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Video Transcripts

Using & Crediting Sources: How Often We Cite: Examples

Last updated 5/19/2016

 

Visual: Walden logo is visible at the bottom of the screen along with a notepad and pencil background. “Walden University Writing Center. Your writing, grammar, and APA experts” appears in center of screen. Background changes to a note book on a table with a yellow text box on top.  In the textbox, it reads: “Using & Crediting Sources How Often We Cite Sources: Examples.”

Audio: Music plays.

 

Visual: Slide rotates and changes to a blue and brown slide. A heading reads:  “When do we cite?” Below is another heading that reads: "Not Enough Citing."  Below that is a blue textbox which includes a sample paragraph that does not have enough citations.  The paragraph reads: "Teachers use differentiated instruction to help students learn, allowing the teacher to cater lessons to the way each student learns and each students’ skill. Differentiation in teaching helps students by allowing learning in different ways. No Child Left Behind (NCLB) sets rigid standards for teachers that do not allow for this multidisciplinary approach that differentiation asks for. In this way, NCLB is not compatible with differentiation in the classroom (Thompson, 2009)."

Audio:   We're going to look at an example with too few citations and then too many and then a just right amount of citations, so we're going to find the happy medium. So let's take a look at this example, [reading the slide]: "Teachers use differentiated instruction to help students learn allowing the teacher to cater lessons to the way each student learns and each students skill. Differentiation in teaching helps students by allowing learning in different ways. No Child Left Behind sets rigid standards for teachers that do not allow for this multidisciplinary approach that differentiation ask for. In this way NCLB is not compatible with differentiation in the classroom (Thompson, 2009)."

As a reader I have a few questions about where this information is from. Without citations it's not clear if the author is stating his or her opinions or if the author is using sources and not citing them, and if the author is using sources and not citing them, that's plagiarism.

 

Visual:  Arrows appear pointing out the missing citations at the end of the paragraph’s second and third sentences and a bubble appears with the questions: "Are these the author’s opinions? If she is using sources, which sources? Is this information plagiarized?"

Audio:  So there's basically not enough information, not enough citation information in this paragraph. Here's an example of too many citations.

 

Visual:  The slide changes to show a new slide with the same heading of "When do we cite?," but the heading below that now reads "Too much citing."  Below this heading is a textbox with a sample paragraph that has too much citation.  It reads: "Teachers use differentiated instruction to help students learn, allowing the teacher to cater lessons to the way each student learns and each students’ skill (Thompson, 2009). According to Thompson (2009), differentiation in teaching helps students by allowing learning in different ways (Thompson, 2009). No Child Left Behind (NCLB) sets rigid standards for teachers that do not allow for this multidisciplinary approach that differentiation asks for (Thompson, 2009). In this way, Thompson explained, NCLB is not compatible with differentiation in the classroom."

Audio:  Notice how every sentence has a citation, and one sentence has two citations. It can be overwhelming to the reader to see so many citations in one paragraph. Also, as the reader, I wonder if the author has any original ideas about this topic.  

 

Visual: Arrows appear pointing out the repetitive citations in each sentence of the paragraph. The following questions appear in a text bubble in the upper right corner: "Where are the author’s original ideas? Where is the author’s analysis and critical thinking? Why is a source cited twice in a sentence?"

Audio: I mean I want to see at least a little critical analysis and critical thinking in the paragraph, but there doesn't appear to be any it just seems to be a summary of what Thompson said. Now, here's the just right paragraph, the happy medium.

 

Visual:  The slide changes to show a new slide with the same main heading that reads "When do we cite?" But a new heading is below that reading "Appropriate Citing." Below this heading is a text box with a sample paragraph in it that has the right amount of citation.  It reads: "Teachers use differentiated instruction to help students learn, allowing the teacher to cater lessons to the way each student learns and each students’ skill (Thompson, 2009). Despite the advantages of the multidisciplinary approach, Thompson (2009) suggested that No Child Left Behind (NCLB) sets incompatibly rigid standards in the classroom. Thus, teachers must weigh children’s needs against educational realities."

Audio: This paragraph clearly cites the information that was retrieved from Thompson's work, so you see a couple of citations relating to Thompson. But it also includes some analysis. For example the last sentence you can see that the writer put a little bit of thought into this, and as an emerging scholar in your course work, you'll need to demonstrate a certain amount of interaction with the material by way of your own analysis.  

So really your average paragraph should not be full of citations whether it be from one author or from various authors. You should allow a little bit of analysis in each paragraph. And there I showed there's the couple ideas from Thompson as well as that last sentence that gives a little analysis.  

 

Visual:  Arrows appear pointing out the appropriate citations in the first and second sentences, as well as the analysis in the last sentence. The following statement appears in a bubble text box in the upper right corner: "I can see the author is using and citing sources, but I can also see the author’s critical thinking and analysis."

Audio:  So to bring it back, not too much, not too little, make sure that each sentence that has an idea from a source has a citation, but you do not need to include more than one citation per idea or sentence.

 

Visual:  Slide changes to show the same heading, "When do we cite?" An image is below that which is a person in a crowd holding a sign that says "[citation needed]."  To the right of that are three text boxes connected by lines.  The one at the top reads "Summary" and below that are two sentences which read: "Each sentence using outside information from a source gives credit to that source" and "Sources are not cited twice in one sentence."

Audio: Guitar music plays.

 

Visual: The screen changes to a pad of paper with a pencil and the Walden University Writing Center logo at the bottom. “Walden University Writing Center. Questions? E-mail writingsupport@waldenu.edu” appears in center of the screen.