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Using Evidence: Introduce


Paraphrased Citations:

  1. Paraphrased material must be cited. Even though paraphrasing means that you are restating information in your own words, you must give credit to the original source of the information.
  2. Citations for paraphrased material should always include both the author and the year. In-text citation can be placed within the sentence or at the end:
    Yes: According to Johnson (2012), mirror neurons may be connected with empathy and imitation.
    Yes: Mirror neurons may be connected with empathy and imitation in human beings (Johnson, 2012).
    Note: Be sure to consider the frequency of your source citation when you are paraphrasing.

Direct Quotation Citations:

Every direct quotation citation should be incorporated into the paragraph with quotation marks. This means every direct quotation should have the following:

  • Author
  • Year of publication
  • Page (p.) or paragraph (para.) number
  • Quotation marks

In APA, in order to best incorporate your direct quotations, pay close attention the punctuation:

  1. Your page or paragraph number should always have a period, with no space between the p. or para. and the period.
  2. Citations for direct quotes should always come directly after the quotation marks end. Per APA 6.03, "cite the source in parentheses immediately after the quotation marks, and continue the sentence" (APA, 2010, p. 171).
    Yes: Christensen (2010) regarded the "infiltration of only red light" (p. 32) as a success in the experiment.
    No: Christensen (2010) regarded the "infiltration of only red light" as a success in the experiment (p. 32).