The first step in doing evidence-based practice research is forming a researchable question. Questions that are too broad or too narrow can make your research difficult, if not impossible. For example:
On this page we will cover:
PICOT is a mnemonic that helps you remember the key components of a well-focused question. It stands for:
In _______(P), what is the effect of _______(I) on ______(O) compared with _______(C) within ________ (T)?
In the aged population, what is the effect of exercise programs on accidental falls, as compared with no exercise?
Are ____ (P) who have _______ (I) at ___ (Increased/decreased) risk for/of_______ (O) compared with ______ (P) with/without ______ (C) over _____ (T)?
Are adult smokers with a history of childhood asthma at increased risk of COPD compared to adult smokers with no history of asthma?
Are (is) _________ (I) more accurate in diagnosing ________ (P) compared with ______ (C) for _______ (O)?
Is the Hemoglobin A1C test more accurate in diagnosing diabetes as compared with fasting blood sugar levels?
For ________ (P) does the use of ______ (I) reduce the future risk of ________ (O) compared with _________ (C)?
For people with type 2 diabetes, does zinc supplementation reduce the future risk of foot ulcers compared with placebo?
Does __________ (I) influence ________ (O) in patients who have _______ (P) over ______ (T)?
In adults with osteoarthritis, does low vitamin D levels in the bloodstream predict the rate of future hip fractures?
How do ________ (P) diagnosed with _______ (I) perceive ______ (O) during _____ (T)?
How do cancer patients diagnosed with alopecia perceive their self-esteem during and after chemotherapy?
Once you've developed a PICOT question, it's time to find keywords or search terms that you can use in the Library databases to find articles relevant to your question.
Here are a few strategies that will help you turn each aspect of your topic into relevant search terms:
For each aspect of your topic, think of other words or phrases that have a similar meaning. For example, some synonyms for hand sanitizers could be:
If your topic includes acronyms, like NICU, you'll want to search using both the acronym and the actual phrase:
NICU OR Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
Most of the Library databases assign articles or other resources subjects based on the main topics covered in that item. These subjects make great search terms, since they will help you search for the terms the database uses to categorize your topic.
Here is an example of how to find subjects in the CINAHL Plus with Full Text database:
Note: This search is just to help you identify relevant subjects, so you don't want to add additional search terms or limits to your search.
To learn more about picking and combining appropriate search terms, please see our guides: