Presented July 27, 2016
Last updated 8/16/2016
Visual: The webinar opens with a main pod for the slides and captioning, Q&A, and files pods stacked on the right side of the screen. The slide is titled “Housekeeping” and details how to use the webinar features that Beth discusses.
Audio: Beth: Hello. Good afternoon. Thank you so much for joining the webinar today.
My name is Beth Nastachowski. I'm the manager of multimedia writing instruction here at the Writing Center. And I'm just going to get us started by going over a couple of housekeeping notes before handing over the session to our presenter for today.
So a couple of notes. If you have been to a webinar in the past, you know all this, you can tune out for a second. I want to make sure we are on the same page. The first thing is we are recording this webinar and I'll make sure to post the recording in the archive. Probably by this afternoon, actually. You are welcome to review the session or if you have to leave for any reason, you are welcome to come back to review at a later date. Also note that we have lots of ways to interact with us today. The slides Sarah uses has links and you are welcome to click on them to open them, take a look, bookmark them. A couple of chat pods will open. You can talk with her and classmates and students in the chat pod as well. We have the PowerPoint slides as well as handouts in the files pod in the bottom right. You should see those. Above that is the Q&A box. Myself and my colleague Sara Witty, we will monitor the Q&A box. We welcome question or comments you have throughout the session there.
Also note, if you have questions after the webinar or we don't get to the questions or you think of it after, email the editors. We will display it at the end, but I want to make sure you have that.
Last to note is if you have technical issues let me know in the Q&A box. I will do as much as I can to help. Only so much I can do during the webinar, so there is a help button at the top of the screen, the Adobe Connect help option, and the best place to go for technical issues.
So with that I hand it over to you, Sarah.
Visual: The title slide opens and includes Sarah’s name and position with the Writing Center.
Audio: Sarah: Thank you for sharing a portion of your afternoon. I'm Sarah. I'm the senior dissertation editor here on the editor side of the Walden Writing Center.
And with me, as you already know, Beth. She will be looking at the inbox, as well as my colleague, Sara Witty, who is another dissertation editor with the editor side of the Writing Center shop. She will also be answering your questions in the chat box.
So good afternoon, everybody.
Visual: The next slide “Learning Outcomes: After this webinar, you will (be able to)…” and has four textboxes listing the outcomes of the webinar. Sarah reads and reviews these outcomes.
Audio: At the end of this webinar, some of the goals we are looking for students to come away with is to follow scholarly conventions for discussing and presenting data collection, analysis and results. We want you to be able to learn standards and locate resources for creating and incorporating tables and figures that both follow the APA guidelines. Also, identify key features and differences between writing about quantitative and qualitative data as well as have access to support resources for writing about results in doctoral studies and dissertations.
Visual: Slide #5 “Academic Skills Center Data Analysis Support” opens. A paragraph introduces the Academic Skills Center with a hyperlink for their website. Below the paragraph is a short list of tutoring services. Sarah reviews all of this information.
Audio: The University does provide some resources for students in a variety of areas. First, I wanted to talk a little about the Academic Skills Center. If you are not aware, they offer one on one free tutoring support to all Walden students who are working on their dissertations or their doctoral studies.
If you need help with quantitative data, they do have a team of instructors who work specifically in supporting students writing qualitative or excuse me, quantitative studies.
So if you need help, you know, determining like what test to run specifically in quantitative or how to report those results of the test that you are using, any problems you are having with SPSS or Excel, and also helping to organize data so that it looks well-presented and is easily understandable in your chapter 4 or your section 2 for those running doctoral studies.
I did also want to mention that if you are struggling with creating tables and figures in Microsoft Word, the Academic Skills also offers Word support staff to assist students with that or any other Microsoft Word questions you might have.
You may contact the Microsoft Word folks at Wordsupport@waldenu.edu. Perhaps Beth can go ahead and write it in the chat box so that everyone can see that email address. Thanks, Beth.
In addition, you can contact the Word support staff directly if you want to make a synchronous appointment with them. Simply log into your Portal and you make an appointment with, I think they are half hour appointments, with the Word support staff, just like you would make an appointment with your academic advisor or anyone else at Walden University. So please check that out if you are struggling with creating tables and figures or if you are having any other problems in Microsoft Word, including working with a template.
Visual: Slide #6 “Center for Research Quality Resources” opens. A paragraph introduces this department and has a hyperlink to their website. Below the paragraph is a short list of the types of questions they support.
Audio: We also provide or the Center for Research Quality, or CRQ, also provides students a lot of resources when working with their quantitative and qualitative data in their dissertations. If you have questions about running the proposal, specifically for data collection and data analysis, if you are not sure which, you know, methodology in either quantitative, qualitative, or mixed method to decide on, or even what design. So what type of qualitative, quantitative, or mixed method study you want to choose, you can contact CRQ and they actually hold office hours where you can go ahead and type in your question and they will respond to your question live. That is also a feature.
They can also help you with answering questions on collecting data, analyzing data, or in writing up the results of your data. So that's also another great resource if you are looking more for content questions to be answered concerning data analysis and data collection.
Visual: The next slide “General tips for writing about results” opens. This has two bulleted points to keep in mind that Sarah discusses.
Audio: So, general tips for writing about the results.
So if you are in the dissertation or if you are a Ph.D. student, this would encompass your chapter 4. If you are an EdD student or you are writing a doctoral study, usually this is a part of section 2.
So you want to be talking about your results. And the purpose of your results section, or chapter, is to be able to present to the reader clearly, concisely, in an unbiased way the results that you found for your study.
You will also want to be able to refer to your data or your results and kind of align them with the other key findings that you talked about in your introduction, in your conclusion, in the abstract and possibly, if writing an EdD study, your project. I do not know if we have DNP folks on the phone, but also this would pertain for you for your DMP folks if you are listening.
Visual: Slide #8 “Beginning to write…” opens. This slide has three numbered points to keep in mind that Sarah reads and discusses.
Audio: So when you are beginning to write your study, first you want to do it, before you do anything, and this is actually I would say before you begin writing your results. But I would say before you begin writing your study, which may be a little too late for some of you, step one is you want to find the correct template and the appropriate rubric or checklist for your program.
So to find that, you can go on to the CRQ, or Center for Research Quality's website. And you will see on the main page all the list of the programs that Walden University offers. You will click on your program. There, on that page, you will find the checklist or rubric for your particular program. It will be broken down by quantitative, qualitative, and mixed method. You will also find the correct template which will help you with formatting your Capstone.
So this is actually step one. If you have not done so already, when you are beginning to write your study, definitely before writing results you'll want to make sure you have both of those features I'd say printed out and readily next to you while you're writing your results section.
Step 2 is looking at the rubric or checklist. Make sure you are reviewing the headings or the appropriate content that's required in your chapter 2 or section 2 or results and create an outline.
And I would create the outline within the template. I would insert all of the major headings that you are going to have, level one and level two, possibly level three, and insert them into the actual template.
This will help you as you are writing your results to stay on track and to stay on topic and to ensure also that you are meeting all of the requirements of the rubric, because you will have created the headings while you're looking at the rubric and you can ensure then you have the correct content.
And step three is begin writing the content then, of course, underneath each heading.
Visual: Slide #9 opens and continues the information on beginning to write. Three bullet points show key information to keep in mind. In the first bullet, “a narrative” and “the story” are in blue bold-face. The second bullet has “summarizing the data that” and “describing the analyses” in blue bold-face. The third bullet uses blue bold-face for “answer to your research question(s)” and “implications.” A textbox at the bottom of the slide reminds participants to pages 32-35 of the APA manual. After checking for questions, Sarah reviews and discusses all of this.
Audio: I'm going to go ahead and pause here really quick and check with my peer here, Sara W. Sara, are there any questions that are being asked in the Q&A box that I should address to the group?
Audio: Sara W.: No, think we have it all covered.
Audio: Sarah: Okay, sounds good. Thanks, Sara.
Audio: Sara W.: You're welcome.
Audio: Sarah: So back to the webinar.
Now, once you have your template and you have your checklist or rubric and you have your headings all outlined in your chapter 4, your section 2, wherever your results are, you are going to begin to write the content underneath your headings.
So, when you are beginning to write, overall just remember our purpose here in writing the results. First you want to remember this is a narrative where you tell the story about your data.
And when you are telling the story, you almost have to, as the writer and researcher, kind of remove yourself of any personal biases you might have or feelings you might have about the results of your study need to be removed. You are, as I stated in the very beginning, simply, concisely and unbiasedly reporting what you found after you collected your data to the reader.
So, you are summarizing the data you collected and you are describing analyses that you performed.
Now, depending upon your program, you might actually be or might be including more of the information about describing the analysis or the way that data were analyzed more in your proposal. This is probably true for you EdD folks. And I believe for you DNP folks. And possibly some of you Ph.D. folks as well.
So again, make sure you're double checking the rubric you download from the CRQ website to talk about how you analyze your data. It will depend upon your program. Some programs ask students to include information and how you analyzed your data in chapter 4 or section 2.
Finally, you are providing an answer to your research question or questions. And in chapter 5, or in section 4 for you EdD folks and I believe section 4 for you DNP folks, you will be talking about the implications of your results.
I think for DBA folks this is actually also this is section 3.
I hope I'm not confusing everyone, talking about the different programs, but I want to make sure that I'm addressing all of our potential respondents here.
So but generally, no matter where you are writing your results, you are going to want to make sure that you are answering the research questions. And in your organization of your results section you can actually organize it by research question if you want. And we'll talk more about that in a little bit.
Visual: The next slide “Table and figure formatting” opens. Two key points are listed in bullets on this slide. Sarah reviews this information.
Audio: So table and figure formatting.
Now, whether you are writing a quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods study, you may want to include tables or figures in that this results section.
So, some sample tables and figures do appear in the Writing Center's template. So that Ph.D. template, EdD template, DBA template, DNP template, all will have sample tables and figures. And in the Writing Center we also have a page dedicated to resources on how to create tables and figures and how to ensure that they are properly aligned to meet or, I should say properly formatted, excuse me, to meet APA standards.
Beth, I don't know if we have the link already in this webinar underneath our files. But if not, could you put that in the Q&A box? I appreciate that.
Visual: Slide #11 “What to present in tables and figures” opens. It shows key points to remember when using tables and figures. At the bottom is a textbox directing participants to pages 128-167 in the APA manual. Sarah discusses this information.
Audio: So, you can present both qualitative data and quantitative data using tables and figures.
Now, when determining whether or not you should use a table or a figure to present your data, you want to consider information that is necessary to present the data.
Is it easier for the reader to comprehend the information visually instead of in a narrative or in text format? Is it concise and contains only elements that are essential to report back to the reader. And is it supplemental to the text but can also be understood on its own.
So can you look at the table or figure by itself and understand without reading anything before or after what the table is saying.
We have information in the APA manual pages 128 167. This is your 6th Edition APA Manual if you want to see some further examples on how tables and figures are properly formatted to meet APA guidelines.
Visual: Slide #12 “Tables” opens. This slide lists evidence often presented in tables that Sarah discusses. A textbox at the bottom of the slide directs participants to page 149 in the APA manual.
Audio: So tables. Let's talk about tables first.
So tables often include examples of evidence excuse me, examples of evidence. And the types of evidence that are included or data that are included in tables include demographic information about your participants; proportions; percentages; means; standard deviations, confidence intervals. Sometimes you will see P values as well, reporting what the P value was. Also, you might see factor loadings from a factor analysis. And the types of tests that often use tables or report data or findings in tables are t tests, ANOVA and I would say MANOVA as well, and other results from analyses.
Visual: Slide #13 “Tables: Narrative Example” opens with a chat prompt. The layout changes so that the Q&A and captioning pods are side-by-side at the top right and a chat pod opens below them. Sarah reviews the directions and then switches the slide to show the example paragraph: Of the total superintendents surveyed, 61 (39.1%) had obtained a doctorate degree. Within this category, 34 (55.7%) were servant leaders, and 27 (44.3%) were nonservant leaders. A total of 15 superintendents were education specialists, an official title defined in this state as having all of their doctoral credits for formal coursework; however, deficient the credits and final product of a doctoral study. Within this cohort of 15, seven (46.7%) were servant leaders, and eight (53.3%) were nonservant leaders. In the most widespread category of this demographic, 80 (51.3%) superintendents had obtained a master’s degree as their highest level of formal education. Of these superintendents, 38 (47.5%) were designated servant leaders, and 42 (52.5%) as nonservant leaders. Table 10 presents a visual summary of the SASL response data.
Audio: Let's read the narrative example paragraph. I will give you a moment to take a look at it and I would like you to think about it and think about how you respond to this as a reader. What is working well in this paragraph of presented data? What is not working well in this presentation of data? Do you have any recommendations for the reader in improving this narrative, or any comments at all that you might have?
So I'm going to be quiet for a little bit to allow you to read this. Then you can go ahead and type in any comments you might have in the comment box.
Audio: Okay, I'm seeing a lot of themes coming out here. Thank you, participants. Many of you are stating that there's too much data presented in the text of this paragraph and many of you are suggesting that this would be better presented as a table.
I agree that because of the amount and type of data that are included in this text it would be easier to review this in a table.
Also some of you had said there are no citations, but that is okay. Per APA you do not need to include citations for your data. So you would not include, like, say, a personal communication citation. You would just write it out or present it in a table. No citations are actually required.
Some of you also wrote about how there is no particular topic, there's no synthesis in this paragraph. And those are very good points. Some students kind of forget that while they are writing or presenting their data analysis or their, I should say data results, excuse me, you need to also follow or should follow the conventions of paragraph presentation as well.
So, your paragraphs, if you are choosing to use a text to report your findings, should include a topic sentence. And then you should include participant quotes or data results that you want to report to support that topic sentence.
And then after you have included the data to support that topic sentence, which would be results from the findings of your study, you would then include analysis and you would explain to the reader what that data means in your own words or the significance of that finding in your own words. So, you need to have or the reader needs to have a context in which, you know, they are reading the data. What do these data what assertion or main point do the data help to support or not to support. What are the significance of these findings or what are the main point that these findings mean to the reader.
Thank you very much for all of your comments here.
It's very helpful.
Visual: The layout returns to show the Q&A, captioning, and files pods stacked to the right. The chat pod is not available. Slide #15 “Tables” opens and shows an example of information in table format. Sarah discusses the difference and describes in detail the format of a table.
Audio: So instead, like many of you stated, you should use a table to present information that is too complex to include in the text.
So the example we had before, probably a little too complex to present all of those findings or data in a text format.
Instead, you want to use a table. Now, this I just created it's not an actual presentation of results for any particular study, but I wanted to show you guys how a table should look or be formatted in APA.
So as you can see here, this table does not include, first of all, any vertical lines. There are only three lines that are included in APA table. So under the first row, you have a line on the top and the bottom of that first row. You also have a line underneath the bottom of the table.
Those are the three lines that are included in an APA table.
Now for those of you who are using SPSS or using Microsoft Word to help collect your data and analyze your data, you will find that SPSS and Excel, when you create tables or the tables that you get in SPSS, do not meet the APA requirement on how to format tables.
So, using your SPSS data or Excel data, you will need to recreate tables to meet Microsoft excuse me, not Microsoft Word, but APA guidelines.
We do have some instructions actually we don't anymore, I believe. I believe it's the Academic Skills Center who has instructions on how to convert SPSS tables into Microsoft excuse me, Microsoft Word tables, so that then you can format the tables to meet APA guidelines.
Beth, would you mind including that URL link really quick in the chat box where they can see that link on how to convert SPSS tables into Microsoft Word tables? Thank you.
You will also notice here in this table there are two lines. The first is the table number and that's a text by itself. Not in bold, not in italics.
The second line is the table title, which is italicized. The table title is also in title case, which means you capitalize all words that are four letters or more.
When you are creating your tables in Microsoft Word, make sure that you use the Word table creation feature and you do not use either the tab key, the enter key, or the space bar to try to center your data, as this will lead to tables being improperly formatted and kind of a mess at form and style.
So do be sure you check out, if you are not aware already, resources on how to create tables using the Microsoft Word table creation feature. And I believe that we have I don't know if we have a link for it or not. Beth, do we have a link for that in this podcast here for how to create tables in Microsoft Word?
Audio: Beth: I just sent out that link.
Audio: Sarah: Awesome. You're on the ball. Thank you very much.
So please do check that out. I also know a lot of the courses especially doing a quantitative or mixed methods study in the Ph.D. and for those of you in EdD that will be your methodology course, they will teach you there are instructions on how to create tables in Microsoft Word. So you can always revisit those instructions that you had in classes as well.
Visual: Slide #16 continues the table discussion with an example of a table with one line of data. Below the small table is an example of the information in text format. After the question break, Sarah discusses when a table is not needed.
Audio: I'm going to go ahead and pause here really quick and check with Sara W. Sara, are there any questions that need answering in the chat box?
Audio: Sara W.: Well, there was one question about when you should split up your information into multiple tables versus one table for a complex amount of information. I suggested that you might want to, depending on how you want to present your data. But you might have another take on that. What do you think?
Audio: Sarah: Yeah, I think that you should that's a judgment call that you are going to want to use as a researcher. You know, remember that your table should be specific and concise and the reader should be able to look at your table or look at the table by itself without seeing any of the text and determining what that table means.
So when you are considering whether or not you need to split up a table into two tables, look at the table and think to yourself: Is this understandable if I look at it by itself. Or is it starting to get too busy. Do I have too many columns? Do I have too many rows? Do I have too many headings on the very top where it is beginning to be difficult to understand what that table means?
A second thing to consider too is that, per ProQuest, that is where all Walden students will eventually publish their capstone studies, all tables and all content in general must fit within the margins of the study. So if you're finding that your tables have so much data that it is actually going outside of the margins of the study, that is a time when you might start thinking about creating a second table for easier readability and to also ensure that you are meeting those ProQuest formatting guidelines.
I hope that answers your question. Thank you, Sara.
Going back to the presentation.
So, here is an example of a table that is not really needed because this information could be included in the text or a paragraph.
So instead of having this table, you say 89 teachers responded to the survey. Their ages ranged from 18 66 years with a mean age of 36 years.
So, the APA preference is actually to include the data or the results in the text. So don't include a table or figure if you can easily report the results in a text format.
Visual: The next slide “Formatting the table header” opens. This slide shows key points to keep in mind for constructing tables. A textbox at the bottom directs participants to pages 127-150 in the APA manual. Sarah reviews and discusses the information.
Audio: So, formatting the table header.
As I talked about before, there are two components of the table header. Number one is the table number. For example, table 1. And number 2 is the table title.
Now, when you are formatting your table number and your figure numbers, make sure you are using whole numbers. Sometimes in some journals you might see tables with decimal points like table 5.6 or table 7.8.
APA does not follow that. You should use whole numbers and they should be numbered consecutively.
So table 1, table 2, table 3, table 4. Figure 1, figure 2, figure 3, figure 4.
Second, for your table title, make sure that your table title is clear and a clear and concise description of the table. So the reader should be able to look at the table title by itself and understand the general generally what that table is telling the reader. The table title should be italicized and should use title case. There are no periods at the end of the table title.
So, also remember when you're creating your tables that statistical abbreviations are italicized throughout the table. So if you have N in your table, that should be italicized. If you have P for P value, that should be italicized.
So you will have to recreate yes, we talked about that, you'll have to recreate the SPSS or Excel or any other programs that you are using, according to APA style, in Microsoft Word.
Once again, do not use vertical lines in the tables.
Visual: Slide #18 “Example table” opens. The slide shows an example that Sarah uses to discuss proper format for tables.
Audio: So here is another example of an APA table that is in APA format.
So you will see here we have table 1, whole number. Underneath we have a table title in title case and italicized.
We have our table information and we have three lines here. One on the top and bottom of the first row. Then one underneath the actual table.
Also here underneath the table there is a note in italics and with a period there. Per APA, if you are going to include any information that describes the data or describes the table more to the reader, include the word "note" in italics with a period after it and then you can go ahead and type in the information that will help that reader to understand the data in the table.
Visual: Slide #19 “References to tables within the text” opens. Three key points are bulleted that Sarah reviews and discusses.
Audio: So, referring to tables within the text.
APA states that you should always refer to the table in the text before you display the table. That is the same rules also for figures as well. So you should tell, you know, the reader: Table 1, below.
And then explain to the table or excuse me, "to the table!" To the reader what the table states or shows. So you would say: table 1 below shows the number of participants who lived in Colorado and joined the program. Or whatever it is you are trying to show in the table.
So present the table number and explain to the reader what that table is showing.
And this should go before you display the table.
Again, make sure you are numbering tables consecutively from start to finish using whole numbers. And you only use prefixes before the number for tables and figures that appear in appendices. Sometimes if you have more than one table or more than one figure that appear in the appendix of your study, you would go ahead and label those as table A1, A2, A3. This would correspond to appendix A, table 1; appendix A, table 2; appendix B, table 1, appendix B, table 2, so on, so forth.
These tables that appear and figures that appear in the appendices also need to be included in your list of tables and list of figures the beginning of your study.
Visual: The next slide “Questions?” opens. No other information is on the slide.
Audio: Let's go ahead pause again for any questions that should be addressed to the group. Sara?
Audio: Sara W.: Why, hello.
Audio: Sarah: Hello!
Audio: Sara W.: Exactly, right! We are discussing in the question and answer box about whether or not you should split a table. If I mean physically on the page. I know that you can. But what do you think about when you should and when you should not?
Audio: Sarah: Thank you.
This is kind of, for me, this is first of all, if your table goes over one page and if your table goes over one page there are a couple options for you. Number one, you can make the font of the table smaller. So according to APA, you can use up to font as small as eight. Eight point. And that's Times New Roman. And that is, you would make a table font smaller to fit it on the page.
The APA preference is to fit the table on the page if possible.
So first, try to make the font smaller and fit it on the page.
If after making the font smaller you find that the table still does not fit on one page, you need to ask yourself a couple of questions.
Number one, and this is going back on whether or not you should split up a table or not, do I have too much data or is this table too big, you know, too much information, that it is confusing to the reader to look at.
So look at that. That sometimes happens when you have tables that go over one page.
And so ask your question or ask yourself that question when that happens.
If it is not, if you still just have a very simple, concise, you are just reporting you only have like two or three headings but you just happen to have like a lot of responses underneath those headings and you need to go on to the next table? That is completely fine.
So according to APA, if that happens you just go ahead and under the right bottom of the table, the last line of the table, in italics, you write: Table continues.
On the second page where your table continues, you again include the headings or the row that you had at the very first top of the table so that the reader understands or is reminded again of the headings or what each row represents.
Then you go ahead and continue on and finish the table with the line underneath the end of the table. If it goes on to the second or third page? The same rules apply. You would just put "table continues" on the bottom right hand corner and on the next page, again include the headings on the very top, you know, so each so the reader is reminded what each row or column means. And then keep on going with your data.
So I hope that helps to answer your question.
Visual: Slide #21 “Figures” opens. This shows a list of key points to determine when to use a figure to represent information. Sarah reads and discusses these points.
Audio: So let's talk about figures.
So, like tables, figures summarize data but in a visual form. Figures can include graphs, charts, diagrams, maps, photographs, also percentages, proportions, and frequencies. They include path models, theoretical formulas, and confirmatory factor analysis.
Basically, according to APA, any kind of visual representation of something that does not fall within the APA table format guidelines is going to be referred to as a figure.
So like the table, figures should capture and display essential information that cannot be included adequately in text.
So, some data may be better displayed in a table. But you would use a figure to display any information that cannot be represented in rows and columns as you would see in an APA table.
Visual: Slide #22 “Figures: Detailed Example” opens. It shows a chat prompt that Sarah reads and discusses.
Audio: So let's take a look here.
We have an example figure displaying multiple data. I want you to take a look at it and respond to it as the reader. What is working here, what is not working in this figure as you look at it.
Any reactions that you might have?
Visual: The layout then changes to show an example of a figure. It is a vertical bar graph with 12 students across the x axis, a behavior scale of 0-25 on the y axis, and up to 12 bars of data for each student. The key is vertically to the right of the graph and has 12 items with slightly varied color blocks. Sarah discusses the participants’ responses and the figure.
Audio: Okay, thank you everyone for your great responses. I'm seeing a lot of themes come out here. A lot of you are saying that this figure is way too crowded. It is very difficult to understand what is going on. The legend or the key contains way too many data points. And looking at this I can't really tell what it is that the author is trying to show here in this figure.
So this would be a really good example where this should be separated into several figures for easier readability.
We'll go ahead and switch back to the presentation. Thanks, Beth.
Visual: Slide #24 “Figures” opens and continues with information on how to create effective figures. Seven key points are bulleted on the left. An example of a simple, effective graph is shown in the top right. A textbox at the bottom directs participants to page 161 in the APA manual. Sarah reads and discusses the points as she refers to the example.
Audio: So, figures.
Now we want to make sure we are labeling our figures correctly. So figures should include the word "figure" and then the whole number. Figure 1, figure 2, figure 3. Just like with tables we do not use we use whole numbers and not decimal points in our figures.
Notice, too, that the caption for the figure actually goes underneath the figure, which is the opposite of what happens for a table.
So, figure and then the number of the figure with a period after it. That portion is also italicized.
After that, we have the title of the figure. And the title of the figure is in sentence case. That means you capitalize only the first word and proper nouns like you would the beginning of a sentence.
That figure title is followed by a period.
So in your figures, make sure that your Y axis is written horizontally if you are including a figure that includes an X and a Y axis. Make sure that your values are just large enough to include all data points. So like you saw in the previous figure when there is just too many data points, it can get confusing to the reader. So make sure that you have just a few data points on your figure.
So use of color is rare in instances. Just so that you are aware, I don't know I can't remember if ProQuest publishes things in color. They used to only publish in black and white. So to be on the safe side, I would avoid using color in your figures. If you want to show a contrast you can always use shading instead of colors to show a contrast between two or more data points.
Visual: Slide #25 “Formatting the figure caption” opens. Four elements of the figure caption are listed. The bottom of the slide has a textbox directing participants to pages 150-167 in the APA manual. Sarah reads and discusses these.
Audio: I'll move on here.
So as we stated before, when you're formatting a figure caption remember it is placed underneath the figure, which is opposite of the table. Contains italicized finger, finger! Figure number in whole numbers. And has the figure in caption description and a period at the end.
Visual: Slide #26 “Example figure” opens and shows a screenshot of a figure in a Word document. The figure is a pathway model and includes textboxes, labels, arrows, and a caption. The textbox at the bottom directs participants to pages 153 in the APA manual. Sarah describes the elements of the figure in detail.
Audio: Here's an example figure.
And this example here you will see that there is that this information from the figure was actually used from a journal article. So the reader excuse me, the author needs to give credit to where he or she received these data or information from in the source.
And you can see underneath here how that author formatted the citation material underneath the figure. There is more information in the APA 6th Edition Manual, I believe it starts in chapter 5, on how to cite sources underneath tables and underneath figures. So please look at those examples, as well.
Visual: Slide #27 “References to figures within the text” opens and shows three key points to keep in mind when discussing a figure in text. Sarah reviews these points.
Audio: So references from the text. This is very exactly the same as with the tables. So you need to make sure you are referencing the figure in the text before you display the figure.
Number figures consecutively from beginning to end in the manuscript. Figure 1, 2, 3, and so forth in whole numbers.
And again, just like the tables, if you include figures in your appendix you need to make sure that figure is followed by the appendix number. So if you have a figure in appendix A, you would have figure A1, figure A2, figure A3. If you have figures in appendix B, figure B1, figure B2, B3 and so on and so forth.
And again, like the tables, you will need to include any figures that are included in appendices in a list of figures, as well.
Visual: Slide #28 “Reprinting previously published tables or figures” opens and identifies information for following copyright laws. Sarah reviews and discusses these points.
Audio: So thinking about copyrighted information, sometimes students will accidentally violate copyright laws. And I'm going to talk about ways that you do that and how you can avoid it.
So make sure you are aware of what is under copyright and what is publicly available. So anything under copyright, and you can tell because it has the figure or table that is has usually a little C in a circle, that stands for copyright. So that means that that figure or table can't just be copied and pasted and put in your document as is, even if you cite it appropriately underneath a table or figure.
If you want to copy and paste a table or figure as it is listed in the source material, you must first obtain permission from the copyright holder to reprint the copyrighted material. That includes material that you retrieved online. Just because you got something online does not mean it is publicly available. Anything that's online and has a copyright symbol next to it, again, you must follow copyright laws.
So you would include that permission from the copyright holder to reprint that table or figure as is in an appendix for your study.
Okay. Same thing with permission to use an instrument for your research.
So, permission to use an instrument and permission to reprint the instrument are two very different things.
Most instruments are copyrighted and you would have to contact the researcher of that instrument for permission. Most researchers of instruments will give other researchers permission to use that instrument, and that means that the next researcher can distribute the instrument to the participants or use the instrument to code data. However, very few researchers will give other researchers permission to reprint the instrument. And that means where the author would just go ahead and include the entire instrument in an appendix or someplace in the study.
So make sure when you are getting permission letters from your from other researchers to use an instrument that you are understanding the difference between using an instrument and reprinting an instrument.
So, once an instrument is reprinted in an appendix or somewhere in the study, that makes it become publicly available for use. Where the other researchers then would not need to contact the original researcher for permission or pay money to the original researcher for to use the instrument.
So if you accidentally violate a copyright law and you reprint an instrument without permission from the original author, that can lead you into a lot of trouble. So just make sure that you are really understanding the difference between reprinting and using your instrument.
You can also, to avoid problems with copyright, if you see a table or a figure in a study or an article that you really want to use, instead of just copying and pasting it, you can recreate the table or recreate the figure on your own and then include a note or caption underneath the table or figure "adapted from" or "reprinted with permission from" where you cite the source.
And that avoids any potential problems with copyright violation.
Visual: The next slide “Writing about Quantitative Data” opens. It shows a picture of a man using a marker on a clear pane to write higher mathematical equations.
Audio: I'm going to go ahead and pause here really quickly. Sara, any further questions we should talk about?
Audio: Sara W.: Yup. We have a question about ADA compliance, actually.
Audio: Sarah: Okay.
Audio: Sara W.: 508 compliance requires black and white figures with pattern. The question is, does APA align with ADA.
Audio: Sarah: So, I believe you could. Because ProQuest that's not really an APA question because APA is not publishing your study. It is ProQuest who is publishing your study. So you could use, if ADA requires black and white figures with crosshatching to show patterns, you that is definitely a totally APA and totally ProQuest publication compliant. The problem is run into when using colors.
Audio: Sara W.: Yeah. Here is another question.
Audio: Sarah: Okay.
Audio: Sara W.: Would you need a letter from the publisher to use the instrument?
Audio: Sarah: Yes and no. If the instrument is publicly available, so it is not a copyrighted instrument, then you do not need permission from the author or researcher to use the instrument.
If the instrument is not publicly available or is copyrighted, then you do need permission to use the instrument.
And just if you are not sure whether or not your instrument is publicly available, I would err on the side of caution and email the original or contact the original author and ask for permission just to cover all of your bases and include that letter of permission in appendix.
Visual: Slide #30 “Be consistent in wording your hypotheses and questions” opens and has five points for maintaining consistency. Sarah reads and reviews these points.
Audio: Okay, let's talk about writing about quantitative data.
So, be consistent in wording your hypotheses and your research questions. Make sure your that research questions and hypotheses in quantitative data are consistently worded the same throughout your entire study.
So when you discussed your hypotheses you discuss your hypotheses when you present the results of your analysis. This is in your results section. I just wanted to make sure everyone understands that Walden University typically follows the APA rules for the presentation or formatting of your hypotheses. That means that your null hypothesis is formatted as capital H in italics, subscript zero, and then the number. The number 1 here indicates the number of the research question.
So this is telling me that this is the null hypothesis for research question 1.
The typical annotation for the alternative hypothesis is capital H to show that capital H is the statistical abbreviation for hypothesis, by the way.
So capital H. Then we have a subscript 1 showing the null. And then the number of the research question. So looking at this, this shows me this is the alternative hypothesis for research question 1.
And there is information here, too, on how to format your hypotheses in APA 3.58.
Just an FYI. Some chairs will ask students to use the small letter A as a subscript for the alternative hypothesis. If your chair asks you to do that, you may do that. The editors will accept that. But if your chair has not said anything to you about how to format your hypotheses, you can go ahead and use the APA way here as listed.
So discuss your research questions and the answer to them when you're writing about the implications of your findings.
Visual: Slide #31 “Conventional language” opens. The slide shows three key points with accompanying examples. Sarah reviews these points.
Audio: So, conventional language. Make sure you're phrasing results in terms of rejecting or failing to reject the null hypothesis. Not accepting the alternative hypothesis.
Now, some of you may have seen different language in your textbooks and other resources on how to talk about your hypotheses. Some textbooks talk about accepting the alternative hypothesis or accepting the null hypothesis. The Walden preference is to use rejecting the hypothesis or null hypothesis or failing to reject excuse me, failing to reject the null hypothesis or rejecting the alternative hypothesis.
So that is the Walden preference for the language to use.
You can see here, too, some common statistical abbreviations that are used. Little n here showing population. T tests. T test results.
And remember to italicize anchors on a scale. Like if you use a 5 point Likert scale, you say 1 equals strongly disagree, 2 equals disagree, so on, and so forth. Or if it's a yes or no, the first time you introduce the anchors on a scale you should italicize them.
Visual: The next slide “Writing about Qualitative Data” opens. It shows a picture of two women in business suits standing next to a table, smiling, and shaking hands. The woman on the right has a folder and notebook tucked under her free arm. The woman on the right has an open folder, a pen, and a mug on the table.
Audio: Talk a little about qualitative data.
Visual: Slide #33 “Describing qualitative data” opens. Two key points are listed: level of detail and presenting themes. Sarah discusses these.
Audio: So, describing qualitative data. Consider the level of detail needed. You are going to want to present the immersion themes in an effective manner. A good way to do this is to create headings and subheadings around the theme. So some chairs also like students to go ahead and present those themes underneath the research question that the theme is helping to answer or the theme is about.
So let's say you have three research questions in your study. Maybe you might, you know, in your results section to organize your data, you know, you might have like three level 1 headings that say research question 1, research question 2, research question 3.
Then underneath each of those questions you might include your themes that help support that research question. So you might have level 2, maybe level 3 headings if you have subthemes underneath each theme to answer the research question. And make sure when you are including your headings, like for your theme headings, you are not just saying theme 1, theme 2, theme 3. Make sure that you are actually including the theme so it is specific.
So like if you have, say, in my study I had a theme of students' self-efficacy increasing or students' self-efficacy improving the quality of writing.
So that was a theme I found. So that would be theme 1, students' self-efficacy or increased student self-efficacy leads to improved writing.
So make sure that your headings are specific enough so the reader can look at the heading by itself and know what that section is going to be about.
Visual: Slide #34 “Organizing by theme” opens. This slide shows tips for using headings based on themes. “APA style headings” is hyperlinked in the main bullet. Sarah reviews this information.
Audio: Like I said, make sure using appropriate heading levels to discuss your themes.
Just FYI, don't capitalize or add quotation marks around variables and don't italicize or capitalize themes unless the theme itself contains a proper noun. Then you would just follow conventional capitalization rules.
Visual: Slide #35 “Organizing by theme (example)” opens. This slide shows a screenshot of an excerpt of the data analysis section from a paper. The example uses headings to organize the data. Sarah discusses this practice.
Audio: Here's an example of organizing by theme. As you can see here, we have data analysis. This is not organized by research question, but organized by theme here. Here is like a theme. Teachers experience of support. Here's a subtheme underneath each. So this is a nice example of organizing by theme.
Visual: Slide #36 “Presenting qualitative data: Excerpts from transcripts” opens. The main body of the slide has an example of an introduction to a transcript excerpt with the excerpt: However, one school did not provide new teachers with professional development training. Compared to the schools where training was provided, teachers at this school had an entirely different first year of teaching. Participant 6 stated,
I really needed training that would help me to address learning difficulties in the classrooms. It seemed that professional development was too general when I asked the school for support. I had to figure what to do all by myself. It was not an effective way to try to help students who could not learn in the traditional environment. As a new teacher, I could have really used more information on how to approach different levels and ways of learning.
Audio: So, presenting qualitative data excerpts from transcripts. Remember that, as we kind of talked about in the beginning, if you are going to include qualitative data in text follow the conventional paragraph rules of including a topic sentence and then including the participant quotes to support that topic sentence.
Just like this example here.
Kind of ran out of room here on the end. But you will want to also include analysis after the quote to explain to the reader what that quote means.
Visual: Slide #37 “Discussing participant responses” opens. The top of the slide shows three possible sentence stems to use when discussing participants’ responses. The bottom of the slide has two key points to remember when quoting participants. “Block quotations” is hyperlinked in the last bullet. Sarah reviews this information.
Audio: Make sure you are using clear language to describe the participants. So and number your participants so it is clear to the reader which participant you are referring to. Remember here, too, that you don't need a cite for your own data. You don't need a cite [indiscernible] as personal communication. Rather, you just say clearly who the participant is and what that participant stated.
Use proper APA quotation formatting for your quote. So if your quote is 39 words and under just go ahead and include it in quotation marks. If 40 words or more, you're going to want to use the proper APA format for block quotations or larger quotes for your participant quotes, as well.
Visual: The next slide “Presenting qualitative data: Excerpts from transcripts” opens. This shows an example of how to use excerpts from transcripts of two participants. Sarah discusses this.
Audio: So here are examples here. As you can see, here is another example where we have a topic sentence followed by two block quotes. It's kind of hard to see here. These block quotes should be actually indented one half inch from the margin. It is hard to see on the slide. But like I said, you will want to follow the APA block quote conventions as they are written like normal.
Visual: The next slide “Final thoughts and resources beyond the Writing Center” opens and shows a picture of stack of books with a pair of eyeglasses on top. In the background is a shelf of books.
Audio: So, final thoughts and resources beyond the Writing Center.
Visual: Slide #40 “Reminder: Resources outside the Writing Center for data analysis and results” opens and has three hyperlinked departments listed with information on the services and resources available for writing the data analysis section. Sarah discusses these.
Audio: So, as we talked about, there are a lot of resources for students writing their results outside of the Writing Center. One of them are the Academic Skills Center. We talked about how they provide quantitative data analysis support.
They also offer workshops on writing each section or chapter of the doctoral study or dissertation. So if you want to take a workshop on how to write the results of your study, you certainly can. I believe there are six they are six weeks long. If you are interested in that you can contact your academic advisor. He or she can give you information on how to enroll in any one of those capstone workshops.
Also don't forget CRQ has methodology advice office hours including data analysis. And the Walden Library has a database full of full text of dissertations and theses written by Walden students. So you can look to see how they organized their data or how they presented their data in a clear and concise manner.
Visual: Slide #41 “Summary” opens and recaps the key points of the presentation. Sarah reviews the information.
Audio: So, summary. Summarize what we learned here today. We want to first make sure we begin with the appropriate template and rubric or checklist for your program.
Make sure you go through each required heading as listed on the rubric or checklist and begin writing information needed in these areas.
You will want to, as with other writing sections, chapters, consider your verb tense and voice and be aware of anthropomorphism and reflect on writing as you go along. Have you adequately described and summarized data. Are your tables and figures formatted correctly? Are you adequately organizing your themes from your qualitative data and are the implications of my findings clear.
Visual: The final slide opens and shows contact information for any further questions as well as hyperlinks to related slides. Sarah reviews this information.
Audio: If you have further questions about data analysis or anything covered in this webinar or any general questions on writing the dissertation or capstone, you can go ahead and e-mail us editors at firstname.lastname@example.org.
You can also watch recorded webinars on each component on writing the study and also some other graduate level writing tips for students. And those are on the website, as well.
I'm going to go ahead and close here and ask Sara if there are any general questions or comments that she would like to make.
Audio: Sara W.: No. I think no.
Audio: Sarah: Okay! Sounds good. I'm going to turn it back over to Beth, then. Thank you everyone.
Audio: Beth: Thanks so much, Sarah, for that fantastic presentation. Lots of thank you’s and "awesome webinar" in the Q&A box, so thank you to Sarah [name indiscernible] and thank you to Sara Witty for answering questions throughout the presentation. And thank you to you all for attending. We're going to go ahead and close the session for today but we hope to see you at another webinar July or coming up here in August, as well. Have a fantastic day everyone. Thanks.