Last updated 10/30/2016
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Visual: Slide changes to the title “Integrating a Quote Using ‘That’ or a Comma” and the following examples:
Integrating using “that”:
Integrating using a comma:
Audio: I want to talk a little bit about something I see a lot, which is different types of quote introductions because I don't think they're talked about in a lot of detail and you're taking an idea from somewhere else and seamlessly incorporating it into your work, which means that with a quotation, you even have to do a little bit more work than you do with a paraphrase because you can't make the phrasing unique, which means that you can't make it quite as seamless, which is why those lead-in and lead-out phrases are so important with quotations.
There are a few different ways to do that effectively and you can vary it up and have grammatically correct quotations that still allow for that sentence variation.
So one of the big ones is to use the word "that." So, "Johnson et al. (2010)stated that..." and then your quote. And with "that" you don't need a comma because it kind of acts as the natural transition into that quotation. But you could use a comma for a phrase like "stated." So, "Johnson et al. (2010) stated..." to introduce that quotation. And there are some different variations of the word "stated." But basically, if you're going to use "that," you don't need a comma and if you're going to use a word like "stated" or "said," then you do need a comma just like you would in traditional dialoge.
So you have those kind of transitional phrase and then continue on with a sentence in your own words, as well. You don't need to just drop the quote in its own sentence all the time.
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