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Webinar Transcripts

Annotated Bibliographies

Presented Thursday, July 21, 2016

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Last updated 8/8/2016


Visual: The webinar opens with a main pod for the slides and captioning, Q&A, and files pods stacked on the right side of the screen. The slide is titled “Housekeeping” and details how to use the webinar features that Beth discusses.

Audio: Beth: Good evening, everyone, and welcome. Thank you so much for joining us. My name is Beth Nastachowski, I'm the manager of multimedia writing instruction and I'm just gonna get the webinar started here. And I wanted to thank you all for coming. It sounds like everyone is experiencing the heat wave here in the U.S., so I hope you're all staying cool.

The first thing to note, just a couple of quick housekeeping noses, and the first one is that we are recording the webinar so if you'd like to come back and review the presentation or if you have to leave for any reason or any of our webinars, you're more than welcome to. We record all those sessions and post them in our webinar archive.

There's also lots of ways to interact with us today. Many of you were using the pods in the lobby. As well as some poll pods at the end for some quizzes, so I encourage you to interact with Melissa our presenter.

The other thing to note is there are also links to additional information and resources throughout the slides, so you're more than welcome to click on those links for more information, but you can also download the slides if you'd like as well and those are in the bottom right-hand corner of the files pod. So you're more than welcome to download those, and if you think you'd like access to these slides later, I do encourage you to download them now.

There's also the Q&A box which is on the right side of the screen, and myself and my colleague Julia are gonna be monitoring it. So we welcome you to submit your questions there. I do encourage you to submit those questions as soon as you have them so that we can make sure to get you answers. And then also when and if Melissa's is able to stop for questions, we can submit those to her as well. If we don't get to your question, or the webinar ends, and we aren't able to get your question, sometimes there's many questions that come in at the very end. We do encourage you to email those to, and we'll display that email address at the end of the webinar also.

If you have any technical issues, do let me know. I can try to help as much as possible and oftentimes I'm able to give a few suggestions, but there is also a help button at the top right-hand corner of the screen. All right, so with that, I will hand it over to you, Melissa.


Visual: The title slide opens and shows Melissa’s name and job title at the Writing Center.

Audio: Thanks, Beth. Hi, everybody. My name is Melissa Sharpe. I am a writing instructor here in the Writing Center. So you may have seen my name on the schedule or in a course visit. Or on the blog. So I am always around. Presenting webinars is one of the -- is one of my favorite things that I like to do, and I'm excited for tonight's webinar because annotated bibliographies are not just important in course work, if you're assigned one, but they can be really helpful in your overall research process, and that's what we're going to take a look at today.


Visual: Slide #3 “Today’s Learning Objectives:” opens and shows four objectives that Melissa discusses.

Audio: So in this session, we have a few objectives. And at the end of this webinar, you will be able to understand the uses of an annotated bibliography, why you might want to complete one, you will also be able to identify and understand and even outline our Writing Center suggested format for completing an annotated bibliography. You will understand what goes into each section of an annotation and hopefully you will have a good grasp of the tips that I'll be sharing. And you will also be able to explain ways that you could improve part of an annotated bibliography. So in today's webinar we're gonna take a look at what these are, why they're important, what goes into them, and ways that you can strengthen or improve an annotation.


Visual: The next slide “What Are Annotated Bibliographies?” opens. It shows the dictionary definition from annotate and bibliography. Melissa reads and discusses these.

Audio: First, what are annotated bibliographies? Well, if we take that term and we break it into half into the annotation and into the bibliography, we'll find these two definitions straight from the dictionary. An annotation is where you make or furnish critical or explanatory notes. And a bibliography is history, identification, or distinction of writings. Well when we put those together we end up with something that is both a description, history, identification of some type of publication or information, and it's also critical or works to explain that publication. And an annotated bibliography is just that. It's kind of these two things put together.


Visual: The content continues with a bulleted list for “Your way to:” that Melissa reviews and discusses.

Audio: Why would you complete an annotated bibliography? Why would you complete a document that both summarizes or looks at a source and reveals some critical thinking about it? Well, you might do this as a way to demonstrate that you have read, understood, and thought about the sources you are using in any type of research or research project or paper.

You may also choose to complete an annotated bibliography as a way that you could share the value of a source. If you're going to be reading something and thinking about why it is high quality or useful, this is a good way to keep track of it. And not only to remember for yourself but also to inform future researchers or other people who might be working in your field.

An annotated bibliography is also very helpful to gather sources and to keep notes on them for a literature review or as part of any larger research project. And you may also find that an annotated bibliography is just a great way for you to take notes, if this is something you like, you can kind of keep it in your tool box of note-taking skills.


Visual: Slide #6 “What are annotated bibliographies used for?” opens. It has for textboxes arranged 2x2. Each textbox has a different reason for writing annotated bibliographies. The second textbox at the top has a large arrow pointing to it that is labeled “Doctoral Capstone students.” Melissa reads and discusses all of these purposes for annotated bibliographies.

Audio: An annotated bibliography can be used for a few different things. You might choose to take notes on sources in this format because it is an assignment, all of its own. It might be something that an instructor has assigned to you that gets turned in as a stand-assignment worth a certain number of points. It may also be part of a larger project, like the depth section of a KAM. You might include an annotated bibliography if you've been directed to in that section. You may also keep an annotated bibliography going as part of your preparation for a longer paper or for part of your prep for a literature review, and this is something that is a very specific purpose that annotated bibliographies have for our doctoral capstone students, and like I said before, you may choose to keep an annotated bibliography for your personal notes.


Visual: The next slide “Bird’s Eye View: Format and Organization” opens. It shows a graphic with a large horizontal bar across the top and bottom with three boxes arranged horizontally across the middle. The top box is labeled “Introduction,” the middle boxes are all labeled “Annotation,” and the bottom box is blank. Melissa reviews and discusses this graphic.

Audio: An annotated bibliography is this document that has all these annotations or notes on your sources, notes on your research, but if we look at an annotated bibliography as a whole document or a whole unit, we will see that it opens up with an introduction, and I am going to let you know that on my view, and perhaps yours, you will see that there's a rectangle at the bottom that is blank. It should say "conclusion" there.

Audio: Beth: Sorry, I was just gonna say, Connect must not have transferred over some of the content for some of these slides, so it's not just you and it's not your fault. We'll like into that after the session itself.

Audio: Melissa: Thank you for that. Sometimes you never know if you're looking at something if it's just you or if everyone else is seeing the same thing. Yeah, in this bottom box, it should say "Conclusion" and -- oops. I will type that in for us. So an annotated bibliography as a whole document is going to open up with an introduction, and then it will contain all of those annotations, one for each one of our sources, whether you have pulled up five sources on your topic or 20. There will be an annotation for each, and perhaps there will be a conclusion at the end, and I say "Perhaps" because the introduction and conclusion are optional.


Visual: A textbox labeled “Optional” appears on the right side of the graphic with arrows pointing to the top and bottom boxes of the graphic. Melissa discusses the optional nature of the introduction and conclusion.

Audio: If you are completing an annotated bibliography for your personal notes, you may not want to write an introduction and conclusion because you know what's going. You know what the topic is. You understand it. These are your personal notes. However, if you are completing an annotated bibliography as a stand-alone assignment, it's probably a good idea to introduce your topic, and provide some relevant background, maybe even repeat the specific focus of the larger piece you're working on. As well as a conclusion to wrap it up. What's really important here when we look at the complete document that you are following the directions for whatever it is you're doing.

Some classes are going to ask different things of you than other ones. So it's always important that you follow the specifications of your assignment or your particular purpose. However, generally, an annotated bibliography will include these pieces.


Visual: Slide #8 “Format and Organization” opens and shows a chat prompt. Melissa discusses the chat prompt.

Audio: And we are going to open up a chat pod, which it should say right on top of that box, but I want to know, what do you think should be included in an introduction? I said it's helpful to include an introduction for an annotated bibliography if it's a stand-alone assignment, but what would go into that introduction? What types of things would be helpful? So once we get a chat pod available to you, you will be able to answer that question for us.


Visual: The layout changes so that the Q&A and captioning pods are side-by-side at the top right. Below them is the chat pod.

Audio: While we wait for that chat pod to pop up, I'll kind of give you some additional prompts for what we're looking for in this discussion. For introducing something, a document that contains summaries and evaluations of research, why would that have to be introduced? What would we want a reader to know of, potentially an unfamiliar reader, what would we want them to know about that research before going into it? And, Beth, are we able to get a chat pod?

Audio: Beth: Hey, Melissa, yep, the chat pod is actually open and I have students writing in. So is there a delay on your end, maybe?

Audio: Melissa: There could be. I have a Q&A box kind of slid on top of my slides. And I don't see --

Audio: Beth: Wow, it looks like Connect is not helping us at all today. [Laughter] If you'd like, Melissa, you might try exiting out and coming back in as students are responding in the chat box.

Audio: Melissa: Okay, that would be great. Okay, so I will be right back. Thank you, everybody.

Audio: Beth: Hi, everyone. Sorry about that. Apologies. We're just gonna have Melissa kind of reset her system by logging out and coming back in. But keep adding to the chat box and then Melissa will take a look when she gets back. So it'll be just a second.

Audio: Melissa: All right. Thank you, everybody. I'm sorry for that. And now I see a chat pod that is full of responses about what we could include in an introduction an annotated bibliography. So I'm just going to go through some of these. Because an annotated bibliography is kind of different than -- well, it's very different than an essay. And so sometimes we might wonder, well, what am I introducing? But I see here some great responses.

We want to talk about the purpose and the topic to be studied. We definitely need to know the topic for an unfamiliar reader. They don't want to just jump into that first article, because that article could be used to write about -- to write about several topics. If it is an article related to education, we could use that to talk about standards or best practices, or maybe even a look at different research methods or ability grouping. One article could be used for many topics. So we definitely want to mention the purpose and the topic of the specific paper. If you have already chosen a -- kind of a research question or a thesis or a purpose statement for the larger piece you're working on, that's definitely something worth including as well. And the significance, definitely, if you are going to share what your topic or what your subject matter is, including the significance or the value of it is also great.

So, yeah, I like these responses. Our introduction, we want to include information about the topic as a whole. Just so that a reader coming in to look at these sources will know what it is you are working towards.


Visual: The chat pod closes and the layout reverts back to the three pods stacked to the right of the slide. The slide “Let’s Take a Closer Look” opens and has a picture of a magnifying glass in the top right corner. The center of the slide is labeled “Reference, Summary, Analysis, & Application.” Melissa briefly discusses this.

Audio: The one thing that we want to avoid doing in the introduction is a review of the literature or a preview of the literature or summaries or paraphrases of facts from the literature, and the reason for that is because the annotated bibliography itself is going to give us all of that stuff.


Visual: The next slide “Format and Organization: 4 Parts” opens. It shows four stacked textboxes labeled with the elements of the annotations and arrows connecting them from top to bottom. A small box at the top right points to “Reference entry” and has hyperlinks for webinars and examples of reference entries. A large oval at the bottom states “Rinse and Repeat!” Melissa briefly discusses the four elements of each annotation.

Audio: So for each annotation, and there's one annotation per source, there are four pieces to it. So we're gonna take a closer look at those four pieces. For every source that you pull off of the databases, you will have four pieces to what you will include for each of those in your annotated bibliography itself.

Each annotation, and on my end, the links are not visible here for the reference entry. And those are were links just to help with APA formatting, if that's a widespread problem, maybe Julia or Beth will be able to share some links in the Q&A pod --

Audio: Beth: Yeah, Melissa, I'll watch out for anything and send it out via the Q&A pod if it's ever missing.

Audio: Melissa: Thank you so much. So when you start with your annotations, for every source, it starts with a reference entry, and so this is going to look identical to what you would include in your reference list. It's going to name the author of the source, last name, first initial, the date of publication, the title, all the retrieval information. It always opens with a reference page entry, and you want to include that hanging indent. It will look like it has been just taken straight from a reference list and dropped into this new document. Always open with that entry. It will remind both you and your reader what the source is and how to find it.

After that reference entry, there are three paragraphs. Now, the format I'm going to share here, and this way of organizing it is a pretty typical way of organizing an annotated bibliography, and it's a generic way of formatting one that the Writing Center often promotes or uses as a good example. However, you want to follow the specific directions you have been given. So if you were told to complete an annotated bibliography that has, like, a four-sentence summary, and a one-paragraph analysis, and nothing else, that's what you would include. So always follow the specific directions for your assignment. That way, you're meeting those requirements. The thing about annotated bibliographies is that there isn't really an APA standard for the number of paragraphs, the content of paragraphs, or the length of those. So it can change, depending on the purpose of your annotated bibliography, the specific assignment.

This is a generic format that we recommend. So there's three paragraphs in this way of organizing your annotation. The first one is a summary. And so in this paragraph you're going to summarize what that article is all about, the main ideas, the supporting details that are most relevant and important to you. It's just a summary. This will help you remember what that source is about.

Then the second paragraph in the annotation is your analysis paragraph. And this is where you get to be critical of the source. What is good? What is bad? What is weak? What is strong? You can think about the research methods, the logic, any potential author bias or maybe complications or considerations with who published it? You know, is it the writer's cousin's journal?

Then the third paragraph is your application paragraph where you get to think about how the source is useful to you. Can you use it in your writing? This is the area where you get to be very selfish. You're not thinking about what the article means as a whole or if it is strong or weak in terms of its research. The application paragraph is where you get to think about how it helps you.

Once you complete this for one source, you rinse and repeat. There's no need to introduce and conclude each annotation. It's just these four pieces and then repeat for the next source, repeat for the source after that.


Visual: Slide #11 “Bird’s Eye View: Let’s take a look! Any observations or questions about format or organization overall?” opens. As she discusses the activity, the layout changes. The files pod is not available and in its place is a chat pod for participants to enter their observations and questions about the annotated bibliography that Melissa opens in an MSWord document in place of the PowerPoint slide.

Audio: We're gonna take a look at an annotated bibliography right now. And if you notice anything or you have questions about it, there is a chat pod where you can type that in, and I can comment on those, or answer any questions that you have.


Visual: Melissa scrolls through the Word document as she discusses different elements of the paper.

Audio: So I'm gonna just go up to the top of this annotated bibliography. And this one looks like a stand-alone assignment because it has this title page, and the only content here is the annotated bibliography itself. So when we start, one of the first things you might notice up top here is what? What does this annotated bibliography have? Yeah, this one has an introduction paragraph. So we have an introduction to the topic that the student writer is working on right before the annotated bibliography starts itself.

Something else that I notice right from this first page is that this annotated bibliography is formatted, the page is set up just as any other essay would be, we're using Times New Roman, size 12, the lines are double-spaced. So those things are consistent, even though the assignment itself is vastly different from an essay.

So here's the first annotation. Right up top, right up top, we have -- oops, and then that moves the whole page. All right. Well, right up top we have that source information, and notice that that is in complete APA format, what you would see on a reference list. Then we have one paragraph which will be the summary, and there's our second paragraph, looking at the strengths and weaknesses, the analysis, and then we move into a third paragraph. And that third paragraph is going to be the application, whether it is useful or not to the writer. And after the first annotation, you see that there's another one. With all three parts. And another source.

So that format that we just looked at of introduction, annotation, annotation, annotation, conclusion, this is what it looks like when it's on a page. And then the organization of each individual annotation is going to be that reference entry. Followed by a paragraph of summary. A paragraph of analysis. And a paragraph of application. From this quick look at a completed document, does anybody have any questions? Go ahead and you can put that in the chat pod and I will answer those now.

Audio: Beth: Hey, Melissa, while people are writing, do you mind if I ask a quick question?

Audio: Melissa: Yes, yes.

Audio: Beth: Yeah, so there was a question about the order of the annotations, and they were wondering if it's the order of, you know, by the first author's last naming name, just like a reference list? Does that make sense? The order of the annotation?

Audio: Melissa: Yes. So should they go in alphabetical order?

Audio: Beth: Exactly, yeah.

Audio: Melissa: Okay, yes, for an annotated bibliography, you will present the sources in alphabetical order, the same way that you would on a reference list. This is important to note that this is very different from how you would present sources in a literature review. And so we have so many resources in the Writing Center about the differences between annotated bibliographies and literature review. They're definitely worth reviewing, and that's one of them.

I have a question about, if you're including a conclusion, if you should have a heading that introduces it as such or just to kind of toss it on there? And for this one, I would say yes to the heading, and the reason for that is because there's a heading here on this page, and for APA style guidelines, if you include one heading of a certain level, you should have at least two. And so we would want to have another heading that introduces the conclusion as appearing. And we have a sample of this available on our website. And I'm sure we will get that link to you. Okay, we will move on. There we go.


Visual: The layout switches back so that the chat pod closes and the files pod is available again. Slide #12 “Summary paragraph” opens and has a large horizontal textbox at the top with the purpose of this paragraph. Below that are three side-by-side textboxes with elements to include in this paragraph: Overviews or Background Reading, Research Studies, and Government & Organization Reports. Melissa discusses this information.

Audio: So the big take away from looking at that completed document is that an annotated bibliography has similar formatting to an essay in terms of it's double-spaced and we're using the same font, but that it really is introduction and then annotation, annotation, annotation on the page.

The first paragraph, and on my view, the heading is missing here. This is notification on how to -- information on how to complete that first paragraph, the summary paragraph. The first paragraph of an annotation is the summary paragraph and the purpose of this is to give an overview of the main points of a source. In the blue-ish, purple-ish rectangles at the bottom of the slide there, you will see questions that will help you write a summary. One of those is something that's a general overview or general background reading on a topic.

One of those provides question as for -- well, questions you could consider answering when writing a summary of a research study, and then questions that will help you summarize government and organization reports. So some of the questions that you want to think about when you are completing a summary are, what topics -- what was the topic of that article? What was the topic of the study? Even what's the purpose of the article or study? Was anything left out? How was organization? Or how was information organized? What kinds of sources were used? What was the final conclusion?

When you are completing the summary, you want to focus on the main points of that article or of that source. And one of the things to keep in mind when summarizing in addition to these questions is that your summary of a source will be different than my summary and it will be different than the summary of someone else in this room. So even though the source has the same 20 pages of information, our summaries are going to be different, and they might choose main points that are skewed a little bit towards our topic, and that's okay. A summary, it's okay for it to be personal.


Visual: Slide #13 “Summary Paragraph Tips:” opens. The slide label is in a textbox on the left and a bulleted list of tips is on the right side. Melissa discusses these tips.

Audio: However, there are some things we want to avoid in our summaries, and there's some things that we definitely want to include. So here are the Writing Center's tips for writing that summary paragraph.

First, make sure you're only focusing on facts. This is not the time to talk about what you think about that article. It's just the time to present what the article says. We're definitely going to use past tense, which is standard when talking about research, because the research has been completed in the past, that's the way I remember it. So you still want to maintain that past tense voice in your summary.

If you have a very long article that's been published in a scholarly journal, it might have an abstract, and when you look at that abstract, you are going to say, that is awesome, there is a one-paragraph summary. However, you want to read the entire article. It might end up being slightly off-topic for you to want to include. There might be major points that are worth mentioning that are not in that abstract. You want to read more than the abstract in order to commit to an article and make sure it's worthy of making it into your research pile and into your annotated bibliography.

In a summary, definitely use your own words, not just because that's what a summary is, but you don't want to quote. You definitely want to keep this as straight summary. All right? So use your own words. Also, keep in mind that you don't want to include everything. In fact, you can't include everything, so you really have to kind of pull back, get a wide focus on it, and include just those most important ideas.

It's really good habit to name the author at least once. Go ahead, name them in the first sentence. You know, Johnson said whatever the major finding may be. That's because it's good habit to introduce research but it's also going to anchor that summary to the specific article. So you want to name the author at least once in your summary. Including the publication year is optional. Same thing goes, you don't have to cite every sentence in the summary.

That reference entry right on top of the summary is going to let us know that what follows is a summary of that source. So don't feel like you have to cite every sentence or that paragraph like you would in an essay. When you are summarizing the article, you will probably find yourself wanting to vary your sentence structure so that you're not always saying the author's name over and over again. Johnson, said, Johnson reported. But you want to make sure you avoid anthropomorphism. Which is where you're going to give credit to the study itself for doing something. And if you need further information on those two, those links are clickable, and we are gonna actually look at an example here in the next slide.


Visual: Slide #14 “Summary Paragraph Tip Examples” opens. As they discuss the technical issues, Beth adds the examples in a note. The examples in the files pod slides are: Avoid quotes and Use past tense, and Anthropomorphism and Passive Voice. Melissa reads and discusses the examples.

Audio: Oh, my examples are blank. Beth, are they blank on your screen as well?

Audio: Beth: They are. Yes. Um, why don't I pull up a note pad, and just pull them -- I'm gonna copy and paste them. Would that work?

Audio: Melissa: Yes, that'll work great. Thank you.

Audio: Beth: Awesome, yeah. No worries. And sorry about that, everyone. I hope you stick with us here. [Laughter] Let's see. Those are the two examples. Do you want me to add notes at the top for it too?

Audio: Melissa: Yes.

Audio: Beth: And I'm just gonna make them a little bit bigger as well.

Audio: Melissa: Okay. And I think these are actually the corrected --

Audio: Beth: Oh, they are. [Laughter] Oh, my goodness! All right, guys. Sorry. Let's do this. So you get to see the correction with the -- but that's okay.

Audio: Melissa: Yeah, that's totally fine. Thank you so much for doing that.

Audio: Beth: Yeah, no worries.

Audio: Melissa: All right. So here in this first -- and I'm going to go ahead and make it bold so it stands out a little bit. In this first example of a sentence that somebody might include in their summary paragraph, it says "Thompson et al say that the central claim of their study is police women are an occupational subgroup who experience stress differently from male officers. And here there's two edits I'd want to make. We want to avoid using quotes. This is the place to summarize. So would we want to be able to put this in our own words. Remember to use past tense. In this sentence, it says that "They say," which is present.

Then down here is our revision. And so the revised sentence is, "The central claim of Thompson et al's study was that there is a difference in how female and male police officers endure stress. Notice that there's no longer a quote and the verb is past intelligence, "Was." The next sentence, this sentence that could appear in a study says, the study reported that 700 surveys were returned.

Well, we have past tense which is great but what we have going on here is anthropomorphism, and that is the action is being given or attributed to the study. The study reported. Well, a study is a piece of paper, and even though there's words on them, a study's not gonna pop up and tell you anything. It's actually the author who's doing the reporting. So we might use sentence structure like this when we're trying to vary the way that our sentence opens because we're tired of saying -- but when we do that, it ends up becoming anthropomorphism, and it's actually clearer and more direct just to go ahead and open with that writer's name again. So there is the revision that helps us to avoid that problem.

Are you able to clear the note pad for us so we can move on? Thank you.

Audio: Beth: Certainly, yep.


Visual: Slide #15 “Summary Paragraph” opens. It shows this example paragraph: Thompson, Kirk, and Brown (2006) conducted a study to determine how burnout and emotional exhaustion of female police officers affect their family environment based upon role ambiguity and role overload. Thompson et al. mailed surveys to 1,081 female police officers employed by the Australian State Police; however, only 421 surveys were useable. The researchers predicted that supervisor support would reduce role stressors and emotional exhaustion and improve family cohesion and conflict. They found a relationship between supervisor support and reduced role stressors, family functioning, and emotional exhaustion, but did not find a correlation between coworker support and work stress. Thompson et al. suggested that further research is needed on how emotional exhaustion affects family stressors for policewomen. Melissa reviews this example.

Audio: Melissa: We'll just kind of click through -- oh, hey, and look and that one's kind of popping up. So here is a sample summary paragraph. And if we take a look at it, it includes only information from the source. These people conducted a study. Here's how they did it. They mailed surveys. This was the prediction they made. Here was the finding, and here's the suggestion they make at the end. If you just scan through those paragraphs or scan through those sentences you'll notice that nowhere in this paragraph is there an assessment of if the article was any good, if these methods were valid. It's just a summary of what they did and what they found. You'll see that there are not quotation marks in here. There -- it's not a statement saying the study reported. This is a summary that is following those tips that we just shared.


Visual: Slide #16 “Analysis Paragraph” opens and has a large horizontal textbox at the top with the purpose of this paragraph. Below that are three side-by-side textboxes with elements to include in this paragraph: Overviews or Background Reading, Research Studies, and Government & Organization Reports. Melissa reads and discusses the purpose, and reviews the questions for considering when writing these elements.

Audio: Next we're going to take a look at the -- the analysis paragraph, and I apologize again for some blank spots on this slide. The purpose of the analysis paragraph is to look at the relative value of that source. So you're gonna think in terms of strong and weak, good, bad, negative, positive. This is what you think of the article. Or what -- I guess, kind of a good evaluation of the article may be. I don't want you thinking it's straight your opinion. But you want to look at the strengths and the weaknesses that article. So if this is just kind of a general overview or background reading, you might consider, did they put information in there that didn't really have to be? Did they leave any important things out? Those could be weaknesses. Is the source a little too detailed? Is it too broad? That is an analysis. This is your chance to stop and evaluate the source as a whole.

If you are looking at a research study, you might want to consider if the methods they used are sound. You might want to again look at if anything is missing. Is the researcher biased? Is the article scholarly or popularly? Was it published in a peer-reviewed journal? Those are things worth looking at. That is not a summary of what the article says. That's your evaluation of the article. Also, if you're looking at a government report or an organizational report, you want to make sure that the data is appropriate. Could there be a bias? Did they leave anything out? These are things you can include in that analysis paragraph.


Visual: Slide #17 “Analysis Paragraph Tips:” opens. The slide label is in a textbox on the left and a bulleted list of tips is on the right side. Melissa discusses these tips.

Audio: I also have tips for that analysis paragraph. The analysis will only work well if you have read critically and you have questioned your source and you have taken notes. The analysis is your thinking.

So you can only write the analysis paragraph if you have put the time into thinking about that source. You might find it helpful to first think about what is strong, what the strengths are and detail those. And then you might want to switch gears and look at the weaknesses. You also want to be able to explain why you feel the way you do. Why do you think that? If you say that it is a strength that the article does X, Y, and Z, you want to be able to say why you feel that way. You have to back that up.

Also, don't feel like you have to be nice or side with the author just because they are a professional in their field, but you also want to make sure that you're not being overly critical or that you're showing bias in either direction. This needs to be as balanced and objective of a look at their work as possible. You also want to think about if there's anything that -- external factors that could be affect the validity or trust worthiness of source. Maybe a relationship between the writer and the research subject, any of those things that could get in the way of the validity or trust worthiness of that source.


Visual: Slide #18 opens and has a chat prompt for discussion. Melissa reviews the activity. The layout changes so that the files pod is not available, the captioning and Q&A pods move side-by-side to the top right, the chat pod is below them. Below the main pod is a pod for Melissa to copy and paste examples from the discussion.

Audio: We are now going to take a look at an analysis paragraph, and there will be a chat pod open where you can tell me some things that you notice about it.


Visual: Melissa opens the example paragraph slide, but it is blank. As they briefly discuss the technical issues, Beth copies the example into a note pod in the same location on the screen. The example is: Although Thompson et al. made a significant contribution to the field of police research (particularly in their extensive literature review), the article had several limitations. First, the researchers chose a small and specialized sample, only surveying a small population of policewomen. Second, the researchers potentially influenced results by asking leading questions in the interviews and focus group meetings, which could have skewed their results. Therefore, further research is needed with a wider demographic range and completely impartial interviewers.

Audio: So I -- oh. And we don't have a paragraph. [Laughter]

Audio: Beth: Let me copy and paste it for you, yep. Oh, yes. One second, everybody. Oh.

Audio: Melissa: So as Beth gets this paragraph added in the chat pod, I want you to observe some things that you notice about this analysis paragraph. The one thing that I want you to avoid commenting on is the length of it. This paragraph is this length because that's what fits on the screen. So other than the length itself, what are some things you notice, things that are good about this analysis paragraph or things you would change. I'm going to go ahead and I'm just going to be silent for just a couple minutes while I give you time to look at it, think, and respond in the chat pod.

All right, so I've taken some notes here that I've pulled out of the chat. And one thing that I saw over and over again is that this analysis is only focused on the weaknesses, and it hasn't identified the strengths. So that's definitely something that might be worth adding in. What are the strengths? Now, in terms of the limitations, they did identify specifically what they were, so here we have, there's the first limitation is that they picked a small and specialized sample and the second limitation is that they were potentially influenced.

So I -- I agree with you guys that the strengths are missing and that this does only focus on the limitations. But the one good thing about that is that they have identified the specific limitations, so this analysis doesn't say, hey, the article was limited, end of story. It lists them. One way that I would strengthen that is, after the first one where it talks about the small sample, it might be nice to include why that small sample is a limitation. You want to explain why you found that to be a limitation.

This explanation is included in the second one, that the writer mentioned, which is about how they could have influenced the results by skewing the answers of the participants. One of the things that I saw come in through the chat box is a concern that this was only references one source. I want to say that that's okay, because this is an annotated bibliography we're working on. This is an annotation for just one source so on that page underneath the source, the summary paragraph is only gonna mention this one source. The analysis paragraph is only gonna mention this one source and the application is only going to mention this one source. It's very -- I don't want to say that it is limited, but it has a very narrow focus on that one source at a time. So it is fine that we see only one source here.

So I agree with you guys that this is definitely focused on the negative, but there are great examples of what the negatives are. Thanks, Beth. If we can go back to the slides, that'll be great. I'll try to get out of this. Here we go.


Visual: The layout switches back so that the chat pod closes and the files pod is available again. Slide #20 “Application Paragraph” opens and has a large horizontal textbox at the top with the purpose of this paragraph. Below that are three side-by-side textboxes with elements to include in this paragraph: Overviews or Background Reading, Research Studies, and Government & Organization Reports. Melissa discusses this information.

Audio: Now, this is where we're gonna take a look at the application paragraph. And the purpose of the application paragraph is that it gives us a chance to be selfish and to think about, what makes this source useful us? Why can I use this source in my writing? What benefit is it going to have? What makes it good for me? We are being really focused on ourselves and how we're gonna use the source. So if we're looking at an overview or some general background reading, we might want to know, does that provide useful context for my readers, for your readers? Is it gonna fill in some gaps? Does this include something worthy of me to include in my essay? If we're looking at research studies, we might want to know, again, does it fill in gaps? Is it going to extend or build upon previous studies? Is it going to clarify any points that I'm trying to make?

Same thing when we're looking at those government organization reports. Does it add something worthwhile? Is this going to help me say what I'm trying to say? That's what the application paragraph, the third, final paragraph of the annotation is going to include. So some big things that I want you to think about for the application paragraph, and that is you want to consider how the source is useful to you. How is it useful to what you are writing? How is it useful to what other researchers have said in the field? How does it kind of fit together with the other research that's out there?


Visual: Slide #21 “Application Paragraph” opens. The slide label is in a textbox on the left and a bulleted list of tips is on the right side. The tip for using first person is hyperlinked. Melissa discusses these tips.

Audio: Some tips for your application paragraph. First, you're welcome to include what you have learned because this is the paragraph about you, paragraph about you, how it's going to help you. This is your selfish paragraph. Don't be afraid to be very, very specific here, because again, you're looking at how you can use it, if you can use it, where you can use it, what it's going to help you do in your writing. So again, be selfish.

This is also a paragraph where you can use the first person. How is it going to help my writing? I can use it in this way. However, please avoid saying "I think" or "In my opinion." That's that use of the first person that we try to avoid in academic writing anyway. Remember, Walden is fine with use of first person when you are describing your personal work experiences and applications and research, but we like to avoid first person for kind of general, "I think" statements, and that's an APA style recommendation.

You want to make sure that in this application paragraph, you are still backing up what you are observing and saying with explanations. So if you say, this is a very useful article for my essay, okay, why? You want to include that backup. That explanation.


Visual: Slide #22 opens and has a chat prompt for discussion. Melissa reviews the activity. The layout changes so that the files pod is not available, the captioning and Q&A pods move side-by-side to the top right, the chat pod is below them. Below the main pod is a pod for Melissa to copy and paste examples from the discussion.

Audio: We're gonna take a look at an application paragraph. And there will be a chat pod open up, where you're going to tell me what you notice about this application paragraph that Beth will get to us shortly.


Visual: Beth copies the example into a note pod in the same location on the screen. The example is: This study was valuable to my understanding of how a female police officers’ experiences may be different than a male police officer. While Thompson et al.’s conclusions are not generalizable, their literature review is helpful to any scholar first approaching the subject. However, the researchers also showed that more studies should be conducted to fully explore the possible differences in police experiences that they identified.

Audio: Just, again, like last time, I want you to focus on the content of that application paragraph, not the length. The length is what it is because it's what fits on the screen. So we're gonna take a look at this application paragraph, and see what you observe, what is good about it, and what you would change. I'm gonna go ahead and be silent for a couple minutes to let you get those thoughts into the chat pod.

All right, some observations that came in on the chat pod is you noticed that this application paragraph uses first person. We have that "My understanding" or "My work." And that's great. This is the paragraph where you can do that. Other people noted that this paragraph is very specific to the person who's writing, and that's a good thing here, because in the application paragraph, you are looking at how the research is important and valuable to you. So it's great actually that they've used first person and have kept it very specific to the self.

One criticism that I saw come in is that it's not super specific. There's not a lot of examples from the research to back up these reasons, and part of that could be here again that we're just limited in the length because this had to fit on our screens, but you are exactly right that in a completed finalized annotated bibliography, adding that explanation and adding those additional details in is a great -- is a great thing to include.

The study was available to my understanding of how a female police officer's experience may be different than a male police officer. There's a great place to stop and to say why or how that's going to inform the work of you, it's valuable to your understanding. So there is room after each of these sentences to expand. However, as a whole, this is -- this is an application paragraph, it looks at how the article can be useful to the writer, and how the article is useful to the field as a whole. Definitely room to say more, but it meets those criteria.

One thing I do want to note that this reference to the writer in the second paragraph does not have to be cited because this is an annotated bibliography and just like in that summary paragraph, we don't have to feel like we should be citing every reference to the research, because just the format of this assignment kind of renders that repetitive. All right, let's come back to the slides. To our blank slides.


Visual: The layout returns to the previous setup. The next slide says “Questions?” and has a picture of a yellow cube with white question marks on each side. At the bottom is “Next up: Practice Makes Perfect.”

Audio: And at this point, I am going to stop and I am going to allow Beth to share any questions that may have come in to the Q&A pod that we should address before we practice making a sample annotation better.

Audio: Beth: Thanks, Melissa. I think the only question really so far was just whether we needed to double-space the entire annotated bibliography?

Audio: Melissa: Yes, yes, double-space the entire annotated bibliography just like any other assignment that you will complete and submit as a student. The entire document should be double-spaced. And this is also true when you are including the reference entry, that very first piece before the summary of the article, that should be double-spaced, just like it's double-spaced on your reference list. Okay, we are going to -- yeah.

Audio: Beth: Sorry. One other question came in that I thought was pretty good. It was about an outline or sort of format for a one-paragraph annotated bibliography, and I wondering if you could maybe just address this more broadly. If the assignment instructions are asking for something beyond the three-paragraph format, do you have any suggestions for how students can take what we're talking about and translate it into that?

Audio: Melissa: Yes, so a one-paragraph annotated bibliography is something that I have seen come through not only this Writing Center but other Writing Centers that I have worked in. And there's two ways that that format can be completed, and the most important thing is if you are unsure what to include in your annotation, you want to clear that up with the instructor, because ultimately that's the person that's gonna be reviewing this, so we want to make sure we're meeting the requirements for that assignment. But it might be summary only. I have seen that. But what I also commonly see is that it is several sentences of summary, and then just a sentence or two of the analysis, if the article is strong, weak, sometimes there's application if it's useful or not. So these elements can be condensed into fewer paragraphs.

I've also seen -- and this is was out of a textbook and I don't remember the title of it, but it was one that I had used as a composition instructor that one of the formats of an annotation, they have a three-sentence one. It's very short and to the point. So these elements can take different formats and different structures on the page. So it's important that you clear it up with your instructor if you're completing it as a stand-alone assignment.

Audio: Beth: Thank you. That's it. That's all we got.


Visual: Slide #25 “Analysis: What is missing?” opens. Melissa discusses the chat activity as the chat pod layout returns, but without the pod below the example for Melissa’s notes. Beth adds the content of the slide to a note pod.

Audio: Melissa: All right, great. So now we're gonna practice working to improve our annotations. And we will have in a moment a sample analysis. But something is missing. And I'm gonna ask you to tell me in the chat pod that will also follow, what is missing from this analysis? Remember, that the analysis is the second paragraph in the annotation. It comes after the summary. And oh, I think we lost our -- our notes. And it's coming back. Great.


Visual: The note pod opens with this example: Institutions continue to develop and increase their online presence, including online courses and Writing Centers. Hewett’s used research to support her assertions. Hewett has written her book to a broad audience. Melissa discusses responses.

Audio: So once this analysis paragraph appears, in the chat pod, go ahead and share what you notice is missing from it. As you continue to type your responses in here, I'm gonna walk you through my -- my look at this analysis paragraph and how I would improve it. So I definitely see some summaries of what the source is about. The one thing that I see is the second sentence which has a typo, but Hewett used research to support your annotations. Well, what research, and was that research good? Was that research strong? Does that make her assertion strong or weak? And then Hewett has written her book to a broad audience.

Again, I want to note that we don't need a citation here, because this is part of the annotation, and so we're kind of jumping into the middle. On the page, that complete reference entry would be up top, and then we'd have a paragraph of summary, and then this paragraph, but this analysis is weak because we're missing the look at what is actually strong or weak and why. And so we do have a revision that hopefully we can get copied into this note so that you can see the difference.


Visual: Beth changes the example in the note pod to this revision: This in-depth look at online instruction is timely as institutions continue to develop and increase their online presence, including online courses and Writing Centers. Hewett’s use of research to support her assertions clearly shows the reader that her conclusions are not based on her own opinions, but are rooted in empirical evidence. Hewett wrote her book to a broad audience, including professors and Writing Center tutors, as well as synchronous and asynchronous online instruction. This broad approach can lead to some chapters being less applicable to one group or another at times, possibly limiting the real-world application of her ideas. Melissa reads excerpts from the example as she discusses the revision.

Audio: There we go. And so, first of all, you're gonna notice that this is much longer. So we know that we have added some of the things in. And I really want to draw your attention to the second sentence which I noted was kind of vague because it didn't say if that was strong or weak.

So here we have, Hewett's use of research to support your assertions clearly shows the reader that her conclusions are not based on her own opinions, but are rooted in empirical evidence. That's gonna be a strength. Then down here at the end, we talked about that broad audience and now this analysis explains that the broad approach can lead to some chapters being less application to one group or another at times, possibly limiting the real-world application of her ideas. Now we have statements of, is this strong or weak? This is a much more complete analysis.


Visual: Slide #27 “Application: What is missing?” The layout continues with the chat pod and Beth adds this example in the note pod: Hewett’s explanation of how instructors can use online instruction to best teach students is helpful to both experienced online instructors and those who are new to this way of helping students. Hewett’s book focuses on detailing the various ways writing instruction can be given online, including both synchronous and asynchronous teaching. In each chapter Hewett takes the reader through the practical components of developing an online teaching service, including what tools institutions can use. Melissa discusses this as she reads the example.

Audio: Now we can come back to the slides. And there is also an application paragraph that we can look at. And in this application paragraph, we want to see what is missing. Remember that the application is now the third paragraph in our annotation. We have the reference entry, and we have a summary. We have the analysis that we just improved, and now here we have an application paragraph. And go ahead and in the chat pod, you can work through this one with me as we look to see what's missing. I'll read this through.

Hewett's explaining of how instructors can use online instruction to best teach students is helpful to both experienced online instructors and those who are new to this way of helping students. Hewett's book focuses on detailing the various ways writing instruction can be given online, including both synchronous and asynchronous teaching. In each chapter, Hewett takes the reader through the practical components of developing an online teaching service, including what tools institutions can use. What is missing from this application?

It's very clearly worded. I -- I love these answers that are popping up already. This is not personal. It doesn't say how it's useful to me, how it's useful to the writer. I agree, some past tense would be good. The application is missing from this application paragraph. So we need to add that in. What makes this useful to the writer or kind of how does it fill gaps into the discussion on this topic as a whole? And so a revised application paragraph would include that information. Perhaps for the sake of time, Beth, do we want to go back to the slides to get to the end?

Audio: Beth: Certainly. Yep.

Audio: Melissa: Oh, here it is. Okay.

Audio: Beth: Oh, shoot, sorry, do you want me to bring it back up?

Audio: Melissa: Oh, no, that's okay.

Audio: Beth: Okay, cool. I'll go back to the -- [Talking at the same time]


Visual: The next slide “Review Annotated bibliographies are…” and has two side-by-side textboxes. The left one is labeled: Your way to and Written for. Below the labels are bulleted lists of key points. KAM is hyperlinked in the second list. Melissa reviews these.

Audio: Melissa: Okay. So just to wrap up, an annotated bibliography is a document that is helpful for you to keep track of your sources or to complete as an assignment itself. An annotated bibliography will show that you have read and understood and thought about your sources. It's going to allow you to think about the value of each of those sources, and it might also be useful to other people who are researching in the field. It can be a great way for you to collect and take notes when you're working on a larger assignment. Remember that an annotated bibliography may be an assignment of its own. That you will complete and turn in for a grade. Or it might help you prepare for a longer assignment. Again, this can be part of the depth section of a KAM or just personal notes. So an annotated bibliography has many purposes and many functions.


Visual: Slide #30 opens and has a bulleted list of resources. The first three are hyperlinked. Melissa discusses each resource briefly.

Audio: Here I have some resources. These are links that you can open, and there's also those files in the file pod that you might wish to download. We have lots of sources on our page, and there's also a webinar called the annotated bibliography and literature review basics which will help separate these two documents for you. You may complete an annotated bibliography in preparation for your literature review, but the two are very different, and so if you're wondering what the difference is, that's something that you'll want to take the time to review.


Visual: The final slide “Questions:” opens and shows ways to contact the Writing Center as well as hyperlinks for related webinars. Melissa reviews these.

Audio: As we close up, if you have questions here at the end that we didn't get time to address, you are free to let us know by emailing us at, and you can also continue the conversation with us on Twitter by using the hashtag #waldenU, or #WaldenUWC. So thank you for joining us tonight.

Audio: Beth: Thank you, so much, Melissa, and thank you, general, for your patience as we were going through those technical difficulties and the great questions that we heard in the Q&A box. You kept Julie and I on our toes. We have just a couple minutes left, and I wondered if we could finish up with maybe some ending remarks from you, your tips on annotated bibliographies, kind of last things to walk away with here.

Audio: Melissa: Sure, the so the big thing that I really want everyone to leave the session with is knowing that an annotated bibliography is a very unique document. It's not going to flow or look like a complete essay, and it's not supposed to. Think of it as being a reference list with notes. So you have each source there in APA format and then you're going to have your summary, analysis, and application underneath each of the sources.

The second important thing, and this is perhaps actually the most important thing to remember is that you want to make sure that your annotated bibliography is meeting the requirements of the specific assignment if you're completing it as an assignment. So always follow those directions to make sure that you're including the right number of paragraphs and the right content in each paragraph. And if you have questions, of course contact your instructor.

Audio: Beth: Fantastic. All right, well, I think that's a great way to end the session. Thank you so much again, Melissa, and to Julia for answering those questions, and please have a wonderful evening, everyone, we hope to see you at another webinar this July or coming up next August. Bye, all.