors. So that we, is another that is another instance where we can be confusing for your reader and we want to make sure that confusion isn't there, that you are charming them out of their reading.

So, we have done here some tips for using pronouns with clarity and concision in our blog that you can check out if you have any questions about using that second person and addressed to the reader.

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Point of view

Avoid referring to the reader with “we” or “you”

Parentsneed to ensure students have strong reading skills.

Teachersneed to ensure students have strong reading skills.

More Tips: Using Pronouns for Clarity and Concision blog post

See page 69 in the APA 6th Edition

Audio:So, if I have corrected these two sentences, I might say something like "Parents need to ensure students have strong reading skills." And maybe the reader is a parent so it would be connected into that group. But this way, we are being very clear about what group we are referring to and specifically, because people belong to lots of groups. So specifically, as a writer, I want to say that parents have this responsibility, or teachers need to ensure students have strong reading skills. So, I don't have a question of, am I pointing out specifically to the reader, am I talking about some nebulous group? But I'm specifically talking about teachers.

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Abbreviations

Chat Practice Question:

Revise these sentences to use the correct point 

of view, using your imagination as needed:

I think journalists have a duty to report the facts 

in a balanced and unbiased manner.

We need to be more aware of the way social 

media is influencing our lives.

Audio:So, we have another practice in here, you're going to revise these sentences to use the correct point of view. And again, this is one you might have to use your imagination, because we might not have given you all the information that you need in order to correct this point of view issue.

[silence as students type]

More great answers came in. Please continue typing if still are waiting to get your answer in. But I did want to go over some examples that I pulled from the chat box. The first one is a little bit easier, right? I could see the answers pouring in, so I really like that you guys have clearly picked up on that "I think" or "I believe" issue, where you can just remove that and you have a perfectly good sentence. "Journalists have a duty to report the facts in a balanced and unbiased manner." That’s my argument I don't need to point out the I think, I can just take that as a fact.

The next one is trickier because you don't have all the information, and that's an example of why it's important to avoid these kinds of words, because the reader might throw in any group and might get off track of what you want them to understand.

So we have some examples here: "Teachers need to be more aware of the way social media is influencing students’ lives." Great, we know exactly who the "we" is, first of all, and who the "our" is.

This last one at the bottom here, parents need to be more aware of the way social media is influencing our lives -- we've got this great start, we’ve cleared up who that we is, with this question who's in the first group -- it's parents. We still have the "ours," is a little trickier here we have two of them instead of just one. Here we have, "Generation X needs to be more aware of the way social media is influencing their lives." Here we have a pronoun, but it's not second person, and we have that clear reference of Generation X because the sentence has been created in active voice, it's very clear the subject is, so that there standing in for, our is pointing out a very clear group, the reader is not going to have a question about who the writer is talking about when they use "there."

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Part 2: Paper-Level Style

[Image of a paper cover sheet]

Title of the Paper in Full Goes Here

Student Name Here

Walden University

Audio:Next we’re going to move on to the second part of this webinar, which is paper level style. And that's really small on my screen, so I apologize if you can't see that. But on this page, we have an example of a title page format. So, you can kind of get an idea of what specifically we're going to be talking about [inaudible].

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: APA’s Paper Formatting

Times New Roman, size 12

Spacing between lines

Header, title, student name, and university

Different first page

  • Templates
    • Title page
    • Running head
    • Page numbers
    • Headings
    • Double spacing
    • Font style and size

See section 8.03 in the APA 6th Edition

Audio:So, there are a couple of just general APA paper formatting rules. You want to use Times new Roman, in the size 12 font. I think it’s kind of ironic because we obviously didn't use Times new Roman here. But that's what you want to use when you're writing academic papers. You want to have spacing between each line and generally you want to have a double space between each line. Not three spaces, not 2.5 spaces, we noticed that. We can see you are doing that. Or on the other hand, don't have his no spaces, sorry, that was a double negative, kind of weird – but you want to have clear spaces between your lines, that makes it easier to read and APA rule. 

You should have a header, title, and then your own name and university on a different first page of your assignment. And we actually have some templates on our website that can help you set up your paper so that you're following this format already. These templates, we have this little flower picture in the middle, these are all the things that those templates are going to help you out with. They're going to help you set up your title page. At Walden, we no longer require a running header. But for APA style generally, that's expected. So, we have some templates that can help out with that if you need to, for whatever reason, if your faculty really wants you to use that running header or maybe you’re writing for publication or a difference audience we can help you out there. The page numbers, heading, then that double space.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: APA Paper Formatting Exceptions

APA Expectations

  • Running head
  • Single title page

APA Style Overview

Walden Course Paper Expectations

  • Deviates slightly from APA
  • NO running head required

General template

Doctoral Capstone Study Expectations

  • Follows ProQuest publisher guidelines
  • NO running head
  • Multiple title pages, etc.

Doctoral program templates

See section 8.03 in the APA 6th Edition

Audio:So, here we have some APA exceptions. Again, that APA exceptions of the running head or the single title page, for Walden course expectations, they deviate slightly from APA. That's specific to Walden assignments. So, just for the assignment that you're writing for your Walden courses, you do not need to include a running head. The APA rule itself hasn't changed. But because of the way that papers are submitted at Walden in the way that writing is done, the higher-ups just decided that that was not necessary anymore, so you do not need to include that running head for Walden papers.

For doctoral capstone, there are other specific expectations, so there you need to follow ProQuest publisher guidelines. Still don't need a running head for the Walden version, but you might need multiple title pages. So here, this link is active, this doctoral program templates, and that can help you if you're at that stage in your study to follow those specific rules. We also have this link to general templates below the Walden course paper expectations and an APA style overview. All those links are active so you can click on those if you'd like to get any information on those three elements.

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: APA Headings

Scaffolding Writing Instruction at an Online University

Background and Definition of Scaffolding

            The term scaffolding has only recently come into use...

Scaffolding in Higher Education

            Teachers in higher education began focusing on scaffolding…

            Scaffolding Strategies

            There are many ways educators can scaffold instruction…

Scaffolding Assignments

            Educators can scaffold assignments by…

See sections 3.02 and 3.03 in the APA 6th Edition

Audio:So, there are also rules for APA headings. This is another one I think can seem very nitpicky, but it's actually very important, because the way that you format your headings is going to inform the reader of how this all works together. I'm sorry, I just realize, we are meeting time. So, I'm going to quickly go through these and go for, like you can take a look at these headings and also check out these sections in the sixth edition.

 

Visual:Slide changes to: Additional Resources by Degree

All Students:

APA Manual               Links throughout presentation

Undergraduate Students:

Academic Writing Expectations

ADAPT Writing Guidelines

Master’s Students:

Writing at the Doctoral Level

Master’s templates

Doctoral Students:

Form & Style

Tables & Figures

Appendices

Capstone templates

Audio:Then, let's see ... I want to point out the APA style diagnostic and quiz and it is a great resource that allows you to do more of this practice like we've been doing in the webinar. So, you can test yourself to make sure you are avoiding bias, you are clarifying the actor, you are using the formatting correctly, using the listing correctly. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Questions: Ask Now or Later

writingsupport@waldenu.edu•  Live Chat Hours

Learn More:

Check out the recorded webinars Reference List Checklistand 

APA Citations Part 1: Methods to the Madness

Audio:They really great tool to practice those. And I think we might be out of time for questions. But thank you so much for joining. If you do have questions, please reach out to us at writingsupport@waldenu.edu

Beth:  Thank you so much, Kacy. We really appreciate it and we had some fantastic questions and lots of thank you’s for you. Thank you so much, Kacy. Thank you everyone for coming we really appreciate it. If you did have any questions we weren’t able to get to, I think we got all of them.  Make sure to email us, we have our live chat hours, and we hope to see you at another webinar. Have a wonderful evening everyone and hope to see you all later.

 

[END OF TRANSCRIPT]

Presented September 06, 2018

View the recording

Last updated 9/24/2018

 

Visual:The webinar begins with a PowerPoint title slide in the large central panel. A captioning pod, Q&A pod, and files pod are stacked on the right side.

The slide says “Housekeeping” and the following:

  • Recording
    • Will be available online within 24 hours.
  • Interact
    • Polls, files, and links are interactive. 
  • Q&A
    • Now:Use the Q&A box.
    • Later:Send to writingsupport@waldenu.edu or visit our  Live Chat Hours.
  • Help
    • Ask in the Q&A Box. 
    • Choose “Help” in the upper right hand corner of the webinar room.

Audio: Michael: Hello everyone, welcome. My name is Michael and I am a Writing Instructor joining from Duluth, Minnesota. Thank you all for joining us today for this webinar about APA formatting and style. 

Before we get started and I hand things over to Kacy, I just want to mention a few housekeeping items. First, this webinar is being recorded and, in a day, or two you will be able to access it through our website. So, if you have to leave early or want to go over portions of this again later, you will be able to check out the recording. Along with it, you’ll be able to find to many other recorded webinars on various writing topics. 

There will be several chances to interact with your colleagues and with our presenter, Kacy, so please be sure to participate during the chat sections in the large sections just like you did earlier today. Also, all of the links of this lecture are active so you can click directly on them for access to all of the information now or later if you watch the recording. 

We also have a few helpful files in Files pod and you can download them by clicking the Download Files button at the bottom of the pod. 

There's going to be a lot of information in this webinar, and if you have questions you can use the Q&A box. Beth and I will be watching the Q&A box and will answer your questions as quickly as we can. If you run out of time however or if you have questions later on, please send them to writingsupport@waldenu.eduand you will get a response through email.

Finally, if you encounter any technical difficulties, there is a Help in the upper right corner of the webinar screen. Thank you again for joining us and now I’ll will turn things over to our presenter, Kacy Walz.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the title of the webinar, “APA Formatting & Style: Beyond Citing Sources” and the speakers name and information: Kacy Walz,Writing Instructor, Walden University Writing Center.

Audio: Kacy:  Thank you everyone for joining us today. I am a Writing Instructor here at Walden and I am calling today from St. Louis, Missouri, where the heat has finally broken. I am very excited to go walk my dog after this webinar is over.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: What we will cover today:

Sentence-level style

•      Creating consistency in wording related to numbers, capitalization, abbreviations, seriation, verb tense, and point of view

Paper-level style

•      Creating consistency in presentation related to paper formatting and headings

To keep track of common APA style concerns and practice revising them, download our APA Journal and APA Journal Exampledocs.

Audio:Some things we are going to cover in our APA webinar today are sentence level style, how you create consistency in your wording related to those tricky issues of number formatting, how to capitalize correctly, if you're using any abbreviations or seriation, and things like that. 

We're also going to look at paper level style. So, this will entail that consistency in presentation, more of the specific headings, formatting’s, those types of rules.

And in the Files pod that Michael mentioned in the beginning of this webinar, there's actually something called the APA Journal, and the APA Journal example. The APA Journal example is just something you can use to see what we kind of had in mind for the APA Journal. Of course, you might find a different way to use it. But basically, those resources are there for you to take notes on either during this webinar or throughout your writing. Because lots of times, at least for me, there are those APA rules that just keep coming up and I keep forgetting what they are. So, the APA Journal is a great way to record all of that information so that you have it within easy access. None of us are expecting you to memorize all the rules of APA. There are way too many of them. I definitely don't have them all memorized. All of our resources are there for you so that you can refer to them, and this is just another great resource that you can create for yourself, depending on what rules you think are going to be most important.

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: What we will notcover today:


Resources we recommend: 

Audio:Unfortunately, we only have an hour, and I know you're all very disappointed you can't talk about APA for more than that. But in this webinar, in order to ensure we have plenty of time to go over the things we want to cover, we are not going to be covering things like capstone study formatting, citations, reference lists, tables and figures, and MS word formatting. And all of these we actually do have resources for on our website, so you can check those out. But they're either way out of the scope of this topic, or we just wouldn't be able to do them justice in this short period of time. 

So, I really encourage you, if you were hoping to learn about any of these topics, to explore our website, because like I said, we do have a lot of great resources. Among them are our doctoral capstone writing page, so these are resources, when you get to your doctoral capstone, there are a lot of really specific rules to follow and this resource will help you make sure that you're on the right track with that. We also have some webinars about APA citation and other issues of APA style that you might want to check out. Then, we also have Microsoft Word help through the Academic Skills Center.

 

Visual: Slide change to the following: Why does style matter?

Chat Box:

Think about past readings such as books, articles, 

websites, work documents, discussion posts, etc.

When you encounter a document with 

inconsistent formatting or style, how does it 

affect your reading experience?

Audio:So, before we get into the nitty-gritty details, I'd like to hear a little bit about your thoughts. When you encounter a document with inconsistent formatting or style, how does it affect your reading experience? Maybe you’ll say it doesn't affect your reading experience. But if it does, what kinds of thoughts are you having, how are you reacting to that paper, if you feel that it's not maintaining a consistent format or style? I'm going to go on silent for a few minutes to give you guys some time to answer.

[silence as students type]

It looks like there are some people who aren't distracted or don't mind if a paper doesn't have consistent formatting or style. But a lot of the answers I'm reading have to do with clarity and reliability of the author. I think these are two really good points to remember in why it's so important to know all of these different APA rules. So, it might seem like they were just invented to make your life more difficult. But actually, we're trying to make life easier. We're trying to make life easier for you as a scholar to clearly point out where you're getting your information and then, we know, reading other documents, because you know how to use these rules in your own writing, you’ll also have other scholars who are using them, as well. So, you will be able to find access to the information they quote or understand exactly what it is they're trying to say because they are following those same rules. 

A lot of you are talking about how, sometimes, it can make it difficult to follow or it doesn't seem to make sense if that formatting isn't followed. And I think that's another great point, when you're writing, you want your reader to be able to follow your argument, to understand what you're writing, that makes it really important to follow those rules even if they seem like is not as important in the moment.

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Part 1: Sentence-Level Style

  1. Numbers
  2. Capitalization
  3. Abbreviations
  4. Latin abbreviations
  5. Seriation
  6. Serial Commas
  7. Verb tense
  8. Point of view

Audio:So, we start off with sentence level style. And, in this section, which is the longer section of the two, we're going to cover numbers, capitalization, abbreviations, Latin abbreviations, seriation, serial commas, verb tense and point of view. So, lots of things to go over. And we will have a time to take some questions before we move on because that is a lot of information. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Numbers

General Rule

Nine and below, use words. 10 and above, use numerals.

Ex: There were four teachers for every 25 students in the class.

EXCEPTIONS 

Always use numeralsfor:

Series, ex: Chapter4; Table2

Abstracts

Units of measurement, ex: 8-mg dose; 5.6 cm

Time, dates, ages, scores, points on a scale, money

Percentages and ratios

            EXCEPTIONS 

Always use wordsfor:

Beginning of a sentence, titles, or headings

Common fractions, ex: one third of the participants, half of the respondents

            See pages 111-114 in the APA 6thEdition

Audio:First off, we're going to go with numbers. And the general rule, any number nine and below you want to spell out. So that nine is spelled out, n-i-n-e. But when you use 10 and above you’re going to use numerals, like you see in this example. There were four teachers for every 25 students in the class. Four spelled out because it's under nine, because it’ s nine or under, and 25, we use that numeral because we are following this general rule. But of course, there are exceptions to this rule.

You are always going to use numerals for series, units of measurement, time, dates, ages, scores, money, percentages and ratios. For example, when you're talking about specific chapters, you want to refer to Chapter 4, for example, or Table 2, you're still going to use that form even though it's nine or below. You also want to use numbers in your abstract. So anytime you're using a number in the abstract part of your paper, you're going to include that in a numeral format.

Units of measurement such as height, weight, things like that, you're going to use numerals and then like I said, those times, dates, ages, you can see all those things you would want to use numerals for. But one thing I want to point out because I see this issue a lot, you want to use numerals for percentages. You don't want to spell out "percent." I see that in a lot in papers that I review. You should just use the number and that percent symbol.

And on the other hand there are a few instances where you always want to spell out the number. So, if you're beginning a sentence with a number or the number is beginning your title or heading, you're going to spell that out because you don't want to start a sentence with a number. It looks a little bit awkward. So even if it's I want to talk about 11 elements, I'm going to spell out 11 if it's the first word of my sentence.

You also want to spell out common fractions. And I think maybe this is where that confusion of percentage and ratios comes in. But this is only these very common fractions. So, if I want to say one third of the participants or half of the respondents, instead of using a 1/3, I am going to just write out one-third of the participants that way. But again, that's only for these really common fractions. If you want some more information you can check out these pages in your 5thedition of the APA manual.

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Numbers: 

Chat Practice Question:

Write the following sentence with properly-

formatted numbers:

11/eleven patients waited for the doctor 

for eighty/80 minutes, and they were only 

50%/fifty percent satisfied with the experience.

Audio:So, we are going to have a little bit of practice now. I encourage you to try to write out this sentence with properly formatted numbers. So, remembering all of our rules, our exceptions, how would you present this sentence in an APA formatted paper? I am going to go on silent again to give you a few minutes to think. 

[silence as students type]

All right, awesome job guys, thank you so much for participating in that. Here, you can see the correct version of the sentence. So, because I'm starting that sentence with 11, I’m going to spell it out even though it's a number greater than 10. And then, we use the numerals for the 80 minutes. One, because it's a number greater than 10. But also, because we're talking about minutes, and if you remember that exception, you are always going to use numerals when you're talking about number of minutes or talking about time. 

This last one, I think is kind of tricky because here we might think well, I can say half of them were satisfied. If that’s how I want to format the sentence I would spell out half. But because the writer has chosen to format the sentence in that way we are going to use the number 50 and that percent sign. Great job, everybody.

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Capitalization

First word of a sentence

Major words and words of four letters or more 

in headings and your paper title

Proper nouns

Queen Elizabethàthe queen

Department of Psychologyàpsychology course

Chapter 2 àthese chapters

Don’t capitalize models/theories

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

Einstein’s theory of relativity

See pages 101-104 in the APA 6thEdition

Audio:We are going to move on now to capitalization. So, we call different levels of capitalization things like sentence level capitalization and then title level of capitalization. So, if you've heard those phrases or seen on papers and you're confused, we're going to go over what those mean. 

So, in sentence level capitalization, you're going to write out the phrase or whatever it is that you're writing in the same way you would if it was a sentence. Which means you're going to capitalize the first word, but any other word which is not a proper noun is going to be lowercase. On the other hand, if it's sentence level capitalization that means you want to capitalize all major words and any words of four letters or more.

So, in terms of using capitalization and not using capitalization, we have some examples that will hopefully clear up some potential confusion. When I am using proper nouns, I’m going to capitalize. I’m talking about Queen Elizabeth, Queen has to be capitalized because it's a specific title of this person I am talking about. Whereas if I'm just talking about "the queen" and I’m not mentioning specifically who it is, I’m not using that word as a title, so it gets lowercase. Same thing with Department of Psychology, if I'm specifically talking about this department than I need to capitalize it. But a psychology course would get lowercase. Same thing with Chapter 2, because it's a specific chapter, I am going to capitalize that C. But if I'm just referring to "these chapters," it's lowercase.

Where you don't want to capitalize are models and theories. And this is something that I see all the time in paper reviews. I think it's a very common misconception. But when I am naming somebody's theory or specific hierarchies, is our example, that only need to capitalize the name of the person who is credited with that theory. So here I have Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Hierarchy and needs are both lowercase but only Maslow is capitalized. Same thing with Einstein's theory of relativity. I think this is confusing because it seems like a title. Right? It seems like these are proper nouns because we hear of this so often. But they're actually just a theory or hierarchy and the main thing is who it is that has come up with it.

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Abbreviations

  • Introduce once within parentheses
    • The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
    • English language learners (ELLs)
  • Combine abbreviations and a citation
    • The Department of Education (DOE, 2012)
    • (The Department of Education [DOE], 2012)
    • (DOE, 2012)

See pages 106-111 in the APA 6thEdition

Audio:So now we have abbreviations. You want to introduce any abbreviation you're going to use the first time you use it. So here we have the Center for Disease Control and Prevention and then in parentheses, I've got CDC to let my reader know that any time throughout the rest of the paper that they see CDC, it's going to mean Center for Disease Control and Prevention.

Here we have a kind of interesting one because I'm using English language learners, plural. So, the abbreviation for English language learner is ELL. But because I'm using the plural form I need to include an sat the end. We’ll talk a little bit more about this in the next slide, why that's important. But that's important to remember, you can put abbreviations plural. If you're going to use your abbreviation and a citation, this is a little bit different rule. So here we have a, what we call a narrative citation. So, this, the Department of Education is part of my sentence. But I want to let my reader know, this is the first time I have used Department of Education in my paper. I want to let them know that I’m going to use DOE throughout the rest of the pages, so I've included that abbreviation along with the year of publication for that Department of Education is credited with.

If I don't want to use a narrative citation I am using a parenthetical, but I still haven't yet introduced my reader to the Department of Education, then I need to include the full name and the abbreviation in parentheses. And to do that and to make sure your reader doesn't get too confused with all the parentheses, like maybe think this is a typo or that something else is missing in this portion of your paper, you want to use brackets for the abbreviation and then parentheses around the entire citation. It's really important to follow that, even though it might seem a little bit nitpicky, this is one of those examples of a rule that's going to really help out your reader and when you know it, it's going to help you when you're reading other documents.

If I've already introduced my abbreviation then in the citation, this is another parenthetical citation inside a narrative, I can just write DOE we've already told my reader what that means.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Abbreviations

(1) The ELLs (English Language Learners) in my class give a different perspective. 

(2) Often ELL students have different experiences they can expose other students to.

(3) English language learners are thus a valuable addition to classes.

Abbreviation should be in parentheses.

Repetition of learnerand students.

No need to spell out phrase.

See pages 106-111 in the APA 6thEdition

Audio:This first example is kind of an explanation for that ELL s part. These are all incorrect uses of abbreviation. The first instance we have the ELLs (English language learners) in my class give a different perspective. The abbreviation should always be the part that comes in parentheses. So, the first time that I use this term of English-language learners, I want to spell that out and then put ELL s in parentheses. 

The second one, we have often, ELL students have different experiences they can expose other students to. Aside from ending on a preposition, this might be a kind of tricky one to figure out why it's incorrect. But if we read ELL the way we're supposed to, it's just a stand-in for English language learner then this reads, often English language learner students have different experiences. So, we have basically repeated learner in this sentence. We want to make sure we use the abbreviation exactly as it stands in.

One you might be more familiar with is ATM machine. When you say ATM machine, you're saying "automatic teller machine, machine" because that M at the end of ATM stands for machine. A lot of people, it's a pet peeve of theirs. So, if can help you remember, be sure to uses abbreviations as if it's just the phrase itself.

And then we have English language learners are thus a valuable addition to classes. And here we're pretending that all three of these sentences are in a paper, so I have already introduced English language learner in my first sentence, so I don't want to spell it out again in a subsequent sentence. And the reason for that is, you want to make sure that your reader knows that you're still talking about that same group of people. If you provide an abbreviation, for one, your reader might be confused as to why you provided and abbreviation and then aren't using it. In another instance, they might think, this must be another group or this must be a different abbreviation that they are providing for them. So, spelling it out can actually cause more confusion than just using those abbreviations.
 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Abbreviations

The English language learners (ELLs) in my class give a different perspective.

Often ELLs have different experiences they can expose other students to.

ELLs are thus a valuable addition to classes.

Abbreviation should be in parentheses.

Repetition of learnerand students.

No need to spell out phrase.

See pages 106-111 in the APA 6thEdition

Audio:So here in the correct version we have, "The English-language learners" with "ELLs" in parentheses, we have removed "student," so we can just say ELLs in the second sentence. And in the third, since we have already introduced that abbreviation, we can just use that abbreviation throughout the whole sentence and throughout the rest of the paper.

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Abbreviations: Chat Practice Question:

Chat Practice Question:

Choose one of these sentences and write it 

to include the abbreviation DOJ for Department of 

Justice appropriately, assuming in both that this is 

the FIRST time DOJ is being used:

The Department of Justice responds to press inquiries 

within 2 weeks.

Incarceration rates have increased 10% in the last 5 years

 (Department of Justice, 2016).

Audio:So, for our next practice I what you to choose one of these sentences and write it to include the abbreviation of DOJ for The Department of Justice appropriately. For both of these, we are going to assume that each of these is the first time that you are using Department of Justice in your paper. So, I am going to go on silent.

[silence as students type]

So a lot of you are even picking up on that kind of subtle, sneaky numbers that we sneaked into those examples. So, because we're using weeks and years, these numbers are going to follow that exception about time, and you are actually going to use the numeral in that instance. So nice job picking out, if you did, and I can also understand why some people might have had some confusion, so it's a great chance for us to review that specific rule. 

For this first one, I see a lot of you correctly format in that the Department of Justice spelled out and then DOJ in parentheses. Since that's the first time I'm using it in my paper, I need to introduce the abbreviation DOJ, so that when I use it, my reader is going to know that, that's what that represents. 

The second one was a little trickier and I see there was a little bit of confusion here. Because I am introducing this abbreviation for the first time in my parentheses, or in my parenthetical citation, I need to use kind of two sets of parentheses. But in order to make sure that that's clear, that that's intentional, I am going to use brackets to surround the abbreviation and then parentheses, just the way you normally would with the citation. So, awesome job, guys.

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Latin Abbreviations

  • See page 108 in the APA 6th Edition

This…              Means:                        Latin:  

i.e.                   That is                         “id est” or “in other words”

e.g                   For example                “exempli gratia” or “for the sake of example”

etc.                  And so forth                “etcetera” or “and the others”

vs.                    Versus                         “versus/vertere” or “to turn to face”

cf.                    compare                      “confer/conferatur” or “compare”

Audio:Now I'm going to go over Latin abbreviations. This one is another one that I think can be kind of tricky because sometimes, we see them and we don't necessarily understand what they mean, or we use the incorrect abbreviation in certain instances. So, it's really important to understand these different abbreviations actually mean something – and I don't mean that to sound obvious, but they have meaning. So, you want to make sure you're using them in the correct way. So, I looked up the Latin versions of all of these. Again, you're not expected to memorize any of this. But if it helps you to kind of remember what these specific abbreviations mean, then I’m happy.

So, for i.e., we have that is or it asked, or in other words. When you use i.e., you’re basically saying, I'm going to put this another way.

E.g. on the other hand, I see these two get confused a lot, i.e. and e.g. E.g. means "for example." It comes from the Latin exempli gratia, which means for the sake of example.

Etc. might be a little bit more common or recognizable, but this means and so forth and etc. itself is actually Latin, etcetera., when you are saying etcetera you’re speaking another language. And it translates to, and so forth. 

Vs. is versus, and that is versus or vertare, which translates to "to turn to face," which I kind of love when you think about versus as a kind of to competition, one team versus another, it literally means to turn and face.

Cf. means to compare and it stands for confer or conferatur, which in Latin means to compare. When you’re using all of these abbreviations you want to make sure that your using the correct one for whatever it is you're trying to include. So, if you’re giving an example, you want to provide further information about something you have explained, you don't want to use cf., you don't want to use i.e., because those mean different things.

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Seriation

Seriated lists: 

Lower-case letters Parentheses

A survey should include (a) clear wording, (b) convenient access, and (c) concise directions. 

Numbers: Particular order.

Only vertical lists

When collecting data, I will 

1.  develop the survey questions, 

2.  send out the survey link to the participants, and 

3.  gather the data after 1 month.

Bullets: No particular order.

A survey should include

  • clear wording to avoid confusion,
  • convenient access so participants can easily respond, and
  • concise directions that do not overwhelm participants.

See pages 63-65 in the APA 6th Edition

Audio:So, in terms of seriation there are three basic rules for how you want to format a seriated list. The first one here you can see, we’ve used lowercase letters in parentheses to make sure it's clear that these three different items are seriated in the sentence. We have, "A survey should include a) clear wording, b) convenient access and c) concise directions."

When you use numbers in your seriated list that's going to tell the reader that the order of the information provided is important. When collecting data, I will first develop the survey questions, second send the survey to the participants and then third, gather the data after one month. These are all very specific steps in my process, I can't mix them up, I can't gather the data before send out the survey link. There would be nothing to gather. So, I need to use these numbers in my seriated list to show the importance of that order.

On the other hand, if the order isn't important, I can just use bullets. Here I have "A survey should include clear wording to avoid confusion, convenient access so participants can easily respond, and concise directions that do not overwhelm participants." So here it doesn't really matter what order I present this list in, I just want to use this bullet points to make it clear to my reader that these are in the different elements that I want to say a survey should include.

You might also notice that the third example is a little bit more detailed than this first, otherwise, they look a little bit similar. But here we have, since we're using longer items in our list, I think it's a little bit easier as a reader to follow along with bullets that it would be to use these lowercase letters and parentheses. And that's just because it can be very difficult to keep track of which item you're talking about when you write it out narratively like that. Especially if that's in the middle of a much longer sentence.

 

Visual:Slide changes to he following: Serial (Oxford) Commas

  • Comma after each item in a series:
    • She found, read, and annotated the article.
    • I chose between a qualitative,quantitative,and mixed-methods design.
    • The Writing Center offers short answers via e-mail,paper reviews by appointment,and webinars throughout the month.

See pages 88-89 in the APA 6th Edition

Audio:So next, we have the serial comma or sometimes called the Oxford comma. And basically, that just means you put a comma after each item in a series.

For example, we have, "She found, read, and annotated the article." We have three items and there is still a comma before that and. In APA style, you always want to include that serial or Oxford comma before the and. We also have "I choose between a qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods design." And thirdly we have "The Writing Center offers short answers via email, paper reviews by appointment, and webinars throughout the month." This one I see is a great example of why the comma is important. If I don't have that comma there and I’m not familiar with the Writing Center, I might think the Writing Center is going to offer me short answers through paper reviews and webinars. Right? I might think that the way I access a paper review is either through appointment or through a webinar, because it might not be clear if I don't have that comma. Putting that comma in there makes sure I know the each of these different pieces as a separate item in what the Writing Center offers.