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Video Transcripts

Using & Crediting Sources: Why We Cite

Last updated 5/19/2016

 

Visual: Walden logo is visible at the bottom of the screen along with a notepad and pencil background. “Walden University Writing Center. Your writing, grammar, and APA experts” appears in center of the screen. Background changes to a notebook on a table with a yellow text box on top.  In the text box, it reads: “Using & Crediting Sources Why We Cite.”   

Audio: Music plays.   

 

Visual: Slide rotates and changes to a blue and brown slide with a heading of "Why do we cite?"  Below that is an image of a laptop and coffee mug and a text box in the center. The text box includes a sample paragraph with no citation, and it reads: “Teenage girls are more likely to do poorly in math and science courses when compared to boys of the same age.  Researchers found that one reason for the increased rate of female failure in these subject is the low self-esteem of girl students.  Often, female students begin courses in these subject areas with the preconceived belief that they will not to do well.  However, it has been found that with the help of college-aged female mentors, these high school girls can improve their confidence in math and science and successfully complete courses in these subject areas.”

Audio:  Now, take a look based on what you know. Do you see any citation-related issues in this paragraph? [Reading from the slide]: "Teenage girls are more likely to do poorly in math and science courses when compared to boys of the same age. Researchers found that one reason for the increased rate of female failure in these subjects is the low self-esteem of girl students. Often female students begin courses in these subject areas with the preconceived belief that they will not do well. However, it has been found that with the help of college-aged female mentors these high school girls can improve their confidence in math and science and successfully complete courses in these subject areas."

First of all, you might notice there are no citations at all and the writer is referring to researchers. So that would be a red flag.

 

Visual:  Slide changes to a new slide with the same heading ("Why do we cite?") and the same paragraph from above written in a smaller text box that's centered on the page with room for comment bubbles in the margins. There are four blue thought bubbles with comments that read:

  • “Who are the 'researchers' the writer refers to in her paragraph?”
  • “Who says girls fail more often than boys?  How does the writer know this is true?”
  • “Is it simply the writer’s opinion that self-esteem contributes to this failure, or have actual studies been proven?’
  • “Has this writer done any research?  If so, is she plagiarizing?”

Audio:  Here are some of the questions or issues that you might have noticed. [Reading from the slide]: "Who are the 'researchers' the writer refers to in her paragraph?" Is it her opinion that the researchers found this information about the increased rate of female failure? As the reader I’m thinking that she likely found this information in a research study but she didn't indicate which study.

Also the writer gives evidence for her claims, but as the reader, I’m not very convinced since it's not clear if this evidence came from a legitimate resource or if the evidence is something that she heard casually from a friend or made up. It's, it's really not clear. In this case if the writer used resources such as articles or books to provide content for this paragraph, or it appears that she probably did and did not cite the sources, so this is plagiarism.

 

Visual: Slide changes, showing the heading "Why do we cite?," the image of the computer and coffee mug, and the following paragraph: “Teenage girls are more likely to do poorly in math and science courses when compared to boys of the same age (Reece, 2013; Ziger & Marks, 2010). Researchers found that one reason for the increased rate of female failure in these subject is the low self-esteem of girl students (James, Lord, & Smith, 2008; Ziger & Marks, 2010). According to James et al. (2008), female students begin courses in these subject areas with the preconceived belief that they will not to do well. However, Kelly (2012) found that with the help of college-aged female mentors, these high school girls can improve their confidence in math and science and successfully complete courses in these subject areas.”

Audio:  So let's take a look at how the writer could fix this paragraph and avoid plagiarism by using citations. Notice how in this version of the paragraph every sentence that includes an idea from one of the sources has a citation. It's clear now in this paragraph where the author retrieved the information from. You'll notice that some of the sentences have two sources listed. For example, the first sentence states that [reading from the slide]: "Teenage girls are more likely to do poorly in math and science courses when compared to boys of the same age," and it includes a citation with both Reece as well as Ziger and Marks, so from the citation we can imply that both Reece and Marks and Ziger agreed on and wrote about this idea.

Audio: Guitar music plays.

 

Visual: The screen changes to a pad of paper with a pencil and the Walden University Writing Center logo at the bottom. “Walden University Writing Center. Questions? E-mail writingsupport@waldenu.edu” appears in center of the screen.