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Webinar Transcripts

Top 10 APA Errors: Reference List Checklist

Presented October 23, 2018

View the webinar recording

Last updated 12/9/2018

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Housekeeping 

  • Recording
    • Will be available online within 24 hours.
  • Interact
    • Polls, files, and links are interactive. 
  • Q&A
    • Now:Use the Q&A box.
    • Later:Send to writingsupport@waldenu.edu or visit our  Live Chat Hours.
  • Help
    • Ask in the Q&A box.
    • Choose “Help” in the upper right hand corner of the webinar room.

Audio:Claire: Alright. Hello everyone. Welcome to today's presentation. I'm Claire Helakoski and I'll be facilitating this webinar today. Before we get started, I wanted to go over a few housekeeping notes. First, I want to note that I am recording this session. And it will be available online through our webinar archive within 24 hours. So, we'll be recorded and if you need to leave or you miss part of the presentation, or you come in late, you can go ahead if watch that recording. 

During the presentation, you'll be able to use polls, files, and links throughout. And Michael has some activities and chats for you as well. So, you'll be able to interact throughout the presentation today. If you have questions during the presentation, please use the Q & A Box. I will be there and do my very best to answer and I’ll also hold any questions that I think are particularly relevant and Michael will respond to those as well. If you have questions later and watching this presentation at a later time, then you can send questions to writingsupport@waldenu.eduor visit us during our Live Chat hours.

If you need help during the presentation for technical issues, you can let me know in the Q & A Box and I have a few tricks, but I also recommend that you go ahead and use the help button in the upper right-hand corner of the screen. That's Adobe Connects support. So, they will be able to help you more directly if whatever I suggest that you try doesn't work. All right. And with that I'll go ahead and turn it over to our presenter today, Michael. 

 

Visual: The webinar begins with a PowerPoint title slide in the large central panel. The title of the webinar, “Top 10 Errors: Reference List Checklist” and the speakers name and information: Michael Dusek, Writing Instructor, Walden University Writing Center.

Audio:Michael: Hello, everyone. Thank you, Claire, for that wonderful introduction. As she indicated my name is Michael Dusek. And I'm going to be delivering this webinar today. This is regarding the Top 10 errors on the reference list. It's something of a checklist for you to go through as you take a look at your reference list for a document you might be turning in. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Learning Objectives After this session, you will be able to:

  • Understand the purpose of references and citations in an academic paper
  • Develop skills in revising for the top 10 reference list errors 
  • Identify resources to help you revise your own reference lists

Audio: Before I get going here, in presentations like this, I think that there's, well, I guess there's a disclaimer that I like to say. I'm human, right? So, I don't have the APA manual memorized. So, there are some nuances within the reference list that I just don't know the answer to perhaps your question right off the top of my head. However, this checklist gives you a really good number of things to look at to really bring quality and consistency to your reference list. Sure. 

For the learning objectives for this session, we're going to talk and discuss and reach out towards understanding the purpose of references and citations in an academic paper. Now, these two things are really corresponding elements, right? In MLA, the reference list is referred to as a work cited. I think this is apt in APA because this work you cited within your document. So, every piece that you cite in your document should also have a corresponding reference entry. Likewise, for every reference entry that you include in your list, there should be at least one citation within that document. So, again, these are corresponding elements, and we're going to discuss that a little bit more. 

We're going to work towards developing skills and revising for these Top 10 reference list errors. We in the Writing Center encounter a lot of different essays, obviously. And these are the kind of the 10 most missed elements of a reference list. So, we're going to look at these things and discuss how to revise for and addressing these. Lastingly, we're going to identify resources to help you revise your own reference list. As always, this is where the rubber meets, road, right? Recognizing opportunities for revision in your reference list is how you make your reference list better, right? 

It doesn't make that much of a difference if I tell you all the rules if you can't recognize in your own writing where these instances occur. And also, it's important to be able to reach out and find resources to help you do this, right? You don't write a paper in a vacuum. So, knowing where to find resources can be really helpful for you. I often say that kind of resourcefulness is the new intelligence, right? We don't have to memorize every little detail of an APA reference list. Rather, if we know where to look to find the formatting that we need to use, that's just as good. Yeah. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Chat box

What do you find to be the most challenging part of creating a reference list? 

Audio: Okay. So, yeah, let's start with a little chat here. In the chat box in the middle of the screen, I'm wondering what do you find to be the most challenging part of creating a reference list? Let's take a minute. This is an appropriate place to vent a little bit. What do you find challenging about this? What is your biggest challenge when creating a reference list? I'm going to go on mute and give you a second to respond and then we'll come back and talk through some of these. 

[silence as students type]

All right. Great. I'm seeing a lot of different, a lot of variety in your responses here. One that sticks out to me was one student said that there are a lot of rules. Yeah, there kind of are a lot of rules, but this gets at a little bit bigger of an idea, right? And that's these rules within APA can be kind of intimidating, right? So, breaking them down and finding resources to inform your understanding of some of these rules is a good idea. 

I've also seen a lot of you guys kind of have some anxiety around referencing webpages. 

This is, again, something that having the right resources in place, you can kind of use it as a template to fit the necessary information into. So that would be another great way to kind of assuage those anxieties regarding this particular part of creating a reference list. 

Formatting is another one I'm seeing a lot here. We're going to talk quite a bit about formatting within this presentation. Again, these checklist items all have to do with a specific APA rule when referencing. And a lot of them have to do with formatting. So, we're going to talk through some of these and actually point out the correct way to do that. Thanks for participating in this, you guys. 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Why Create a Reference List?

  • Each source cited in the paper is included in a reference list.*
  • A reference list gives credit to the author and directs the reader to the source.

Audio:All right, yeah, before we kind of get into these 10 things, I want to, again, touch upon this idea of citations and references being these kinds of corresponding elements, right? So, as we can see in the slide, each source cited in the paper is included in the reference list. Yeah, so what a citation essentially is, your pointing in kind of an abbreviated way to a source that you're using as evidence, right? You're saying that this source supplied this information, which in some way supports the point that I'm making. 

You include a reference list here because you want to point the reader directly to that source if they wish to read it themselves and determine a couple things. One, are you representing the ideas of the author correctly? Two, are you keeping the ideas of the author in their original context? This is really about transparency. 

When you're referencing an outside source to support a point that you're making, providing the publication information for that source for the reader shows the reader that you're being open about your research process. You're essentially saying to them, here's where I found this information. This is the person who published this document. If you would like to check that to make sure that I'm representing that accurately, here's where you can find that. And, so, that's why we create a reference source. Having a transparent research process like this builds your authority as an author. We want the reader to believe what we're saying. We want to be seen as an authority figure by the person reading our document. So, doing things like this, being transparent about your research process is one thing that builds your authority. And it's a major thing that builds your authority. Second bit of this slides, reference list gives credit to the author and directs the reader to the source. 

So, I mentioned the direct the reader to the source part. But you're also giving credit to the author whose idea you're using, right? I know you guys work very hard on your research and getting your own ideas expressed and together in a coherent academic way. At the end of these long projects that you guys are participating in, I'm sure you want to get credit for that work, right? You want to be able to say this is something I did. And in the case of a class, get a grade for it. In the case of the world of academia, you can use this as a publication that can potentially get you an advancement in your career, it can get you grants for further study. You want to be given credit for this work that you do. 

Similarly, you need to give credit to the peoples whose work you're drawing from. They want to get credit for the work they have done also. In academia again, ideas that are published are really like currency. So, you need to give credit to the people whose work you're drawing from. Sure. 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Citing Sources in Your Paper

  • Stay Organized       
    • Create an entry for each source you read
    • Include the entry in your draft
  • Cite in Text   
    • Use quotation marks when quoting
    • Paraphrase effectively
    • Add a citation immediately
  • Seek Out Help                     
    • Check the Writing Center website
    • Ask the Writing Center, faculty, or classmates

Audio: Citing sources in your paper. Here's couple of general tips about this. One, it's important to stay organized. Creating a reference entry for every source that you read is a good idea. This can be called a bibliography. If you add some paragraphs of summary or evaluation, this is what's known as an annotative bibliography. But compiling sources in this way is an effective technique when researching and composing a paper. Once you've made this list, often times even before you sat down to compose a draft, you kind of already have your reference list together, right? So, you're putting in work on the front-end. 

You can then kind of copy and paste the sources that you actually use into your reference list. So, kind of creating a list of the references that you read is a good idea. It's a sound technique, sound research technique. Sure. 

Include the entry in your draft. Yeah, absolutely. So, when you use something, when you use a piece of information in your draft, then as I've mentioned, just copy and paste that reference into the reference page for that specific project. When you are citing in your draft, if you're using quotations, you need to use quotation marks, right? I think students get this pretty well. If you were taking the exact source language from a source that you're drawing from, you need to give the author credit for those words, right? Similarly, in our next bullet point here, paraphrasing effectively includes citing and giving credit to that author as well. 

As you give credit to that author for their words, you also need to give them credit for their ideas. Sure. Add a citation immediately. This is a great move. I do encounter students who will write a paper and then say something like, insert citation here and they will highlight it to make sure they go back and put that citation in. 

This is ineffective, because it takes more time. You have to go back and remember, okay, where did I find that information? What source was that from? Okay, well now I'll put that citation in. If you do it immediately when you use that source information, you're saving yourself time. A lot of being an effective academic writer and academic researcher is saving yourself time and not doing work over again that you've already done. 

So, adding citations immediately is a good way to do this. This is also something that kind of protect you from plagiarism. Now imagine if you put in a piece of source material and you intend to go back if cite that, but you kind of get off to the races writing the rest of your piece and you forget to do so. Now effectively, you’ve included someone else's idea that you're representing as your own. This is plagiarism obviously. So, adding a citation immediately is kind of a way to avoid doing that, right? You don't have to remember to add a citation if you've already added it. That way it protects you from academic integrity issues as well. Seek out help. Yeah. Sure, this is our No. 3 for our general citation tips. As I've mentioned at the beginning here, I think resourcefulness is kind of the new intelligence. We don't really memorize the things the way that were once required within higher education. It's just not necessary. 

We have a number of resources that are available to us immediately with things like the Internet and APA style guide. We don't really need to memorize thing. So, knowing where to find something is just as good. So, I would encourage you all to check out the Writing Center website. We have a number of different resources there from webpages to modules, webinar recordings, blog posts, et cetera, et cetera that are all covering different topic within academic writing. So, this is a great resource for you. I would encourage you all to use it. 

Ask the Writing Center is another way to do this. You can use that writingsupport@waldenu.edu email address if you have a question. You can reach out to faculty who can be an excellent, excellent resource when it comes to composing academic writing. Or you know your colleagues are a good resource too. If you have a question, if you're struggling with an idea within your academic writing, it's pretty likely that a classmate of yours or colleague of yours is struggling with that same idea too. So, in working together, you guys can kind of take a step forward in your academic writing and inform your work in that way. Okay. 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Create Your Own References

  • Don’tcopy and paste from the Library, databases, course materials, reference entry generators, or the article itself!
  • Guarantee accuracy by creating them yourself and checking them against examples in the manual and the Writing Center’s Common Reference List
  • Be cautious when using citation management software, like Zotero.

Library’s citation management software information

Audio: Excuse me. Sorry about the pause. I'm kind of fighting a cold here. But another good tip here when creating a reference list is to create your own list. I know that seems kind of simple to say. But a lot of students will use kind of a reference list generator or some software that you put in a bit of information and it spits out what that system believes to be a correct reference. You know, students ask me all the time: Is this okay? Can I use like a Zotero? Can I use EasyBib.com type thing? And the answer that I give them is yeah, sure. That’s fine. However, you need to take your own human eye and check that for accuracy. This is the second bullet point here. You need to use your own human intellect in checking these computer-generated references. 

Think of it like this, think of it as a bit of a translation software on the internet. If I had an English phrase that I want to translate into German. I could put in that English phrase and this translation software would spit out a phrase, in German, right? And it will probably have some of the right words and some of the right information there. However, the case might be wrong, right? The tense might be wrong. These words might be in the wrong order. This is kind of how citation generation software works also. It's imperfect - it's a dumb machine, right? It doesn't know every rule. It doesn't do everything correctly. So, you need to take your own human eye to that to make sure that the information is correct, that it's in the right order, that it's formatted correctly. 

So, this is kind of, you can use citation generation software as kind of a jumping off point. But, again, you need to use your own human intellect in revising and double checking. 

It's also not a good idea to copy and paste from the library database, from course materials, from reference entry generators. Yeah, it's just an ineffective way. Often times if you’re taking an old document, they might use a different APA and it may have changed over time. Sometimes depending on how many sources are being used from the same author, there may be some extra notation required in a reference list that if you're only using one of the sources from this author, may not be required. 

So, again, the point of this slide, I know I've been rambling a little bit here. The point of this slide is that you need to create your own list, create your own reference list. And if you’re going to use outside sources to help you do that, you need to take your own human eye to that, to make sure it's correct based on the current version of APA style. 

And here's a resource for you. Library citation management software information. Which kind of reiterates some of the points that I'm making here, but if you’d like to take a look at that, go ahead and click on that active link on the bottom of the slide. 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Reference List Checklist

Top 10 Reference List Mistakes

Audio: Drum roll without further ado, let's move into the Top 10 reference list mistakes.

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Insert a Page Break1

  • References list appears on a new and separate page
  • Use a page break to create this separation
  • Helps avoid formatting change while revising

Academic Skills Center Microsoft Word Resources

            Create Page Breaks Tutorial

Audio:Number one, the page break. So, a reference list needs to be at the top of its own page and this comes at the end of the document. A lot of times students will end their document and then hit return or enter on their keyboard until they find the new page and then start the reference there. This appears correct on the page until you start revising. When you revise, you're going to be adding words, you're going to be taking words away perhaps and as you do so, that's going to move your reference list either up on to the next page halfway up of the previous page, or it's going to be down to the middle of that page.

Using a page break essentially stops this from happening. When you insert a page break, it makes sure no matter what happens, even when you revise, add, take away from your draft, that reference list will always appear at the top of its own page. So, we recommend that you insert a page break. This is a Microsoft word function under insert and I would absolutely recommend it. 

Here's another resource to see how to do that. Academic skills center Microsoft Word resources. They're kind of the experts when it comes to these automatic formatting tricks within Microsoft Word. So, if this is something that you struggle with, I would recommend taking a look at that link there. 

And here's another tutorial a video that tells you how to make page breaks. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Format the Title Correctly  2

  • Level 0 heading or title
  • Centered, plain text, and usually plural

References

Donavant, B. W. (2009). The new, modern practice of adult education online instruction in a continuing professional education setting. Adult Education Quarterly59(3), 227-245. doi:10.1177/0741713609331546

Moore, M. G., & Kearsley, G. (2012). Distance education: A systems view of online learning (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. 

Audio: Number two. Format the title correctly. So, when you use a reference list, when you include a reference list, which should be any time you're using sources, you need to add a title at the of the page telling the reader that these are the references that I included. This should be a level zero heading. By that it means it should not be in bold. As you can see here, there's no colon after the word references. It's simply the word references centered in plain text on top of the page. And it's plural. Because you can see you have multiple resonances here. 

So, yeah, use the level zero heading. This again should not be bolded it should not be underlined. It's appears as it appears on this slide on the top of your page. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Use a Hanging Indent        3

  • Level 0 heading or title.5 indentation on the second and subsequent lines
  • Shortcut: CONTROL/ COMMAND + T
  • Centered, plain text, and usually plural

References

Donavant, B. W. (2009). The new, modern practice of adult education online instruction in a continuing professional education setting. Adult Education Quarterly59(3), 227-245. doi:10.1177/0741713609331546

Moore, M. G., & Kearsley, G. (2012). Distance education: A systems view of online learning (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. 

Hanging indent tutorial

Audio: Number three. Using a hanging indent. This is something when we had our first chat, I saw couple of you struggled with in the past. A hanging indent essentially means that the first line of your reference is going to be flushed with the left margin of the page and each subsequent line is going to be indented a half an inch as you can see here. One way to do this would be to use a shortcut where you highlight this text, hit control command and T. You can also highlight this and go to the paragraph drop-down menu within Microsoft Word and you can apply hanging indent there also. 

And what this does is, this helps with alphabetizing the sources, and also highlights the name of the primarily author. When you cite a source within the text that the reader is going to see the name of the author, and then when they flip to the reference page to get the full publication information of the piece, this helps them pick that out easier. A lot of APA, especially, in citation and reference, regarding citations and references is about ease of access, right? And simplicity. You want to make it easy for the reader to take a look at the sources that you're using. So, using a hanging indent does this. 

If this is something that, again, you struggle with, here as a tutorial. There's an active link at the bottom of the slide that will help you apply this to your writing. Again, using a hanging indent is required in using an APA style. So absolutely do that. Another formatting guideline. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Capitalize Titles Correctly  4

  • The first word, the first word after a colon, and any proper nouns
  • Applies to titles of sources (not publication information) 

Moore, M. G., & Kearsley, G. (2012). Distance education:Asystems view oonlinelearning (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. 

Audio:Number four, capitalize titles correctly. Yeah, when you're using titles within APA, it's important to do this in the right way. This is what's known as a sentence case. And essentially what this is the first word and the first word after the colon or any proper nouns are the only things that you're going to be capitalizing when using a title of a piece. As we can see in this example here. Distance education: A systems view of online learning. Distance is capitalized as it’s the first work, A is capitalized as it’s the first word after the color, we don't have any proper nouns here so those are the only two words capitalized in the case. 

When using titles oftentimes in your reference list, be aware of this. When do I need to use sentence case? If you're looking at a journal article, the title of the journal article will be in sentence case. Just like this example appears here. Again, you’ll only capitalize the first word. First word after the colon, and any proper nouns that appear after the title of the piece. 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Italicize Titles Correctly

  • Works published with other works: No italics
  • Works published as their own entity: Italics

References

Donavant, B. W. (2009). The new, modern practice of adult education online instruction in a continuing professional education setting. Adult Education Quarterly59(3), 227-245. doi:10.1177/0741713609331546

Moore, M. G., & Kearsley, G. (2012). Distance education: A systems view of online learning (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. 

Audio: Lastly, for this five and then we're going to go to a Q & A session here. I'm going field a couple of questions rather. Use italics correctly within your reference list. Works published with other works do not get italics. So, for example, in our first journal article reference entry here, you can see that the title of the piece it does not get italicized. However, the title of the journal does. The title of the piece as it is included with other works within this specific journal does not get italicized. Works published as their own entity are italicized. So, in the case of a journal, this is its own entity. This is the publishing body, right? This is its own thing that gets italicized. Or in the case of a book title. This is, again, published as its own entity. So that gets italics as well. 

So those are our first five of the Top 10 errors in a reference checklist. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Questions

Audio:Claire, are there any questions that have come in that you think the whole group can benefit from? 

Claire: Yeah, thanks, Michael. I did have one question about when you have your references and you have the authors; do you need to alphabetize the names of the authors? If we had an article by Helakoski and Dusek, would we want to change the order or leave it? 

Michael: That's a great question. That's a great question. [Laughter] No, when you have multiple author within a reference list, the order that those author's names come in are important. The first author is what's known as the primary author. This is the person who gets the primary credit for that work. Okay? So, if you have, in Claire's example, Helakoski and Dusek, Helakoski would be the primary author. That means Helakoski contributed primarily or more to this study than Dusek did. So, the order at which the author's names appear on the piece that you're using is important, and they should appear in the order at which they appear. To alphabetize them is not -- don't do that. Because then essentially, you're talking someone who maybe just contributed a little bit to this overall project and you're making it appear as though it was their project. 

Again, keep the authors in the order at which they appear on the document, because that's the order in which credit is given. The first author is the primary author of that text. 

Claire: Great. Thanks so much. I do have one more question if we still have time. 

Michael: Yeah, we do. 

Claire: Great. So, if a student, and I'm sure we'll probably talk about DOI numbers but they’re digital object identifier number and they are part of a reference. If there is no DOI number, what should you do if you search for it and there's no number available? 

Michael: That's another great question. So as Claire mentioned, the DOI number or the digital object identifier is a really awesome tool that is relatively new within the academic field, which is kind of like a fingerprint for an academic piece of writing. It’s possible however, if you’re using a bit of an older piece that there might not be a DOI number. In that case, you should use a retrieved from the URL. So, the URL that you're taking this piece from. But it’s not specifically the URL that you’re using. In the case that there is no DOI number and then you need to use the URL from the journal homepage. So, this shouldn't be like a Walden library URL. It shouldn't be a URL that takes you directly to this article within the journal's homepage. You simply need to point the reader towards that journal's homepage. I know this seems a little goofy. But the reason is, is because oftentimes journals charge for their articles. Right? They charge money for journal subscription for people to get access to articles. So, it is enough for you as a scholar to say, hey, if you wanted to buy this, here's where you could buy this, is at this journal's homepage. Yeah. Was that it? Or are we good to move on here? 

Claire: Yes. Go ahead. 
Michael: Lovely. Thanks for the great questions, you guys. 

 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Find the DOI or URL         6

  • DOI: digital object identifier 
  • Most direct and permanent way to identify an article
  • Preferable
  • First option
  • www.crossref.org/guestquery

URL: home page of the journal

Example: www.journalofscience.com 

•      No “walden”

  • Second option
  • Google

References

Donavant, B. W. (2009). The new, modern practice of adult education online instruction in a continuing professional education setting. Adult Education Quarterly59(3), 227-245. doi:10.1177/0741713609331546

Audio: Okay. The last 5. And here's that DOI again Number six. Again, the DOI is a digital object identifier. And as I've mentioned, this is kind of a fingerprint type thing for an academic piece. Each piece that has a DOI number has a specific DOI number that refers someone directly to that piece. It's the most direct and permanent way to identify an article. Yeah. Here's how that looks. Here's an example of a journal article reference entry that uses a DOI number. You can see that appears at the end. And DOI is not capitalized. Those 3 letters are in the lowercase. (Arrow pointing to example) That’s where that appears.

And as I've mentioned, if there is no DOI, you would use the retrieve from url which is for the homepage of the URL. In this case it will be journalofscience.com. Yeah. And, again, as I've mentioned before, this is because some journals charge for their access to their articles. So, you're essentially pointing them to a place where they could buy the article from and not circumvent the pay wall which would give the reader an error message. So, this is as close as you can get to the actual article. If the reader wants to retrieve it, here's where they can find it. 

But there's a little bit of a hierarchy element here, right? A DOI is going to be preferable. It is favored within APA style. It should be considered your first option between when looking at these two. So, again, a DOI is favored to retrieve from URL. To find the DOI, you can use this URL right here. www.crossref.org/guestquery. When you get there, it will prompt you for a bit of information, something like the name of the primary author, the name of the piece, where was it published, is there a volume or issue number. These standard questions when it comes to a journal article. And it will give you a DOI if one is available. If it is not, that's when you turn to a URL. And, again, this should not be a Walden library website. This should not be like a Google scholar website. You simply want to use the website, the URL of the journal's homepage there. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Remove Hyperlinks            7

  • Right click and select “Remove Hyperlink”
  • Plain text, not blue and underlined

Audio:Okay number seven. When you are using any kind of hyperlink in your reference list, when using any kind of URL, excuse me, better said, you need to remove that hyperlink. This should not be active links within your reference page, right? So, it's on you then to go in, right-click on that URL, and remove the hyperlink. This should appear in plain text, not in blue. It should not be underlined. And the reader should not be able to click on that and be taken away from your document to a URL on the Internet. Again, remove the hyperlink so that you do not have active links within your document. 

Again, by right-clicking on the URL, a menu like the one on the slide will drop down and you will simply going down to remove hyperlink. That's how you do that. 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Include Publication Info for Print Sources8

  • City and state abbreviation
  • Publisher

Moore, M. G., & Kearsley, G. (2012). Distance education: A systems view of online learning (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. 

Audio: Number eight. Include publication information for print sources. Yes, so unlike a journal article or a webpage, books are printed in a specific place, right? Some printer prints it at a specific location. So, you need to include the city and the state abbreviation for where that was published. In this case, this was published in Belmont California. After that, you would include the name of the publisher. In this case, Wadsworth and you separate these two by using a colon as you can see here. Again, this is because publishers have Offices. They actually have places where they churn out books. Including that is something that APA requires. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Include Publication Information   9

  • Periods, commas, and spacing rules
  • Use models and examples and follow those
  • Practice makes perfect

References

Donavant,B.W.(2009).The new, modern practice of adult education online instruction in a continuing professional education setting.Adult Education Quarterly,59(3),227-245.doi:10.1177/0741713609331546

Moore,M.G.,& Kearsley,G.(2012).Distance education: A systems view of online learning (3rd ed.)Belmont, CA:Wadsworth

Audio:Number nine. Including publication information. Again, be cognizant of where periods, commas and spaces go within your reference entry. As you can see in our first example here, our journal article, we have the last name of the author, of the primary author here, the only author. Followed by a comma. Then we have the initials of that author. BW. And these are each followed by a period. After the date of publication, in this case 2009, we include a period. Then we have the title of the piece. The new modern practice of adult education online instruction and continuing professional education setting. After the title of the piece, we include a period. Then we have the title of the journal, adult education quarterly. After which we include a comma. We then have the volume and issue. After which we include a comma. After that is the page range. After the page range, we include a period. Then we have the DOI number. And the DOI is separated, the label DOI is separated from the DOI number using a colon. My point here, I know this is a little bit redundant in going through this. However, being cognizant of the specific punctuation marks that are required here is important within APA. And this is the kind of thing that having right resource can allow you to easily double check this against what you have. Right? 

So, either using the APA style guide or publication manual or taking a look at one of the Walden Writing Center webpages or having that bookmark can be a really big help here. These punctuations matter. Right? And this is something that your chair or your professor might queue in on and might call you out on. So, practice this. And it will be easier for you in the future. You'll kind of get the cadence of how this goes on. But in my opinion, it's just as important to have a good resource available for you to double check your work against. 

Here's a great APA blog post with some of these tips about punctuation. This can be a good resource for you. But, yeah, it's really about finding what works for you, as with many things in writing, developing a process that works for you, having a group of resources that you trust and that work for you or put the information in a way that you can easily understand or access is important. So, find these. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Include Publication Information   10

  • Periods, commas, and spacing rules
  • Use models and examples and follow those
  • Practice makes perfect

References

Donavant, B. W. (2009). The new, modern practice of adult education online instruction in a continuing professional education setting. Adult Education Quarterly59(3), 227-245. doi:10.1177/0741713609331546

Moore, M. G., & Kearsley, G. (2012). Distance education: A systems view of online learning (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. 

Audio: Yeah, this is what it would look like without the punctuation being pointed out. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Reference List Checklist

  1. Insert a page break
  2. Format the title correctly
  3. Use a hanging indent
  4. Capitalize titles correctly
  5. Italicize titles correctly
  6. Find the DOI or URL
  7. Remove hyperlinks
  8. Include publication information
  9. Use correct punctuation
  10. Double space

Audio:Okay. So, yeah, to review then, here are our 10 rules, right? Insert a page break, one. And, again, this would be something to use the Microsoft insert page break function for. This is a way of keeping your reference list at the top of a page of its own. 

Two, format the title correctly. Yeah, absolutely. Three, use a hanging indent so, that would be where the first line of your reference entry is flushed with the left side of the page and left margin. And each subsequent line is indented a half an inch. Capitalize titles correctly. Yeah, be cognizant of when you need to use sentence case and when you need to use title case. Five, italicize titles correctly. So, yeah, if something is published as a part of another entity, it does not take italics. If something is published as its own entity, for example, the name of a specific journal or the title of a book, these would be italicized. Six, find a DOI or a retrieve from URL. Especially, with journal article reference entries, one of the two is required. A DOI is favored compared to a retrieve from URL. But if there is a DOI number and you need to use a retrieved from URL, you should use the URL from the journal homepage. Number seven, remove hyperlinks. This comes to bare a lot when you talk about website references. Make sure that those links are not active when you turn those in. Those should not be in blue. They should not be in bold. They should not be underlined and most importantly, the reader should not be able to click on them and be taken away from your document. So, make sure you remove hyperlinks when using electronic sources. 

Eight, include publication information. So, when we're looking at a journal article, thinking about something like volume and issue number within that journal. If we're looking at a book reference entry, including the name where this was published and the name of the publisher is important. 

Nine, use correct punctuation. So being cognizant of some of the nuances in punctuation is important when creating an APA reference list. My recommendation, again, is to find a good resource that you can double check yourself on. And actually, again, the Walden website, the Walden Writing Center has a great resource if you search "Common reference examples." It would be a great resource with examples of very commonly referenced formatting that you can double check yourself on. 

Lastly, your reference page should be double-spaced as should the rest of your document. I think that’s what this last slide was meant. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Include Publication Information   10

  • Periods, commas, and spacing rules
  • Use models and examples and follow those
  • Practice makes perfect

References

Donavant, B. W. (2009). The new, modern practice of adult education online instruction in a continuing professional education setting. Adult Education Quarterly59(3), 227-245. doi:10.1177/0741713609331546

Moore, M. G., & Kearsley, G. (2012). Distance education: A systems view of online learning (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. 

Audio:Yes, it is. You should double space this. Everything within your APA formatted document should be double-spaced. Oh, Awesome and Claire posted this common reference page in the Q & A Box for everyone to see. Thank you, Claire. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Reference List Checklist

  1. Insert a page break
  2. Format the title correctly
  3. Use a hanging indent
  4. Capitalize titles correctly
  5. Italicize titles correctly
  6. Find the DOI or URL
  7. Remove hyperlinks
  8. Include publication information
  9. Use correct punctuation
  10. Double space

Audio:But, again, these are our most common reference errors that we encounter in the Writing Center all the time. Taking a reference list that you, yourself, have created and using this as a checking list to double check how you’re formatting them, is an effective way to produce a very good product. Again, does this cover every possible reference entry or every possible source that you might reference? No, but this is a good place to start, right? And this is going to cover the majority of sources you use within your academic writing. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Questions

Audio: Okay. Claire. Are there any other questions that the group could benefit from? 

Claire: Yes, I had a really good one. Which was about, some of you may have noticed that when you look up your DOI number, some of them are given in a format that is, like it's like a hyperlink with HTTP at the beginning, instead of just the numbers which usually start with 10 dot whatever. So, is there a preference between those or what's the difference? 

Michael: That's a great question. Actually, I remember I got this question once at a residency and I had to look it up. So, I actually, I know this one. I don't remember the page number, but it's really either. You can do either one. APA in this case says you can either include the HTTP before the DOI number. Or you can just include the DOI number starting generally with the number ten. As with everything in academic writing, you want to be consistent. So, if you're presenting DOI number with HTTP, do that each time. If you're presenting it without the HTTP, do that each time. Again, consistency is important within writing.  So, if you choose to do it one way, stick to that way throughout your piece. Are there any other questions, Claire? 

Claire: Sorry, I'm just looking over some. I just got a bunch of questions that is came in all at once. So, I'm making sure. I think we're good for now and their questions for me at the moment. 

Michael: Okay, cool. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Practice!

Sample Reference List:

What errors do you see in this reference page? Please post them in the chat box.

Audio: So then let's move on to this practice. Here, we're going to have a sample reference list and I want you to kind of point out what errors that you find within this reference list? 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: References

Brenner, BK (2010), Instituting Employee Volunteer Programs as Part of Employee Benefit Plans Yields Tangible Business Benefits. Journal of Financial Service Professionals, 64(1),32-35. Retreived from www.walden.edu/ezplibrary.journaloffinancialservices440080.com

Level 3 Communications (2011). Company Information.Retrieved from http://www.level3.com/en/about-us/company-information

De Meuse, KP, Hostager, TJ, and O’Neill, KS (2007). A longitudinal evaluation of senior managers’ perceptions and attitudes of a workplace diversity-training program. Human Resource Planning, 30(2), 38-46. doi:xx89xc09.008ds.x08

Audio:You can freely scroll through this. You have control to scroll through this reference list. But in the chat box, I want you to point out some of the issues that you see with this particular reference list. I'm going to go on mute for a second and give you guys a chance to answer. And then we'll return as a group and I'll talk through some of the things that you're seeing. 

[silence as students type]

All right. I'm seeing a lot of great responses here and you guys are pointing out a lot of the major errors within this. I'm going to give you couple of more minutes to do this. We'll say 2 more minutes for any of you who haven't yet chimed in with what errors you're seeing in this reference list.

[silence as students type]

Okay. Thank you all for chiming in. I'm going to go through on this page for a sec and talk about some of the errors I see. Forgive me if I miss an error or two. Again, I'm only human. If this were me, if this was my reference list, I would double check this against my resource to make sure things like punctuation especially are in the right place. Because this can be a little bit challenging to just see right off the bat, right? And sometimes it needs a second run through. But here we go. 

So first off, as I'm taking a look at this, the heading is incorrect. First of all, this should be centered on the page, and this should not be in bold. Okay? So that would be the first thing that I see. Then looking at this first entry, this Brenner, BK entry, Brenner is the last name of the author and you have a comma after that so that's good. There should be a period between B and K this separates the initials of the author. Also, there should be a period after the year of publication. Looking at the title of this specific piece, the information’s in the right place, but this should be in sentence case. Right? Instituting employee volunteer programs as part of employee benefit plans yields tangible business benefits.  The only word that should be capitalized there is, institute. Everything else there should be in lower case. 

Moving on here, the journal of financial service professionals. That is its own entity. That is a journal title. So that should be italicized. looking at the volume and page. The volume is 64 that should be italicized.

And, lastly, when we're looking at the retrieve from URL here, this is from the Walden library, right? This is going to be something that only Walden students have access to. So first, you should use the URL of the journal homepage, so the homepage of the journal of financial service professionals. If this was me, I would search out that homepage and include that. I would do a simple Google search for journal of financial service professionals and that would bring me to the homepage and I would include that homepage URL. 

Lastly, this URL is an active link. That should not be the case. You should go and remove the active link. It should not be a hyperlink. Again, with the URL, it should be the journals homepage, rather than the Walden library url. And it should not be an active link. 

Looking at our second entry here, this appears to be a website without an author. When there is no personal author, you know, when there's no author's name, you need to use the name of the organization that produces that source. In this case, level 3 communications. So that's fine. When I look at the title of this webpage though, this specific page, company information, that's italicized. That should not be italicized. This is one page of a broader website. This is one part of a larger entity. So, it should not be capitalized, excuse me, it does not take italics. Sorry, if I said capitalize there. It should not be italicized. Retrieve from URL looks good there. 

Looking at this De Meuse source, first thing I notice is this should take a hanging indent. Right? So, we should include a hanging indent there. It has some of the same issues with punctuation like we saw in the first one. Longitudinal evaluation of senior managers' perceptions and attitude of a workplace diversity-training program. Despite it being a mouthful of a title, it is capitalized correctly. Human resources planning is the title of the journal, so that’s correct. That should be in italics. The volume No. 30 should be in italics there and that is. We have a page range correctly. The doi number, it doesn't appear like a correct doi number to me. But I think the X's there are meant to stand in as an example for numbers. The doi is included in the correct place. I would double check the doi number there. 

Looking at this last entry, this book, we have some information out of place. Actually, this is for those of you who know MLA, this is an MLA reference rather than an APA. It's an MLA work cited entry, rather than an APA reference entry. Here we would start with the last name of the author, then we would include the year of publication. Then we would have the title of the piece. Followed by the publication information. New York comma New York Random House. So that would need to be amended as well. I may have missed few of the revisions here. But clearly this list needed a second eye upon it for it to be revised. Right? And, so, I think that's really the lesson here. You know? 

These things are difficult, right? Creating these lists, making sure the punctuation is in the correct place everywhere and that everything is formatted correctly and looks the way it should, that's a lot to consider, right? And oftentimes you're not going to get it on the first try. I don't always get it on the first try. So, my point is, is that you need to go back and revise these things and double check them. And as one student just pointed out, this is isn't in alphabetical order. Right? This should be in alphabetical order. So that would be another error that was made here. 

Okay. Good job. Looking at the chat box, you guys included a lot of the errors that I mentioned here. So, you're pretty on top of this. But again, just to really drive this point home. It’s important to return to these with a resource that is correct and you trust and double check your entry to make sure you're formatting these correctly and including the correct information and that your punctuation is where it should be.

Audio: Claire: Hey, Michael. We lost your audio for just a second there. I think you were just kind of wrapping up everybody covered a lot of the errors in the chat box. And it's important to proofread your references? 

Michael: Thank you for telling me, Claire. Can you hear me now okay? 

Claire: Yes. 

Michael: Okay. Yeah, at the end, I apparently cut out. I was just reiterating the need to have a source that you trust. And that it's correct to double check your references to make sure you've included the correct information, that you formatted it correct and that these punctuation nuances are adhering to APA style. I'm sorry that I was cut off there, everyone. Technical difficulties. 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: References

Brenner, BK (2010), Instituting employee volunteer programs as part of employee benefit plans yields tangible business benefits. Journal of Financial Service Professionals, 64(1),32-35. Retreived from www.financialpro.org

De Meuse, K.P., Hostager, T.J., and O’Neill, K.S. (2007). A longitudinal evaluation of senior managers’ perceptions and attitudes of a workplace diversity-training program. Human Resource Planning, 30(2), 38-46. doi:xx89xc09.008ds.x08

Level 3 Communications (2011). Company Information. Retrieved from http://www.level3.com/en/about-us/company-information

Rodenberg, J.H. (2007). Competitive intelligence and senior management. New York, NY: Random House.

Audio: This is again what this reference should look like. So, we have some of the things I've mentioned, some of the citations. We have some of the punctuation issues are now fixed. And that last one, the book reference entry is now in APA rather than MLA style. Sure. So, this is what should look like. 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Reference List Resources

Audio: So lastly, we have a number of resources here that are available to you via the Walden Writing Center webpage. That again are, here to help you. First, we have some templates that can be useful for you. And these are useful because you can kind of insert the information that you need to. Claire posted this common reference examples page. It's also here in the slide deck. This active link is available if you want to click on that. I recommend this to students on a daily basis. It's a really great resource. And something that you can use as I recommend it to double check your work to have something to verify whether or not you're doing this correctly. And if not, how it should look? 

We have an APA style blog that can help you as well. It covers multitude of APA concerns, APA topics, that would be the right word, "Topics" there. And we also have APA webinar series. So like this webinar, there will be a webinar recording that’s talking about an APA topic. We also have APA references and citation modules. These are meant for you to check your knowledge, right? They're ways for you to verify that what you're doing is correct. Lastly, we have the checklist down there in the Files Pod which can help you out. Also, this can be something to quickly refer to. 

 

Visual:Slide changes to the following: Questions: Ask Now or Later

writingsupport@waldenu.edu•  Live Chat Hours

Learn More:

Check out the recorded webinars “APA Citations Part 1: Methods to the Madness”and “APA Citations Part 2: Nontraditional Sources”

Audio: Yeah. So, are there any other questions you think the group can benefit from, Claire? 

Claire: Thanks so much, Michael. So, I'm thinking about maybe you could talk a little bit about our paper reviews and how those might be helpful as well? 

Michael: Yeah, yeah, great idea. So, paper reviews are a service that the Walden Writing Center offers. This is kind of our -- I forget how they refer to this. It's kind of like our keynote service. It's really the main thing we do at the Writing Center. What happens is you will submit a piece of writing to a writing instructor, be it myself, Claire, or one of our colleagues. And we will take an hour and put comments on that. We will use track changes and comment bubbles to point out places where we think revision is necessary. And this is a great opportunity to have things like your citation or your reference list double checked by another human eye. Yeah, I mean, there are number of policies that we have involving this service. However, it's a great thing. And I think I would recommend you guys using it. Yeah. Again, this is one-on-one feedback on something that you, yourself, have written. So, it's a great way to get pointers or to be directed to ways that you can improve your writing. Yeah. 

Claire: Thanks so much, Michael and to add to that, we won't proofread or check your references for you. But we will note those patterns. We might say something like, you know, you're missing italics. You're not italicizing any of your journals. We’ll note a pattern and you can go revise on your own. So, it can be helpful to give a little once over to see if there's any 10 errors we went over today and some other things. And get some feedback on those and links to our additional resources. I see a question in the chat box, too. And a paper review, you'll submit your work and then we will read it and review it the day of or day after your scheduled appointment. 

So, you'll get it back within those two days. There's no live communication, and it's all via email so you don't have to worry about that either. Thank you so much for being here, everyone, today. If you have any questions and we're about out of time so, if you have any additional questions, go ahead and let us know at writingsupport@waldenu.edu. Or visit our Live Chat hours. And you might also find our APA methods to the madness and non-traditional sources presentations really helpful if you found this presentation helpful and would like to learn more specifics kind of about how APA style works, sort of those patterns that you can pay attention to, to help you proofread your own reference and look those over. All right. Thanks again for being here today, everyone. And have a wonderful rest of your day. 

 

[End of webinar]