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Transcript - Advanced Library Research for Psychology Students - Mar 5 2019


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>> ANDREA LEMIEUX:  It does look like we have closed captioning and I will turn on the Webcam so I can introduce myself.  Welcome to the webinar tonight.  I am Andrea Lemieux the Liaison Librarian to the school Psychology and Counseling.  I will cover the housekeeping slide really quick because we're getting started here a little bit late.

Just as a note, the webinar is really likely going to go about 60 minutes.  I was thinking I could fit the content into 30 and that did not happen for me last night with counseling students.  If you have to leave after 30 minutes, that is fine.  Go ahead and do that.  What is going to happen is you will get an emailed a link to the recording at the end of the webinar.  You can watch the last 30 minutes if you want if you have to leave.

Keep that in mind and do not panic if we run late.  If you cannot see the go to webinar control panel you see on the slide on your monitor, look for an orange arrow and it should pop it out.

The PowerPoint is available in the handouts section so go to your downloads folder.  During the webinar, I will answer questions related to topics we are covering tonight and I will try to stop -- and I am bad at this so this is my warning right now -- I will stop after every section or so and ask if there any questions.

I may not be able to get to them all because it's hard to navigate between questions and the webinar.  After the webinar, I will stick around as much as long you need for me to answer additional questions.  If you want to stick around and answer questions I may have not gotten to, feel free to do that.  For any other questions, please use our Ask a Librarian form you can link to through the PowerPoint.

You can email us or chat with us.  I will say goodbye for the Webcam and turn it off so I can save a little bit of bandwidth.  We are going to go ahead and get started and I will start recording our webinar right now.

Welcome again to Advanced Psychology Library Research.  My name is Andrea Lemieux the Liaison Librarian to school Counseling and Psychology.  That means I am really the dedicated librarian for your school and I'm here to help facilitate your research.  Just know I'm here is a resource for you.

I provide webinars throughout the school year on different webinar topics to keep you up-to-date on what is going on in the library and help you with those research skills.

Let's go ahead and talk about what we are covering tonight.  We will cover advanced database search skills and get to the database to do searches.  We will talk about different kinds of databases we have available and why you might search one over the other and how to make that choice.

We will talk about something really important.  How to find background information on something, a topic or some other subject you may be working with and how to research theories and methodologies.  That comes up a lot in coursework as well as dissertation work.

We will talk about the infamous Google Scholar and why it is great and not so great and what ways you want to use it and what wage you may want to avoid it.  Lastly, I will talk about staying organized and talk about different search methods and different places to search and how to keep track of what your results were and where you've been.  We will cover that at the end.  I will, briefly, touch upon doctoral research resources we have in the library.

I will not cover tonight advanced search techniques as well as how you might want to, specifically, for finding a gap in the literature or, specifically, using it for literature review in chapter 2 of your dissertation.  We have undergraduates and graduates as well as doctoral students and we will cover these topics more generally.  There will be resources we talk about at the end that will get you to how to learn specific skills and accomplish things like finding a gap in the literature and doing a literature review.

And we will talk that way to get help and if you only remember one or two things from the next 60 minutes we are going to spend together.

Before we get started with database searching and getting into databases, I want to quickly remind you of two key concepts I talked about in the introductory webinar.  They are these umbrella concepts that if you keep close to you and really remember, it will make your life -- you will save time and frustration.

The first is keep in mind that scholarly academic information is not produced and access the same way information that comes from magazines and newspapers and other online media outlets.  It is not the same.

We do not have to go into the details of how it is not the same.  The one important thing to remember is most scholarly information, the biggest bulk of it, is not freely available online.  There are a lot of reasons for this we do not have to go into.  If you know that Walden Library is here to support you and your program and if you Start Your Research in the Walden Library, you will be ahead of the game of a lot of students that start the research on the general web.

Along with that, your tuition pays for these resources.  We buy these databases to, specifically, support your program areas.  Google is really there for everybody for all kinds of research needs and these databases here are for Walden students and these specific programs with these specific needs.  That is the first part of the umbrella.

The other part is I know you do not want to hear this but research is really very similar to writing.  It is an iterative process and it is not a one-size-fits-all.  You do it once and you are done.  Know that you are going to do different keyword searches in the database and you may have to try the same search in a different database.

It depends on what your topic and purpose is and how far that ever process you take the process.  If you do not get it the first time, that is okay.  I really do either.  That is why we call it research.  If it was not research, we would call it finding.  We are all in the same boat and I will show you searches I used to help students and faculty with their research.

The more time you invest learning this right now wherever you are in your program area is going to save you so much time and frustration down the road.

Let's quickly review some basic database searching techniques on the next two slides and then jump into the databases and start searches.  The first is we need to write choose the database that fits your topic or purpose.  Sometimes your purpose might vary and that is going to influence what database you choose.  The next is breaking your topic in the keywords.  What are the main ideas?  Just like in writing, you pick out the main ideas and that is how we search them because searching databases is significantly different from searching in Google.

Then we will limit our search and we do that by a few different ways like full text, peer review or publication date.  There are other ways to limit your search as well.  Then we will review what results we have.  This is where the iterative process comes in.

We experiment with our search and there are a lot of different ways we can do that.  We will talk about that throughout the night of how you might experiment with it in the same database or different database in those types of things.

Then we will talk by getting full text article and quickly review how you go about doing that.  With that being said, we should go ahead and start and jump into some database searching and look at what those steps look like in practice.  Often times, we are going to start with a topic.

Think of going into a physical library.  What is easier?  Easier to search the whole library when searching for psychology information or easier to go right to the psychology section and search for psychology information?  I will say it is the latter.  To do that is simply looking at this Subject Resources box here on the left side of the page.

Everybody should see the library homepage and if not, let me know in the questions box.  We will get that fixed.  It seems everybody is in the right place.  We will select a subject.  Typically, we start with psychology because we are all psychology students here.  We will talk about why we might not go there in a bit but let's start here.  This is a great starting point because no matter off-topic, we want to know the psychological aspect of it.  We start there.

We call these our research help pages and they are set up the same so you can navigate them pretty easily.  This first drop-down menu that says psychology databases is where we start.  I recommend starting with the best fit database and, hopefully, since we’re talking about advanced search strategies, a lot if you have been in psycINFO.  That is the go to database.  It is for psychology students.  If I recommend one other even though is not labeled best bet it would probably be Academic Search Complete.

Any of these you start with is a great start.  Do not worry too much about this part.  Let's go ahead click psycINFO.  Let's assume that we either have an assignment or we are researching our dissociation topic which is drug abuse or drug use and high school students and what prevention programs, techniques, strategies are out there to deal with that.

The first thing we do is break our topic into main ideas and put one idea and each search box.  I will put in drug use.  High school students and prevention.  Typically, I recommend that students start brainstorming all the synonyms they can think of or similar concepts for what they are searching because if you're not familiar with psycINFO, you do not know what the database uses for those terms and you may not be familiar with what the most current research terms are.

If I had to brainstorm other words for drug use, I'm thinking substance abuse is another way to say that or addiction.  Those are all very similar concepts.  That means now when I search the database, it will find an article that has anyone of these terms.  And that is what the "and" means along with high school students and prevention.  We put all the similar concepts we can think for drug use in the first box and separated it by a Boolean operator and you separated by "or".  It is telling the database we want either drug abuse or substance abuse or addiction or all of them.  If the database finds the article with all of them, that works, too.

Let's talk about our basic limiters.  Those are generally, full text, peer-reviewed and publication.  For doctoral level research or advanced research, for a final project or Capstone research or dissertation research, you can wait to get the full text if we do not have it in a database.

I recommend unchecking full text to see what's out there in the literature.

For the most part, we always check peer-reviewed because that is a type of scholarly research article we are looking for.  For publication year, I advise students to leave it blank but for our purposes tonight we will limit it to the last 10 years because we want to see what is out there in the literature.

I will click search.  We will look at our results.  We have 347 results.  That is great.  Let's decode what we are looking at here in our result page.  We have the article titled, publication information and then we have the line here called subjects.

Let's spend some time talk about what subjects are because this is a little more of an advanced search strategy.  Every time an article is added to a database, the database assigns it a new topic.  In this case, there are a lot of topics.  These are the main ideas of the article.  Before you even read the abstract, you can look at the subject lines and know this article does not happen to mention addiction.  One of the main ideas this article talks about is addiction, at risk populations of high school students and it is highly relevant to prevention.

So this is an option.  For you to generate more keywords and to see what the database is grouping all of these articles together.  I have 347 articles.  If I want to be comprehensive, I would review all 347.  I would read the titles and use this icon here to the right that gives me a pop up of the abstract rule is this article relevant or not or cross it off my list.  That is if I'm comprehensive and doing a literature review or finding a gap in the literature.

If I'm working on coursework and need to find a couple of relevant articles quickly, I reduce this number to about 100 or so.  The easiest way to do that is once you have done your search, look for the subject terms that match what you are talking about.  Addiction is an official term used by this database.  So is high school students and prevention and drug abuse is what they're using.  They are not using substance abuse or drug usage.  Drug abuse is what they are using.

If I wanted to be much more specific and narrow in my search, I you something called field searching.  That is telling the database where in an article to search for these terms.  The default here is to look in the article title, abstract and other information about the article.  That is a little bit broad.  Now that I know the subject terms or drug use or addiction, I am going to take out substance abuse and select subject here.  I am also going to select subject here for high school students because I absolutely want articles focused on drug use and high school students.

The articles might not be labeled prevention in the subjects but they might mention it in the abstract.  If they mention it in the abstract, it is an important concept but not as narrow as subjects.  I am going to search -- before we search for this term in the abstract, let's see what happens with our 347 results when I click search.  Now that I limited these search terms to just looking in the subject line.

I have 29 articles that are mainly about these two topics and also in some way talk about prevention.  If I was to limit prevention to so much, it probably would limit my search to a couple of articles.  That is four and I may want to start here.  It does not have to, specifically, be about prevention but at least mention prevention.  I will search for this term in the abstract.  That should increase my results just a little bit.

We are back up to 24.  Perfect.  24 is great for coursework, assignments but for literature reviews finding a gap we probably do not want to limit it right away.  We want to start really broad.  I'm going to go back to my original search and I want to point out some options over here on the left-hand side.  All of our databases have additional limiters to them.  Some of them, in this instance for age, you can limit it to age and limit it to gender.  But those are just limiters that are pulling from this subject line.

You can either add them in your search terms up here or limit them this way.  All I advise you is if you want to play around with limiters, that is great.  You are not going to break anything but the idea is to start broad and narrow after.  If you're going to narrow results, do it after you get a good idea of what is out there, generally.  Once you narrow, it is hard to tell what one thing you did or a few things you did narrowed your results significantly.  I often have students tell me there's nothing on the topic I am researching and often because they selected too many limiters and they're search is too narrow.

Those are options over there.  Do not be scared to look at these things.  For instance, now that you know what subjects are, you can guess when you look over on the left at subjects and click show more, it is showing all of the subjects coming up in your results.  We might want to search for intervention.  That is very similar to prevention.  That is another term we may want to add on later.

If high school students is to narrow and I want to search just broadly for teenagers, I can put teenagers here in the search box and click search.  Sometimes an author may use a variation of that word.  They may talk about teens instead of teenagers.  If we go back to the other search strategy we learned about and looking subjects, often subjects have a distinctive word for age ranges.  Adolescence is that in this database.

If we wanted to search all forms of the word teenagers, we put an asterisk after the word or after the letter with the word starts to change in its various forms.  Teen with an asterisk will search 14, teens and teenagers.  We might also want to add in or adolescence.  Here in the database that they are defining adolescence by 13-17 year-olds.

If you want to go all the way down to 13 year-olds, it might mean something different than our common understanding of teenager.  We can add in adolescence and see what our search returns.  Now we're up to 980.  We know the term high school students is a much narrower subject or adolescence and they are a particular kind of teen adolescence.  They are in high school.  Just by changing out a couple of words makes your results significantly different but now you have some tools in your tool bag to experiment with different searches.

I will do a new search.  We are still in psycINFO and I know it by looking at the top of the database.  Just to point out really quick, EBSCO is not the database.  EBSCO is a company we licensed this database through.  If I'm asking you because we have a doctoral appointment or you're sending in a question to Ask a Librarian, psycINFO is the database and EBSCO is the vendor.  I will check questions really quick.  We are moving onto a slightly different topic and I want to make sure we covered everything.

I had a few questions.  Some people did point out my search terms.  If we go back to the search and think about it, I was searching for subject terms with drug use.  You are right.  The subject term and the database was drug abuse.  It was still pulling up those subjects in the articles with that subject for a few different reasons.  We do not have to go into that but if your search is not exactly precise, at the database is doing some things in the background to help your searching without you knowing it.

That is why it brought up all of the results for that subject term.  If you are not sure what I'm talking about, I had a few questions about that.  Hopefully, that will make sense but we will talk about this more as well.  We are going to talk about full text.  We are going to finish with subject terms and move into how to get full text.

Let's try another search and talk about resilience and trauma.  We will do another search and uncheck full text in check peer review and search the last 10 years to see what is out there in the literature.  We are going to try a few techniques we tried before.  We have 1,900 results.  The reason is these are very broad topics and we only have a couple of them.  If we add in more search teams or more specific search terms, we get a lot less topics.

When we review our results, we can see that resilience is an official term used in the database and so is trauma.  We can narrow them a little more by selecting subjects.  What I want to point out to the person who asked the question before when I was searching drug use and the subject term was drug abuse, it is searching for the term and that subject line.  You can click the exact subject here but almost never use that because it is too precise and if I make an arrow in my searching, then will significantly affect my results.  That is what I was talking about with subjects.  Things are going on background and the database is helping you in your searching you are not aware of.

I will click search.  It kept them in more than half that it reduced the results.  We can do some more things to narrow this but I wanted to show you another tool you can use in your search.  Right now, I cannot think of any alternate terms to resilience.  Maybe I took a psychology class and talk about this concept and there are few related terms to resilience but we cannot think of them.  A tool we have available to us in our EBSCO and ProQuest databases is at the top called thesaurus.

For those of us that are older, you may remember going to our libraries or we had one in our home right next to the dictionary was a book called a thesaurus.  That was a book of synonyms.  What is a great about this in the databases is it gives you all kinds of related and broader terms you can search by.

If I click thesaurus and I want to use the second search box here and I typing resilience and I want any entry that has the word resilience in it because I am not sure what is in here.  I click term contains and click browse.  There is an entry and it is very similar to a dictionary.  I click on and see what it says.

Typically, it will have a definition.  This particular one does not.  It does tell you that prior to 2003, the database use the word hardiness and that may be an option you want to use.  What is great and I really like about the thesaurus is it gives you a broader term.  What umbrella does it fall under?  It will give you related terms.

Cognitive reserve, posttraumatic growth, psychological endurance are different terms you might want to search.  We want to search posttraumatic growth, we click it first and it will give us a definition and give us other related terms and we can do this as much as we want to come up with other terms.  If I go back to my search, I can add in order posttraumatic growth because it is a subject and we can leave the drop down over here subject search.  This will increase our results.  We will take articles now about either posttraumatic growth or resilience.

Now am up to 1000.  We need to limit this to a couple of hundred.  Maybe I want to search posttraumatic growth on its own and compare my results and I can do that as well.  I'm down to 364 and that is a much more narrow concept or less represented in the literature then resilience.  Those are options in there as well.

We talked about a few different ways to limit our search.  The last one was get full text.  Just as a reminder, typically, you see a PDF link or HTML.  Find @ Walden is another option.  That means if you click on it, it will bring you to the database that has a full text in the article.  Often, it will bring you right to the full text.  In this case, it is telling us the article lives in another database and it gives us the link and we simply click the link.  Or one of them because sometimes it gives you a list.  You can get the full text.

The full text is on the side.  Someone asked about full text that if we do not have the article, how long does it take?  There is a link in the PowerPoint that we're not going over because the directions are clear if you fall the link but it takes 7-10 days.  We call that service document delivery and that is for final projects, Capstone and dissertation research.  It is not a service we use for students or assignments or discussions because we cannot get to the article in time and there's a limit of 30 requests.

If you are a graduate student, you do not want to use those requests for assignments or coursework.  Keep that in mind.  Someone asked that sometimes you click the Find @ Walden and that brings you to nothing.  That is a glitch in the system and not supposed to work that way but it is based on all of the data entry that is done in the background.

If there's some error in the data entered into the databases, it may think we have the full text.  If we do not, contact us and Ask a Librarian will see if we can get to the article.  It may be available online for free and we may be able though find in different database through a few other search methods we use.

We will move on because we are little over time as far as what I want to cover with this.  Let's go back to the PowerPoint.  We talked about all of the different searches.  I have a few more tips and suggestions.  Review these later.  We do not have time to go over every nuance of these steps.  I gave you some ideas to think about underneath each of them.

We talked about some of these concepts.  Some more general and some specific and talked about the thesauruses.  Let's talk about why you want to use subject specific database.  We were in the psychology section.

As psychology students, you are either studying clinical psychology or Educational Psychology or health psychology.  Your topics almost always overlap with another subject area pretty heavily.  I always recommend to psychology students start in psychology.  You want to see what is out there in primarily, psychological journals and the research oriented in that sense.  If you're studying health psychology, also search our help databases.

Between the two, there will be some overlap.  You may search a psychology database and Health Sciences database and see many of the same articles but there were also be unique articles in each as well.  If you need something quick that will suit your purposes for an assignment or coursework, terrific.  If you're doing something more in depth, you want to search more comprehensively.

I will show you what that looks like in a minute but let's talk about a few things here on the slide.  We talked about Best Bets that are great place to start and they are for searching a topic deeply.  Subject specific databases are going to get down in the topic and search very deeply.

We have other types of databases.  If your purpose is look for dissertations, we have dissertation databases as well.  We are not covering that tonight but we have databases that search things other than just journal articles.  Really quickly, we will go back to the library homepage.

Our topic we just searched, I want to show an interesting thing between three different databases.  We are in psycINFO and had 347 articles and limited to the last peer review in the last 10 years.  Since this is heavily oriented towards education, I recommend to a student they go and search our education databases as well.  As you see, the research homepage is set up very similar.  I will go to the first Best Bet which is education thesauruses.

I will do this quickly but it is an EBSCO database but if you look at the top it looks very similar.  We are going to search the same topic with the same parameters and uncheck full text and click peer review and search 2009 until current.  We will leave that blank.

We have 207 articles here.  We have 347 articles here.  I think it is fair to guess that some of these overlap but in psychology there is another 147 articles that they're accounting for in the psychology literature that is not been accounted for in education.  The only way for you to know if you’re being comprehensive is search both.  We will talk later how to stay organized.

Do not worry at the second how you are going to tell the difference between the two.  If we compare the first three articles, we can see that -- we search for high school students and will have school orientation but when we look at these results, they are significantly different.  Do I need to be comprehensive or do I need an article that is going to suit my purposes for a shorter or briefer assignment or discussion?

There is one more as far as selecting databases that I want to talk about.  We will compare these results.  I have psycINFO opened up here and education source opened here.  A lot of our students like to use this search box at the top of the page and that is absolutely fine but there is a reason why I recommend using it in the reason why I would not.  It is click on Thoreau and this is not a database search, per se.  Thoreau in and of itself is not a database.  It is a search tool that helps us search across multiple databases.

You can search psycINFO and education source at the same time but you are also searching all of our business databases, health databases, nursing databases and that is probably not going to be super helpful for you most of the time.  There are a few different reasons why we might want to search here and I will talk about those in a second.  Let's replicate the same search and I will show you what to look for.

You enter your search terms in the top search bar and if you click Thoreau click advanced search underneath.  It is searching most of our EBSCO databases and a couple others but not our ProQuest databases and that's why it looks similar to our EBSCO databases.

I will type in the same search and put in the same parameters.  Uncheck full text, check peer-reviewed and limited to the last 10 years.  Hopefully, you thought to yourself she is probably going to get results if she's searching the entire library.  You're right.  I got 2,709 results.

This is what I use Thoreau for.  If I'm unsure which database to search, I use Thoreau because it is searching quite a bit of our databases.  If I scroll down and look at the left-hand side at the bottom, it is telling me where all the results are coming from.  Academic Search Complete I pointed out.  A lot of results are coming through there and a lot of results are coming through psycINFO.

If I click show more, I see all the databases it is coming from.  I'm getting 60 results coming from a business database and 4 coming from a computer database.  We're not using our time wisely and that we know all those other search techniques.  Another reason I use Thoreau is if I need to generate keywords, since these are coming from different databases, it is going to give me ideas of what keywords I might want to search.  Then it will tell me how much is out there, generally, on this topic.

In the last 10 years, this topic in some shape or form in the literature has been covered 2,700 times.  I will know pretty well if I go into psycINFO or education the source I find a good amount of literature on this.  Those are the reasons why I use Thoreau.

I will stop for some questions.  We are running out of time a little bit and have quite a bit of other material to cover.  Just quickly, some questions were does Thoreau search SAGE databases?  It does.  I think that was the only one related to this.  We have information on a website about Thoreau and when I get to the end of the slide deck, I will show you how to search for information on Thoreau if you want more search tips.

Someone asked the question about combining databases and searching them at the same time.  I recommend the search strategies I am talking about tonight.  If you know or discovered other search strategies that are working for you, that is terrific.  With our databases, in research in general, there is more than one way to accomplish the same task.  I know for myself that searching databases individually keeps me organized and using Thoreau for the specific reasons I talk about keeps me from getting too disoriented in my searching and getting confused about what I have searched, where I have searched and the best search terms to use.

We need to cover quite a bit more.  We need to do that in 15 minutes and I will stick around for questions.  If it goes over 60 minutes with question asking, that is fine.  I am happy to recover any of this or review any of it.  Let's go back quickly to the PowerPoint and get situated anywhere we are at.

This is near and dear to my heart.  Background information, theories and methodologies because as a kid I loved encyclopedias.  We still have encyclopedias.  As an advanced researcher, you are missing out if you are not searching our encyclopedia and handbook databases.  The reason is because often in our course work at Walden, we focus on peer-reviewed journal articles but to be able to use research effectively and use the research articles or understand them or to be a good researcher, sometimes you need to know a little background information on the topic you are searching.

We have two databases that do that.  SAGE knowledge is a database that searches encyclopedias and handbooks on various topics and we have SAGE research methods that searches for background information on methodologies.  Let's talk about those here really quickly.

Let's go back to the Walden Library homepage.  If you look at the homepage and we talked about reference materials, encyclopedias and you do not find anything on the homepage that says that, the next place to go to is Start Your Research.  Anything not covered on the homepage is found here.

I am not searching by database.  I am searching by type.  I want to search encyclopedias, reference material and there's a link to encyclopedias and handbooks.  The first one is SAGE knowledge.

We were researching drug abuse and drug use.  Maybe you work in that field and focused on that in your program here at Walden.  You really want to brush up on some background information on that.  If I type in drug use, I am going to see all kinds of different entries about drug use.

The first one here and this one was interesting.  I have not looked at it but this one might not be exactly on point but it is talk about drug use prevention.  I would want to probably look at this.  We have quite a few results.  We have 2,800 items but it is pulling out chapters.

As you see in the second example, the sociology of drug use is in the encyclopedia 21st Century Sociology or handbook.  Let's look at what this chapter has.  This chapter is an excellent chapter for a lot of you that are working on your dissertation and Capstone and even final projects.  It is going to tell me about the history of drug use.  Not only that, it is telling me about the early research on drug use and here it is telling me the authors of various theories and researchers that have wrote a lot about this topic.  Often in our advanced research were looking for seminal articles and looking for what is today's research and what is it in response to?  And who are some of those original researchers in this field?

What is also great about this is that it is giving me theories.  It is talk about various theories that are used with drug use to understand drug use.  You may not use these theories.  You may find that there you for your dissertation work that is a business theory or a health theory but you can use encyclopedias to kind of improve your background knowledge on this topic.

Let me go back.  I will keep this open because it talks about a few different theories and I want to talk briefly about how to find those in databases.  I will go back to Start Your Research, encyclopedias.  I will talk about finding research methods.

You will learn in your various research methods a little bit about qualitative research and quantitative research but not learn, specifically, about one particular research that technology in depth you need to know about when you find the right research methodology that fits your research.

If you want or you are thinking about focus groups, using a focus group for your research, you need to find out about how to perform focus group research.  Read a handbook or encyclopedia entries on how to do this research.  You can see here focus group methodology principles of practice.  We have a lot of entries on this you can scroll through the book and read the chapters that are most relevant to you.

You can, also, search if you are not sure about the methodology, search broadly for psychology or social sciences and see what types of research are, primarily, used in these fields of study.  The first ones did not seem very relevant but sometimes if you scroll long enough, you find something that is right on point.

I found this book.  The SAGE handbook of qualitative research in psychology.  Maybe I want to do quantitative research so I might search psychology and quantitative.  We have these resources and to not use them would be a disservice to yourself.

I do not think we have time to talk about researching theories in articles but I have information on the PowerPoint that will help you with that.  We have other resources on the library website about how to search theories and methodologies a little deeper.  Anything you find in these encyclopedias and handbooks, you can search for in our databases as well using all of the search techniques we talked about.

Someone asked quickly about referencing an encyclopedia in your work.  You may or may not be able to use an encyclopedia in your course work.  If your coursework is asking for peer-reviewed information, you need to find a peer-reviewed research article.  That is the assignment and there's a reason they have that written into the assignment because they probably want you to see what the research says on that.

Remember what reference materials are primarily for.  They are there to give you background information.  When you're writing your dissertation and defend your dissertation, you need to know the seminal researchers and articles researched in that field.  That is very hard to come by in research articles.  You have to comb through a lot of articles to find that.

You might find encyclopedia entry that tells you look at this researcher.  This person was the father or mother or however you want to phrase it in this field of study.  All research is based on this person or this group of researchers.  It is going to help you guide your research.  It might not be appropriate to cite for your coursework but research is not just turning in assignments and course works.  You are becoming an expert in your field, in particular, you are becoming expert in your topic for your dissertation or Capstone work.

To do that, you need to do a lot of reading you're not going to use in any of your writing.  Keep that in mind.  It is a little different shift in focus than completing assignments and discussions.

The last thing we will talk about in-depth is Google Scholar.  I will not spend too much time on Google Scholar because it functions very much like Thoreau.  Research psycINFO and education source.  We went into one particular library and looked at one subject area.  Thoreau looked at all of the subject areas in the whole Walden Library.  Google Scholar is looking at all of the worlds libraries.  All of the publishers websites.  It is looking at everything.  It, probably, occurring to as I say this, it is going to give you millions of results compared to 50 results or 100 results or 1000 results.  That thing to keep in mind is the second bulleted list for limitations.  In Google Scholar, you cannot limit to peer review.  In your search results you see books and conference papers and some peer-reviewed.  You will see a lot of peer-reviewed articles.  It is not the full text for most of what you are looking for.

I use Google Scholar for a very specific reason but if you have your heart set on using Google Scholar, I will show you a few things to keep in mind.  We are going to do the same search.  I will not put in all of the alternative words.  You can easily see what I was talking about.  We get 2 million results and not particularly, helpful.  I cannot easily see from looking at those what they are referencing.  Most of these are going to be journal articles but you will come across books and conference proceedings.

I would be surprised if any of our students look past the first couple of pages because the longer you get down the list, the less relevant they are going to be.  In the databases, we have 50 results and they're likely highly relevant.  It would behoove you to look through all 50 in here myself I would not look through more than one or two pages.

If it has a link here, it will link to a free version of that online.  The only reason I see Find @ Walden here is because I manually linked to the Walden Library to Google Scholar.  The PowerPoint has information on how to link to Google Scholar and I will show you really quickly how to do that.  Depending on how your browser is set up, you will see these three lines which get you to your settings.  Once you go down the settings, there will be library links.

I had Walden University selected.  Since I un-selected I do not see Find @ Walden anymore.  I go back and look at library links and search for Walden.  Then I click Walden and select it and click save and now I see the link.  It functions the same way as the Find @ Walden link does in our library databases.  You click there and it brings you over to our databases.

If you use this, you can link to Walden Library.  It is up to you how you want to search but I recommend your tuition is paying for everyday bases.  If you take time in the front to learn them, you will get much more relevant results much more quickly or you can get a lot of results quickly in Google Scholar and take a lot of time on the back end sifting through results.  The only limiter that Google Scholar has is by dates.  That is not always that helpful.

That is all I'm going to cover about Google Scholar.  There is a little more information in this slide so I recommend looking at that.  I want to cover some of the last things on our PowerPoint. 


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