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Webinar Transcripts

Annotated Bibliographies

Presented July 30, 2019

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Last updated 10/1/2019

 

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Housekeeping

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Audio: Claire: Hello everyone, and welcome to today's webinar. I’m Claire Helakoski, and I’ll be facilitating this webinar today. Before we begin and I hand it over to our presenter, Kacy, I want to go over a few housekeeping notes.

First note that this session will be recorded and the recording will be available online within 24 hours in our webinar archive. So, if you need to leave, step out, or miss part of this presentation, or if you just want to revisit this presentation at a later time, you can view the recording there.

Throughout the webinar we’ll have polls, files and links in the presentation that are interactive, so you can look forward to interacting with us throughout, and those live links are usable if you want to check out the resources we recommend.

Throughout the presentation if you have any questions, let me know in the Q&A box, I will be there to support you. If you are watching this as a recording or you think of something after the presentation, you can let us know through emailing us at writingsupport@waldenu.edu or through our live chat service.

If you're having technical difficulties during the presentation, you can go ahead and let me know there in the Q&A box, I might have some tricks to help you. Or if you're having serious issues, I will probably recommend that you go to the Help button in the upper, right corner of your screen. That's Adobe's help support, so they can best support you for those larger issues. But let me know in the chatbox, first. With that, I will hand it over to our presenter, Kacy.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the title of the webinar, “Appropriate Use of First Person and Avoiding Bias” and the speaker’s name and information: Kacy Walz, Writing Instructor, Walden University Writing Center

Audio: Kacy: Hi everyone, and thank you so much for joining. My name is Kacy Walz, and I am presenting today from St. Louis, Missouri. And I'm excited to talk to you guys about annotated bibliographies, if you can believe that. [LAUGHS]

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Today’s Learning Objectives:

  • Understand the possible uses of annotated bibliographies
  • Identify the Writing Center-suggested format for annotated bibliographies
  • Understand the tips for writing each section of an annotation
  • Explain ways to improve parts of an annotated bibliography

Audio: So, today's learning objectives are to understand the possible uses of annotated bibliographies, because there are reasons you want to create one even if your instructor does not tell you to. We'll identify some of the Writing Center suggested format for annotated bibliographies, understand the tips for writing each different section of an annotation -- because annotations are made up of multiple different parts and contain different information -- and we'll also explain ways to improve parts of an annotated bibliography and make that just a really strong bibliography.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: What are annotated bibliographies?

  • According to Merriam-Webster’s Online Dictionary:
    • “to make or furnish critical or explanatory notes or comment”
    • “the history, identification, or description of writings or publications”

Audio: So first off, what are annotated bibliographies? Well according to Merriam-Webster's dictionary, when you annotate you are making or furnishing critical or explanatory notes or comments. Then, the bibliography part is, the history, identification or description of writings or publications. So, bibliography is that APA type reference list that you have at the end of all of your scholarly papers, then the annotations are just some extra explanation and notes that go along with them.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: What are Annotated Bibliographies?

  • Your way to:

Demonstrate knowledge and critically assess

Share the value of a source

Inform fellow or future researchers

Gather sources for literature review

Take notes

Audio: So annotated bibliographies are avenues you can use to demonstrate your knowledge, and that you can critically assess different pieces of research. They are ways to share the value of a source or how it might be beneficial to a specific project or conversation. They are ways to inform fellow or future researchers about different articles or sources that you have compiled and read. They are a way to gather sources for literature review, they can be kind of used as a first step, that literature review. And also, they are a way to take notes so that you remember all the information you're taking as you’re putting together a lot of different courses and information in preparing for those course papers or even larger assignments.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: What Are Annotated Bibliographies?

Doctoral capstone students may particularly find them helpful in preparation for literature reviews.

  • Assignment on their own (course paper)
  • Preparation for final or longer paper
  • Collect and organize sources for literature review
  • Personal notes

Audio: So, they can be an assignments on their own, some of you might have been assigned to create an annotated bibliography for a course. Or they can be preparation for a final or longer paper.

As I mentioned before, they are ways you can collect and organize the information you've obtained from different sources for a literature review. So, doctoral capstone students, in particular, might find creating an annotated bibliography to be very helpful as they're working towards that literature review. It helps keep all that information somewhat organized. You're not worried about forgetting which source pieces of information came from. They're a really great tool. And of course, you can also use annotated bibliographies for your personal notes.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Bird’s Eye View: Format and Organization

         Introductions and conclusions are often optional and dependent on context.

  • Introduction
  • Annotation
  • Annotation
  • Annotation
  • Conclusion

Audio: From a bird's eye view, the way that an annotated bibliography works is very different from a traditional paper from a literature review. The annotations don't necessarily need to be connected or tied together in the same way that you would want to include transitions and context in a different kind of assignment. Sometimes you’ll be asked to write an introduction and conclusion for an annotated bibliography. Lots of times, that's just going to depend on what you are using this annotated bibliography for, and kind of the ultimate goal of each single annotation.

So, you would have your introduction at the start, if one's required. And then, the annotations are just kind of in the middle, together. Sometimes people will organize their annotated bibliography the same way they would organize a traditional reference list, by alphabetical order by the author's last name. Or you might be instructed to organize it differently, or if you're creating your own annotated bibliography for your own notes, you might not be as concerned with the order of the organization. The conclusion, if one is required, will come at the end and can also help clarify some of that if there isn't that clear connection between each of the annotations.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Format and Organization

Chat Box:

What do you think an author should include in an annotated bibliography’s introduction?

What would be helpful?

Audio: So real quick, before we move forward, I just want to give you a chance in the chat box to let me know, what do you think an author should include in an annotated bibliography's introduction? And why that might be helpful, or what would be helpful about creating an introduction for an annotated bibliography? So, say you have not been assigned to create an annotated bibliography with an introduction. Why would you maybe want to include one, anyways? I’ll go on mute for a minute so you guys can put your answers in that chat box.

[silence as participants respond]

I think some of you are moving ahead of me, even, and are already tackling different parts of an annotated bibliography. But for this question, we're just asking why someone might include an introduction to the bibliography, itself. So why would a writer want to include a separate paragraph for getting into the annotations and the specific references?

I see some people have written things like it's going to prepare your reader, give them an idea of what’s to come. It can kind of act like an abstract. Absolutely. It gives an overview of what information the reader can expect in reading these different annotations. It also might just serve as notes for yourself, if you're using an annotated bibliography as notes, that introduction might be your own way of how you think you're going to organize these different resources or why you have compiled this annotated bibliography in the first place.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Let’s Take a Closer Look

See recorded APA webinars and examples page for APA help

  • Reference
  • Summary
  • Analysis
  • Application
  • Rinse and Repeat!

Audio: So now we're going to get into the specifics of each annotation, this is something I think you guys were maybe mentioning or starting to talk about in the chat box when we were talking about the introduction. So, an annotation is comprised of the reference, which is that APA formatted publication information so, the same thing that you would include in the reference list of any research paper. And then, in the annotation there's going to be summary, analysis and application. So, you provide a very brief summary of the source, kind of giving some background information, maybe whatever information is going to be most important for you to remember so you can remember what the source is about. I think I saw somebody in the chat box write about, it gives you a quick snapshot so you can remember what that source is talking about.

An annotation also includes your analysis, so, what you make of that resource. How you have contextualized or interested that information. And then, lots of times, I think this is the piece they could overlook, but the application of that source. So how do you think it fits into the larger discussion of, if you're working on your capstone project, how is this going to inform something that you're doing, how does it fit in with the rest of the sources in your annotated bibliography? What is that specific source bringing to the table that other sources are not? Make sure that you include that.

Again, these different items might be different depending on how you're using your annotated bibliography. What’s you’re using it for. Maybe if it's just notes for yourself, you don't need to be as specific about making sure each annotation contains all three of these items. But it is a good thing to keep in mind, because I think they can be very helpful for you as a writer, even if you haven’t been specifically been assigned an annotated bibliography. You can check out; we have some specific APA webinars and you really helpful examples page if you want help formatting that reference. Sometimes that can even be the scariest part of formatting a bibliography, getting those commas and periods in the right places.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Let’s Take a Closer Look

Let’s take a look!

Any observations or questions about format or organization overall?

[Sample Annotated Bibliography is shown on screen with presenter scrolling through]

Audio: Now we're going to take a look at a sample annotated bibliography. In this example, we have an introduction, you can see that sample annotated bibliography independent introduction. Then we have a number of different references and their annotations.

You can see at the top of this Boquet source, we have a reference that will appear in your reference list. Then after that, we have these three specific paragraphs that would address the elements of the district. The first one is a summary, The Nuanced Look at Writing Center's Position within Academic Institutions. The writer gives a little more information about what that, specifically, means, but you’ll notice that paragraph is very short, the idea is to give a glimpse of the main ideas, remind yourself what that source was about, give your reader a little bit of a snapshot and then you're going to move on.

Here, this is kind of an evaluation. So, analysis can be evaluation, it can be argumentation, it can be a reconsideration of what the writer might be meaning. And in this case, this writer has chosen to provide an evaluation of Boquet's book, the book is well organized, uses the metaphor of noise, is connecting the ideas well. This is how this writer has chosen to analyze that specific resource for whatever purpose this annotated bibliography is serving.

And then this final paragraph, is very short, but it's just giving the reader an idea of why this resource is useful for the writer of the annotated bibliography. What was that about Boquet’s book that made this writer want to include it in this annotated bibliography? Here again, you can kind of get an idea of what the formatting would look like. So, we have our hanging indent, then we have in our reference list, and then followed by these narrative annotations that provide the summary, the analysis, and then, the application of how this writer is going to use each source. And this is a sample that you can access in the files pod. It is also available on our website. If you just search "annotated bibliography" in the handy little search box, this is one of the first things that will pop up. Let's move back into the presentation.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Let’s Take a Closer Look

Let’s take a look!

Any observations or questions about format or organization overall?

Audio: And, the sample will hopefully help to answer questions about the ways that you're going to format and organize an annotated bibliography. You can even use it as a kind of template if you are new to that genre and want to make sure that you're formatting it with correct APA style.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Summary Paragraph

       Purpose: Give a brief overview of main points and findings of a source.

  • Overviews or Background Reading
    • What topics did the author talk about?
    • What topics did the author leave out?
    • How did the author organize the information?
    • What kinds of sources did the author use?
  • Research Studies
    • What is the topic and purpose of the study?
    • What actions did the researcher perform and why?
    • What were the methods?
    • What was the theoretical basis?
    • What were the conclusions?
  • Government & Organization Reports
    • What is the context for this report?
    • Which department of the overall organization/government wrote the report or is responsible for the report?
    • Is this new data or a report of existing data?

Audio: Now we’re going to go individually to the different elements of an annotation. The first part is that summary paragraph. The goal is just to give a brief overview of the main points and findings of a source. So, you're not giving a bunch of details. You're just kind of giving that quick, larger picture of what the source is doing. So, some questions that you might ask about the background or the overview of the reading, what were the main topics that the author talked about? And, alternatively, what topics did the author leave out? How did the author organize the information and what kind of sources did the author use -- because probably you're using peer reviewed sources, they are going to use research of their own. So, what other kinds of sources does that author put into their writing.

In terms of research studies, you might be interested in what the purpose of the study is, what was the objective, what were they trying to find? What actions specifically did the researcher perform? Were they handing out questionnaires? Was it a control group versus a -- I'm sorry, I'm going to be really bad at the terminology, because I did not get my degree in social science – but were they looking at different populations and comparing them? What were the methods and what was the theoretical basis, what were the conclusions? That would be something that would be very important for the reader in general or for you to remember. Right?

And then, if you're annotating government or organization reports, you might be considering the context for your report, what led it to be created? What are they addressing? Which department organization is responsible for the report? And then, is this new data, or are they reporting on existing data? How does this fit into a general timeline in terms of reporting and accessing information?

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Summary Paragraph

  • Summary Paragraph Tips:

Focus on facts

Use the past tense

Read more than just the abstract

Use your own words: Avoid quotes

  • include everything

Name the author(s) at least once

Publication year is optional

Avoid anthropomorphism and passive voice

Audio: So just some tips, when you're writing your summary paragraph, you want to focus on the facts. And unlike MLA, which is how I was trained, you use the past tense when you are talking about published material in APA. So, in your summary paragraph, you will use the past tense for your verbs.

You want to make sure that you are reading more than just the abstract. I say that and kind of chuckle, but this is an important tip, because yes, the abstract does the work like its own annotation, but you don't know what in this source is going to be most important to you for your project. So, you want to make sure that you've read the whole source and can understand the main points and whatever is going to be most important for you, specifically.

You want to use your own words and avoid quotations. And that's a good tip for any writing that you do in APA, but particularly in annotated bibliographies. This is your own notes on this source, so you want to put it into your own words. But it also forces you to make sure you understanding what is going on in the source.

Name the authors at least once in the summary. So even though you've got that reference at the top it’s going to give the authors’ names, give the authors’ names again in that summary. It's just a good practice to get into when you're writing scholarly.

The publication year is optional. It's going to be in the reference, so you don't need to do the same kind of citation that you would do in a traditional paper where your narrative citations or parenthetical citations, all of the citations should be regarding that subject [sounds like].

You want to make sure you are avoiding anthropomorphism and passive voice -- again, just some good practices to get into for APA and scholarly writing, in general. Just a reminder, anthropomorphism, you can click on that link if you want more information about either of these, anthropomorphism is when you give agency to an inanimate object. Something like “the paper discussed," or "the study argued." You want to make sure that you're giving the credit to the authors or the researchers, rather than the piece of paper. And then passive voice is when the doer, for lack of a better word that I can think of, of the action is unclear – so, "the study was conducted," "the questionnaires were distributed." You want to make sure that it's very clear for your reader who it was that was conducting the study or distributing these questionnaires.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Summary Paragraph: Tips & Examples

Avoid quotes ● Use past tense

The central claim of Thompson et al.’s (2012) study was that there is a difference in how female and male police officers endure stress.

Anthropomorphism ● Passive Voice

Thompson et al. (2012) reported that the study participants returned 700 surveys.

Audio: So, here are some more examples of following these tips, sorry, following these tips and examples. So, avoiding quotes and using past tense, here we have, "The central claim of Thompson et al.’s study was that there is a difference in how female and male police officers endure stress." So, using the past tense because it’s a published piece of material and we're using APA style. Then, this is the writer's own wording of the main point of Thompson et al.’s document. There's a difference in female and male police officers and how they encounter stress. So, we don't need to use the specific wording that Thompson et al. used, we are going to put it in our own words so it’s clear we understand what's going on.

And again, to avoid anthropomorphism and passive voice, we give credit to Thompson et al. right away, and then recorded that study participants returned 700 surveys. So, it's clear who is actually doing the reporting. And this is more and more important, as you’re talking about your own research, because you want to claim responsibility and get credit for the work that you're doing, so it becomes really, really important to make sure it's really clear who is doing what action.

Here you can see that this writer has included the year, using a narrative citation the same way they would do in a regular paper, and that's completely fine. But as again, mentioned in the previous paragraph, you don't have to worry about that as much as annotated bibliographies.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Summary Paragraph: Tips & Examples

Thompson, Kirk, and Brown (2006) conducted a study to determine how burnout and emotional exhaustion of female police officers affect their family environment based upon role ambiguity and role overload.  Thompson et al. mailed surveys to 1,081 female police officers employed by the Australian State Police; however, only 421 surveys were useable.  The researchers predicted that supervisor support would reduce role stressors and emotional exhaustion and improve family cohesion and conflict.  They found a relationship between supervisor support and reduced role stressors, family functioning, and emotional exhaustion, but did not find a correlation between coworker support and work stress.  Thompson et al. suggested that further research is needed on how emotional exhaustion affects family stressors for policewomen.

Audio: So, then here is what that paragraph would look like. I'm not going to read it all to you, but you can get a sense of the length and what kinds of information is going to be important for this summary paragraph. This can also help maybe see what this writer is finding most important about the article and will give us some context for the analysis and the application sections that are going to come. So, highly recommend you download our slides and take a look at this in-depth if you want to have a more detailed example.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Analysis Paragraph

       Purpose: Tell the reader what the author(s) did well or could have improved.

Overviews or Background Reading

  • Is there information included that is unnecessary?
  • Is there information left out that is necessary?
  • Is the source too detailed or too broad?

Research Studies

  • Was the methodology of the study sound?
  • What, if any, information is missing?
  • Is there evidence of researcher bias?
  • Is the article scholarly or generalizable? Why or why not?

         Government & Organization Reports

  • Is the data used appropriate for the report?
  • Could the government or organization department have bias?
  • Does the report leave out any key information or ideas?

Audio: Then you have your analysis paragraph. This paragraph is really important, it's going to tell the reader what the authors did well or what they could have improved. It can also give a sense of where your research might fit in or might address some of the things that were lacking in that source.

So again, we have three different types of documents that you might be looking at. So, overviews or background reading, the analysis section you’ll be wanting to ask yourself if the information was unnecessary or did, they focus on the most important pieces, and cut out all that unnecessary information for you? Oftentimes a comment I make on papers that I receive in the Writing Center is that it's the writer’s job to do the work for the reader. There shouldn't be any questions about why something is included in a paper. So, you can, as the person writing the annotated bibliography, you get to say, I don't know why they included or I don't understand why they included this group in their study. So, you might [indiscernible].

On the flipside, was there anything that was left out or questions that were left unanswered? Is the source too detailed or too broad? And of course, this is an example of why the summary paragraph is so important and why we order these the way we do, because that background is going to give us information on how the source might be too detailed or too broad according to the overall objective of the source.

If you're looking at a resource study, you might ask if the methodology is sound. Will it stand up to scientific methodology evaluation? What if any, information is missing? That's a question you probably ask yourself no matter what the source is.

Is there evidence of researcher bias? I think that's another piece that would probably be something you'd want to consider for any type of source. But obviously, if a researcher seems like they’re unfairly presenting an idea without supporting it with outside research, that should definitely affect how you approach that source. It doesn't necessarily say anything about the truthfulness or the accuracy of information, but it’s just going to give you a reminder that maybe this is presented in a certain way, so if I’m going to use it myself, I want to be really careful.

Then, is the article scholarly or generalizable? And how is it scholarly or how does it not fit into that category? So, for government and organization reports, is the data appropriate for that report? That's similar to that unnecessary information.

Could the government or organization department have bias? Based on who is writing this report, is there any reason that you might question the way that the information is portrayed? Does the organization or department have some kind of vested interest in the reader believing one way or another?

And then, does the report leave out any key information or ideas? Again, you can see these are fairly similar questions, no matter what kind of source you are using. But it just might be geared a little differently. So, these slides can help give you a sense of what the specific ways you're going to ask that source about unnecessary information or about bias.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Analysis Paragraph

  • Analysis Paragraph Tips:

Break it up: Focus first on strengths and then on weaknesses

  • assertions and critique: Why do you think the way you do?
  • feel the need to be “nice,” but avoid bias

Think about what might affect the validity or trustworthiness of the source

Audio: The tips for analysis paragraphs, while you're reading, make sure that you're questioning or critiquing within your notes. So, underline things that don't make sense. Put things in the margins. That's why I also have to print things off. I know lots of people are reading online now, but maybe have a note book open next to you if you're reading on your computer so you can take notes as you’re reading. That's going to help you a ton when you get to this analysis paragraph.

You might consider breaking it up, like focusing on the strengths first and then on the weaknesses. This can also help you when you're actually organizing that paragraph because it's going to be much less confusing for your reader if you're talking about all the strengths and all of the weaknesses, versus going back and forth.

And then, explaining your critique, the assertions you're making. You also don't want to come across as biased. You want to give reasons for why you're evaluating the source the way you do. You don't have to feel the need to be "nice." Like, I like this bullet point a lot. But you do want to avoid bias. You can critique this writer's writing or their research or their methodology. But you just want to make sure that when you’re doing so, you're just providing those clear explanations as to why. And then think about what might affect the validity or trustworthiness of the source. That’s goes back to vested interest in persuading the reader one side or another, the evaluation of the sources that the writer is using. These are all things that would be important to include in an analysis paragraph.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Analysis Paragraph: Example

Chat Box:

What do you notice?

              Although Thompson et al. made a significant contribution to the field of police research (particularly in their extensive literature review), the article had several limitations.  First, the researchers chose a small and specialized sample, only surveying a small population of policewomen.  Second, the researchers potentially influenced results by asking leading questions in the interviews and focus group meetings, which could have skewed their results. Therefore, further research is needed with a wider demographic range and completely impartial interviewers.

Audio: So here is another chance to participate in the chatbox. This is an example of analysis paragraph, and in that chatbox, let me know what you are noticing about this example. Is there anything that you would maybe change? Do you have comments for this reader, for this writer, is there anything you particularly like? What is it doing well? What could they maybe be doing better? Again, I'm going to go on mute for about a minute or half or so, and then type your answers in that chatbox.

[silence as participants respond]

This is very interesting, because it looks like we may have little bit of debate going on in the chatbox. Someone pointed out that no citations were used, and that's correct. Because this is an annotation, the writer does not need to provide citations the same way they would in a paper. So, because that reference is going to be right about these paragraphs, you don't necessarily need to, you don't need to include the year of the publication.

But I also am very interested in the question of bias, or does it not have bias? So, bias does not mean that ... sorry, avoiding bias does not mean that you can't have an argument. You definitely want to have argument in your scholarly writing and in your analysis. You're going to present your thoughts as a scholar, yourself.

So here we have some pieces of critique that this writer is pointing out. So, first, the researchers chose a small and specialized sample, only surveying a small population of policewomen. This is why they are saying the article had limitations. Then, second, the researchers were potentially influenced by asking leading questions in interviews and focus group interviews. So, the writer is pointing out that the way the interviews and the information was obtained might have affected the answers that the researchers received.

So, this actually is a strong example of an analysis paragraph, because the writer has included those clear examples. Sorry, those clear explanations as to why she believes that the article had severe limitations. So, the writer is not just saying this article was bad, this article didn't do enough work to convince me. They are very clear and specific critiques and issues that the writer is pointing out that, as scholars, we will probably want to avoid in our project.

And again, you can kind of start to see how this analysis of this paragraph might lead into a possible project for whoever that is compiling this annotated bibliography. Maybe they want to try to address the issue of leading questions. Maybe they will provide questionnaires rather than asking police officers in person, or rather than having them answer the questions in a larger group. They will be able to answer individually. So, these are some different options that a new project would take on. But again, because this writer is giving those clear explanations as to why they believe that the article has limitations, it is not biased.

So, this, again, is another reminder of that bullet point that you don't have to worry about being “nice." You can definitely say that there was something lacking in the source. That's oftentimes going to be very important in your annotated bibliography.

Also, I like that people are pointing out that maybe there's not enough information in this analysis paragraph. I think this is really important consideration, it’s always very important to consider your audience, whenever you're writing anything, I don't even need to put a modifier on that.

So, what kind of information would your reader need to understand the analysis here? That's why that summary paragraph is really important and also why annotated bibliographies are going to look different if you are turning it in for an assignment, if you've specifically been assigned to create an annotated bibliography, versus if you’re just creating an annotated bibliography for yourself, if you’re just taking notes for yourself. That’s really important practice to get into, it's great that you guys are pointing that out.

I also want to take a minute, once we get back to the presentation layout --when we are in the chat -- the files pod goes away. But now that we are in presentation mode, you can see that files pod in the lower right-hand corner. To access a copy of the slides, you just hover over the slides, click on it and then download the file. That button will come active once you’ve click on which ever file you want to download. And then those files links should be active. I apologize, for some reason they are not working in our actual presentation.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Application Paragraph

       Purpose: Explain the usefulness of the source; essentially: what does it add?

  • Overviews or Background Reading
    • Does the source provide useful context for readers?
    • Can the source fill in gaps or give a reader general knowledge?
  • Research Studies
    • Does the research fill a gap in the literature?
    • Is the article universal or generalizable?
    • How does the article extend or build upon previous studies?
    • How can future researchers extend or build upon this study?
  • Government & Organization Reports
    • Does the data add context to the field?
    • Can the report provide a wider or narrower context than researchers previously had?

Audio: So now we are going to move on to the application paragraph. The purpose of the application paragraph is to explain why the source is important. What does it add to the overall presentation?

So, with overviews or background reading, you're going to want to consider if the source is providing useful context for the readers. I would say hopefully it is, otherwise I wouldn't be sure why you're including it in your annotated bibliography. So, what is, maybe a better question would be what is the context that's going to be useful for readers of this source, in particular, is going to provide? Can it fill in gaps or give the reader general knowledge?

For research studies, does the research fill a gap in the literature? How is it different from the other research studies you've included in your annotated bibliography? Is it universal or generalizable? You can also consider how that would affect its reading and how it might interact with other sources or how it might help you in a larger project. How does the article extend or build upon previous studies? Or, how can future researchers extend or build upon this study?

So those are, again, just some more specific ways of asking how does this specific source fit into the larger conversation that's happening? Because no source is operating as an island, right? Every researcher or every scholar is writing in a conversation, how does this fit in?

Then within government and organization reports, you might ask if the data is going to add context to the field, in general, and if the report can provide a wider or narrower context than researchers previously had. So, is it providing different [indiscernible] than other reports or other research studies? Those are some good questions to ask for those specific sources.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Application Paragraph

       Purpose: Explain the usefulness of the source; essentially: what does it add?

How is this source useful to:

  1. You and your writing, thinking, or research;
  2. Other researchers and their writing, thinking, or research; or
  3.  The field as a whole.

Audio: All right, so, when you're creating your application paragraph, you want to make sure you're making it clear that how the source is useful for you, for your writing or research or a potential project you might work on in the future, or other researchers. So how does it affect their writing, thinking, or our reading this influenced them in some way. And/or, how it affects the field as a whole.

Basically, the application paragraph is answering the "so what?" question. Why should we care about this source? Why include it in the annotated bibliography in the first place? Again, this is the part of the annotation that I most often see missing from [indiscernible] paper reviews, but it's so, so important, no matter what you're using the annotated bibliography for, to have some sort of application paragraph.

I feel like I'm repeating myself, and I apologize if it sounds like that. But even if you are writing this annotated bibliography just for yourself and you're not worried about grammar or putting commas in the right places, because nobody is going to see it but you, you still want to include that application paragraph because often times, especially with larger projects, you can get into a different part of the project and forget why was I going to use this source? How is this going to fit into a larger conversation? And just having one or two sentences, that’s going to remind you, is going to make you so happy and be such a relief when you're getting into those larger projects.

 

Visual: Slide Changes to the following: Application Paragraph

  • Application Paragraph Tips:

Include what you’ve learned

Don’t be afraid to be specific

Be selfish: Think about what a source does for you

Use the first person (“I” and “my”) if permitted by your instructor

Continue to support assertions with explanations

Audio: So, with your application paragraph, some tips to keep in mind is you want to include what you've learned. This, again, is going to help you remember specifically why that source was important. What did it add? Don't be afraid to be really specific. So, your summary of the source is going to be broad and it's going to give a really general overview of the source as a whole. But your application paragraph is really for you and for your specific project. You can be very specific in that application paragraph about how this larger study fits in.

This is another bullet point that I love, be selfish, and think about what the source is going to do for you. How is it going to add to your research? Your project? Your knowledge? What is it bringing for you specifically? You want to use the first person as long as your instructor has specifically said don't use first person, but this is your paragraph to explain what you're using this source for, how you're putting it to work. In order to avoid anthropomorphism or passive voice, you might have to use first person. Then, continue to support your assertions with explanations. Even though this is your specific paragraph -- this is going to be more important if this is an assignment -- but you want to make sure you're not being biased, you’re not simply saying, making a claim about how it how it fits into your project, how it is not going to be important at all for your project, or “this is going to be super important for my project” without giving some explanation as to why.

Just as a note, even though we are recommending you use the first person, you want to avoid saying "I think" or "in my opinion." That's how that whole avoid first person in general rule came about, in my opinion…sorry. In my opinion, I think that's how it came about. So, you want to just state your argument. State that this is what is happening, that this is what is useful or not useful about this specific source. But you don't need to say "in my opinion" or "I think" it is this is useful because that's going to be obvious to your reader.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Application Paragraph: Example

Chat Box:

What do you notice?

              This study was valuable to my understanding of how a female police officers’ experiences may be different than a male police officer. While Thompson et al.’s conclusions are not generalizable, their literature review is helpful to any scholar first approaching the subject. However, the researchers also showed that more studies should be conducted to fully explore the possible differences in police experiences that they identified.

Audio: Here is another chat and this time, we're going to look at an application paragraph. So, what do you notice about this application paragraph? You can critique it, you can say what you like about it, just any kind of things you're noticing when you're looking at that specific example.

[silence as participants respond]

It looks like some of you are still pointing out some of the more traditional and scholarly issues that might be going on with this paragraph. So, remember that an annotated bibliography is kind of its own beast. You don't need to include citations the same ways as you would include them in a paragraph…and, oh sorry and a research paper or another kind of course paper. And then, first person is totally acceptable and actually probably should be used in the application paragraph, because this is about you. Someone mentioned that this author did a good idea of being selfish, I love that comment.

“This study was valuable to my understanding of how a female police officer’s experiences may be different than a male police officer.” My first take on this would be maybe that is a little bit obvious. But I think that actually, what this writer is doing is they're reminding themselves how this specific source might fit into larger project. So if I’m creating an outline based on my annotated bibliography, and I have a paragraph about the differences between a female police officer’s experience and a male police officer’s experience, this first sentence, right away, is going to grab me and say, “I need to include this source in that paragraph.” Specifically, for my own purposes, for my own project, that sentence is helpful.

And then, other people are mentioning maybe it doesn't all make sense of the way that it's organized. This is another great observation about annotated bibliographies and what they are meant to do. So really, this is meant to just give a quick explanation of the usefulness of this source, how it's going to fit into a larger discussion. So, there should be further studies conducted that are going to fully explore these different experiences, that’s how this is going to fit into a larger progression or a larger discussion of the topic, as a whole.

And then, this comment about this [indiscernible] helpful to any scholar first approaching the subject, I think that is a kind of a little knowledge about how this might be more helpful for context rather than getting into the weeds, getting into the topic, but that this is maybe going to provide some background context.

We might not love this application paragraph, there could be some things where it could be a little more bit more detailed, a little bit more explanatory. But really, that application paragraph is for you. If it is an assignment, generally the purpose is going to be to let your faculty member know that you have thought through this decision. You picked the source for a reason. You know how it's going to impact your understanding, your research. So that's what that paragraph should do.

 

Visual: Side changes to the following: Questions

Audio: All right. So, thank you so much for participating in that chat. Now, I just want to take a quick minute, is there maybe one or two questions we can go over, Claire, before we go on?

Claire: Thank you, Kacy. I did have one, which is, “Should we try to use the MEAL Plan in these paragraphs within our annotated bibliography?”

Kacy: Good question. Again, all of you are clearly pros at APA style and scholarly voice. So, in an annotated bibliography, you're not going to have the same kind of components that you would have been a MEAL Plan paragraph. So, there's not really a topic sentence. That summary, maybe, as a whole could kind of be your topic sentence, it's kind of giving you the background information about source that's going to help you understand or help the reader understand the analysis and the application. But it doesn't have the same kinds of transitions or organization that a traditional MEAL Plan paragraph would have.

One thing that is going to be very important is that that “A” section of the MEAL Plan, that Analysis, you want to make sure that you are providing analysis for that source, that you are including the analysis paragraph, but it's going to fit in very differently as an annotation than as a traditional paper. Claire, do you have anything to add to that?

Claire: I think you did a great job. I shared in the chat box for everybody a blog that I recently wrote about situations where you might not use the MEAL Plan in your coursework. So, you guys can check that out. And an annotation is a great example of where the purpose of the document is a little bit different. And so, while elements of the MEAL Plan are still going to show up, you don't have to worry so much about that structure, because the purpose of that document is a little bit different.

Kacy: Thank you so much, Claire, for sharing the blog posts.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Analysis: What is missing?

              Institutions continue to develop and increase their online presence, including online courses and Writing Centers. Hewett’s used research to support her assertions. Hewett has written her book to a broad audience.

Audio: Alright, so, when you're talking about your analysis paragraph, you want to remember what is missing? What might be lacking from that source? So, "Institutions continue to develop and increase their online presence, including online courses and Writing Centers. Hewett’s used research to support her assertions. Hewett has written her book to a broad audience.  So, if this is my analysis section, here is where you’re going to see some of that bias coming through. You can add in the chat box if you want to add to the conversation, because I'm going to go quickly through these because we're getting close to the end of the hour.

Because this writer is just saying to use the research to support her assertions, even though that sounds like a positive, doesn't sound like they're critiquing, that's a bias because we don't have a clear explanation of how the research supported the assertion. You might consider, was there a very large sample group and so that resource or that sample group is going to serve as a really good resource to support her argument? “She's written her book to a broad audience.” How do we know that? How do we know that this is the intended audience of her text? And then also, why is that important? Why do we need to know that in terms of understanding with this source is going to do in the larger discussion, in our work? Why is that important for your reader or for yourself to remember as look back at your annotated bibliography?

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Analysis Revision

              This in-depth look at online instruction is timely as institutions continue to develop and increase their online presence, including online courses and Writing Centers. Hewett’s use of research to support her assertions clearly shows the reader that her conclusions are not based on her own opinions, but are rooted in empirical evidence. Hewett wrote her book to a broad audience, including professors and Writing Center tutors, as well as synchronous and asynchronous online instruction. This broad approach can lead to some chapters being less applicable to one group or another at times, possibly limiting the real-world application of her ideas.

Audio: Here -- and I'm not going to read this, again, because we're getting close to time -- but we have that in bold, the first part is kind of more of what we first had, and then we had a little bit more information that is going to provide your reader or yourself with more explanation as to why this writer has given that analysis, why they have given that evaluation. So here, I’ll just go over the underlined part, "clearly shows the reader that her conclusions are not based on her own opinions, but are rooted in empirical evidence.” It's not just that she is using research to support her conclusions, but she is using empirical evidence and she’s going out of the way to show her reader that she is using that evidence to support her claims.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following; Application: What is missing?

              Hewett’s explanation of how instructors can use online instruction to best teach students is helpful to both experienced online instructors and those who are new to this way of helping students. Hewett’s book focuses on detailing the various ways writing instruction can be given online, including both synchronous and asynchronous teaching. In each chapter Hewett takes the reader through the practical components of developing an online teaching service, including what tools institutions can use.

Audio: So, for the application, what is missing? Here, again, we have an example of maybe not the strongest application paragraph:

Hewett’s explanation of how instructors can use online instruction to best teach students is helpful to both experienced online instructors and those who are new to this way of helping students. Hewett’s book focuses on detailing the various ways writing instruction can be given online, including both synchronous and asynchronous teaching. In each chapter Hewett takes the reader through the practical components of developing an online teaching service, including what tools institutions can use.

So, one thing you might notice right away is this is kind of more of a summary than an application. We don't really know, aside from this claim that maybe it could provide an understanding of the ways that instructors are using online instruction, but it’s not specific to this person's scholarship. It's not specific to a direct line of study or a direct conversation. We just kind of have some background information. We're missing that selfishness, right? That explaining why specifically, this is going to be important.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Application Revision

              Hewett’s explanation of how instructors can use online instruction to best teach students is helpful to both experienced online instructors and those who are new to this way of helping students. For my own instruction, Hewett has helped in verbalizing much of what I have seen first-hand in working with students. Additionally, she clearly outlines ways that instructors should clarify expectations about what we expect from students from online conferences, something which we might use in our own communications with students.

Audio: So here, even this very simple insertion of "from my own instruction...." Hewett has verbalized.  Much of what I’ve seen firsthand working with students. Again, this is where you want to kind of move away from the more traditional ideas of writing papers, and you really want to just put in that specifically, like, this is how I'm using this, this is how it's going to be helpful to me.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Review

         Annotated bibliographies are…

  • Your way to:

Demonstrate knowledge and critically assess

Share the value of a source

Inform fellow or future researchers about a topic or a source

Gather sources for literature review

Take notes

  • Written for:

Assignment on their own (course paper)

Preparation for final or longer paper (literature review, doctoral capstone students)

Depth section of a KAM

Personal notes

Audio: So, just as a general review, annotated bibliographies are your way to demonstrate knowledge and to practice critically assessing information and ways to share the value of a source, claiming why it's worth reading or why it fits into a larger discussion, to inform fellow or future researchers about a topic or a source. You all know, as scholars, there's so much out there, there's so much information. So, an annotated bibliography is a great tool to kind of quick get out what is going to be most important and most significant.

Then, gather sources for literature review and take notes, so kind of serve as that stepping block to a larger assignment. They can also be assignments on their own. Some faculty members will assign annotated bibliographies in their courses. They could be preparation for final or longer paper. It could be a specific section of a KAM or of a different assignment, and they might just be personal notes.

So obviously, what they're written for, their objective, is going to slightly affect how they're written, but those three main components are going to stay the same. You're going to have your summary, your analysis, and application paragraph.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Annotated Bibliography Resources

Audio: This page when you download the slides from the slides POD will contain some links to  some annotated bibliography resources, we've got lots of other resources you can use if you're still feeling a little bit confused about creating an annotated bibliography, or maybe you just want some more specific, hands-on examples. All of these sources are going to be really helpful, specifically if you're working on a KAM project and you want that specific example of an annotated bibliography for that project, for that larger piece. But then also we also have a specific webinar about annotated bibliographies and literature reviews, so we will go over the differences and we will also help you understand how they're the same, how they're different, and how you can use an annotated bibliography to help you move into that literature review.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Resource Highlight:

This series will provide practical tips that will help writers use this research writing tool to its fullest.

         Annotated Bibliography Essentials blog series

  1. Overview of the Annotated Bibliography
  2. Introduction and Conclusion Writing in the Annotated Bibliography
  3. Summary Writing in the Annotated Bibliography
  4. Analysis Writing in the Annotated Bibliography
  5. Application Writing in the Annotated Bibliography

Audio: We especially want to resource this new blog series, the brand-new, hot off the presses. We have an Annotated Bibliography Essentials blog series, and these are the five different posts that make up that blog series. You can check out the overview, introduction and conclusion writing. So, if you are assigned an annotated bibliography that requires those pieces, that post can be very helpful. Summary writing, analysis writing, and application writing -- we have blog posts dedicated to each of those sections. So, if you want to brush up on those or anyone of them seem confusing, check out that blog series. Now I'm going to turn it back over to you, Claire.

 

Visual: Slide changes to the following: Questions: Ask Now or Later

writingsupport@waldenu.edu •  Live Chat Hours

Learn More:

“Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography Basics” and “Demonstrating Critical Thinking in Your Writing Assignments”

Make a Paper Review Appointment!

Assist students in becoming better academic writers by providing online, asynchronous feedback by appointment.

Audio: Claire: Thanks, Kacy. Alright, so, thank you so much for being here today everyone. We do have a couple of minutes, so if you do have any lingering questions, you can go ahead and plug this into the Q&A box and I can verbally answer those here. But while you do that, I just want to go over how you can reach us. So, if you have questions now or you have questions later, you can, again, email us at writingsupport@waldenu.edu, or you can visit us during our live chat hours to talk to a person in real time.

That Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography Basics webinar is great, especially if you're working on both or wondering how one builds on the other. And, Demonstrating Critical Thinking in Your Writing Assignments is another really great one, because the kind of building blocks of an annotated bibliography show that critical thinking that some of you flagged as bias when you were looking where you are looking at a source and evaluating and considering how well it makes its points, how well it builds on the larger literature or ideas in the scholarly conversation on that topic. So, an annotated bibliography can help you work towards that type of thing, as well.

I also wanted to plug our paper review service. So, if you're working on an annotated bibliography, go ahead and send it to us in the Writing Center. We'll review ones that are for your coursework. So, you can make an appointment with us and we will read over your work, give you feedback, and let you know how to help revise and work towards meeting your writing goals, whatever those might be for your particular assignment. If you have specific questions, you can let us know in the appointment form, too. Maybe you’re wondering if you're being biased in your evaluation of a source, and we will read through for that specifically. And we'll do all kinds of other coursework assignments, too. And somebody will get back to you either the day of or the day after your appointment. So, go ahead and use that service if you haven't used it before.

All right, I'm not seeing any new questions about annotated bibliographies. So again, if you do have other questions, you can go ahead and email us at writingsupport@waldenu.edu. And I think we'll just go ahead and wrap up a couple minutes early today. Thank you again, for coming, and have a wonderful rest of your day.

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