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NURS 8000 Foundations & Essentials of Doctoral Study in Nursing: Week 4 Application

Health Topic Guides

Summary vs. Synthesis



Basic reading technique

Advanced reading technique


Explains a source by describing important points


Uses important points of multiple sources to draw one’s own, original conclusions


Shows only what original authors wrote


Creates something new by comparing or drawing relationships between the original writings of two or more authors

Addresses one set of information at a time (For instance, one usually writes a summary of paragraph addressing source A, a paragraph summary of source B, and so on)


Combines elements or parts of multiple sources within a single paragraph to address a common theme or idea


Demonstrates knowledge of overall meaning of a single source


Builds on multiple sources to achieve new insight and ideas.



Meal Plan for Successful Paragraphs

As you will be writing paragraphs in both discussion posts and in applications throughout your course, here is a general model for writing cohesive and logical paragraphs. In each of your paragraph, make sure you begin with a clear topic sentence. Next, be sure to include supporting evidence and analysis. Finally, provide a clear lead out or link, logically connecting one paragraph's ideas to the topic you discuss in the next paragraph:


Main Idea: Your topic sentence stating the concrete claim the paragraph is advancing.
Evidence: Paraphrase or direct quotations from the source material you are using to support your topic sentence's claim.
Analysis: Your explanation and evaluation of the evidence; explaining the evidence you provided and its relevance in your own words.
Lead Out: Concluding; preparing your reader to transition to the next paragraph (and the next claim).